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Full text of "The BrickBuilder (Jan.-Dec. 1905)"











THE PROFESSIONAL LIBRARY OF 

CHARLES PETER WEEKS 

ARCHITECT OF THE CAPITOL EXTENSION BUILDINGS 

HAS BEEN PRESENTED TO THE CALIFORNIA STATE 

LIBRARY BY HIS WIDOW. 

THIS VOLUME IS A PART OF THAT COLLECTION. 

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THE BRICKBUILDER. 

INDEX, VOL. XIV. JANUARY- DECEMBER, 1905. 

PLATE ILLUSTRATIONS.— HALF TONE. 

Architect. Building and Location. 

Andrews, Jaques & Rantoul . . House of the Good Samaritan, Boston, Mass 

Atterbury, Grosvenor House, Buffalo, N. Y 

Barney & Chapman The Broadway Tabernacle, New York City 

Boring, William A Casino, Brooklyn, N. Y 

Cope & Stewardson House, Philadelphia, Pa 

Cram, Goodhue & Ferguson . . . Mortuary Chapel, Interior, Norwood, Mass 

Day, Frank Miles & Bro Gymnasium, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa 

Dean, George R Chapter House, Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y 

Eames & Young Public Library, Galveston, Texas 

Eyre, Wilson House, Philadelphia, Pa 

Haight, Charles C St. Ignatius Episcopal Church, Interior, New York City 

Hale & Morse Public Library, Norfolk, Va 

Hale & Morse Public Library, Camden, N. J 

Hill & Stout Wetzel Building, New York City 

Howard, John Galen Public Library, Berkeley, Cal 

Keissling, Calvin Public Library, Colorado Springs, Colo 

Longfellow, A. W Elizabeth Cary Agassiz House, Ractcliffe College, Cambridge, Mass 

Lord & Hewlett Carnegie Branch Library, Far Rockaway Branch, New York City 

Lord & Hewlett Carnegie Branch Library, Bedford Branch, New York City 

Lord & Hewlett Masonic Temple (Competitive Design), Brooklyn, N. Y 

Lord & Hewlett St. Jude's Church, Brooklyn, N. Y 

Lowell, Guy Zeta Psi Club, Cambridge, Mass 

MacClure & Spahr House, Pittsburg, Pa 

MacClure & Spahr House, Pittsburg, Pa 

MacClure & Spahr House, Pittsburg, Pa 

AlcKim, Mead & White House, Manchester, Mass 

McKim, Mead & White Carnegie Branch Library, Rivington Street, New York City 

McKim, Mead & White Lambs Club, New York City 

McKim, Mead & White Women's Building, Urbana, 111 

McKim, Mead & White Cottage Club, Princeton, N.J 

Maginnis, Walsh & Sullivan, . . . Church, Los Angeles, Cal ^ m 

Marsh & Peter House, Washington, D. C 

Morgan, Howard & Waid House, Mt. Kisco, N. Y 

Newman & Harris House, Philadelphia, Pa 

Parish & Schroeder Y. M. C. A. Building, Charlottesville, Va 

Price.fBruce House, Tuxedo Park, N. Y 

Price, William L Store Building, Philadelphia, Pa 

Purdon, James Delta PJii Club, Cambridge, Mass 

Purdon, James House, "Westwood, Mass 

Purdon & Little Church, Boston, Mass 

Robinson & Blackall Baptist Church, New Haven, Conn 

Seeler, Edgar V House, Philadelphia, Pa 

Seeler, Edgar V Presbyterian Church, Philadalphia, Pa 

Spencer, Robert C, Jr House, Canton, 111 

Sperry, York & Sawyer Merchants Club, Baltimore, Md 

Trumbauer, Horace Chapel of St. Catherine, Spring Lake, N. J 

Trumbauer, Horace Widener Memorial School, Philadelphia, Pa 

Tubby, William B. & Bro Carnegie Branch Library, Carroll Park Branch, New York City 

Tubby, William B. & Bro Carnegie Branch Library, Clinton St., Brooklyn, N. Y 

Vaughan, Henry Parish House and Chapel, New York City 

Vaughan, Henry Searles Memorial School, Methuen, Mass 

Warren, Smith & Biscoe Church, Winchester, Mass 

Warren & Wetmore Hotel Imperial, New York City 

Wheelwright & Haven Chapel for McLean Hospital, Waverley, Mass 

Wilkinson & Magonigle City Club, Auburn, N. Y 

Wood, Donn & Deming Providence Hospital, Washington, D. C 

Wood, Donn & Deming Bank, Alexandria, Va 

Woollett, William L Hotel Rensselaer, Troy, N. Y 

Wyeth & Cresson House, Washington, D. C 

York & Sawyer Carnegie Library, Montgomery, Ala 



Number of 
Plates. 



Month. 

May 
March 
March 

July 

January 

March 

January 

May 

April 

January 

January 

April 

May 

November 

November 

April 

June 

April 

April 

July 

September 
June 
July 
July 

October 
February 

July 

September 

December 

December 

September 

August 

February 

January 

December 

December 

June 

June 

August 

December 

August 

January 

June 

February 

November 

March 

October 

May 

July 

June 

September 

November 

January 

September 

November 

August 

October 

May 

October 

April 



PLATE ILLUSTRATIONS. — LINE. 



Architect. Building and Location. Plate No. Month. 

Andrews, Jaques & Rantoul . .Elevation and Plans, House of the Good Samaritan, Boston, Mass 33, 34 May 

Atterbury, Grosvenor Plans, House, Buffalo, N. Y 24 March 

Barney & Chapman Details, Broadway Tabernacle, New York City 21,22 March 

Butler & Rodman Elevation and Plans, Immanuel Chapel House, Yonkers, N. Y 75, 76 October 

Cope & Stewardson Elevation and Plans, House, Philadelphia, Pa 5, 6 January 

Cram, Goodhue & Ferguson . . . Elevations and Plans, St. Mark's Church, Toledo, Ohio 9, 10 February 

Cram, Goodhue & Ferguson . . . Elevations and Plans, Mortuary Chapel, Norwood, Mass 23 March 

Day, Frank Miles & Bro Plans, Gymnasium, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa 7, 8 January 

Dean, George R Elevation and Plans, Chapter House, Ithaca, N. Y 37, 38, 40 May 

DeGarmo, Walter C Elevation and Plans, Office and Society Building, Miami, Fla 77 October 

Eames & Young Elevation and Plans, Public Library, Galveston, Texas 25, 26 April 

Hale & Morse Elevation and Plans, Public Library, Norfolk, Va 28 April 

Hale & Morse Elevation and Plans, Public Library, Camden, N. J 35, 36 May 



THE FIREPROOF HOUSE COMPETITION. 



(Continued) 

Page. 
Mention Design Submitted by Walter E. Pinkham 183 

Mention Design Submitted by W. Pell Pulis 207 

Mention Design Submitted by Russell Eason 

Hart 229 

Design Submitted by Benjamin Wright 255 

Design Submitted by John J. Craig 279 

TILE AND FAIENCE WORK IN ENGLAND. 

Paper I. By R. Randal Phillips 148 

Paper II. By R. Randal Phillips 174 



Month. 

August 
September 

October 
November 
December 



July 

August 



TILE AND FAIENCE WORK IN FRANCE. 

Page. Month. 

Paper I. By Jean Schopfer 202 September 

Paper II. By Jean Schopfer 231 October 

THE WORK OF THE BOSTON SCHOOLHOUSE COMMISSION- 

Paper I. 221 October 

Paper II 248 November 

Paper III 269 December 

BRICK ARCHITECTURE OF DENVER. 
Paper I. 224 October 

YOUNG MEN'S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION BUILDINGS. 
Paper I. By Walter M. Wood 264 December 

THE VILLAGE COURTHOUSE SERIES. 
Paper I. By Claude Bragdon 276 December 



OTHER ARTICLES. 



Page. 

Architectural Faience Competition A. 

A Garden Wall Fountain — Criticism and 

Award 179 

The Prize Winners 157 

Brooklyn Masonic Temple 156 

Convention of the American Institute of Archi- 
tects, Report 3 

Convention of the Architectural League of Amer- 
ica, Report 102 

Important Test of Fireproof Construction 33 



Month. 



August 
July 
July 

January 

May 
February 



Page. 



Month. 



Modern Brickbuilding in France. By Jean 

Schopfer 57 March 

Revision of the Building Laws of Philadelphia 84 April 

Standard Form of Specifications for Architect- 
ural Terra Cotta 8 January 

The Electrical Fire Hazard 257 November 

The New Post Office at Stockholm, Sweden . . 124 June 

The Rebuilding of Baltimore 194 September 

Two Interesting Examples of Fireproof Con- 
struction 36 February 



EDITORIALS AND MISCELLANY. 



Page. Month- 

A Fireproof Garage 185 August 

A Medal of Honor 2 January 

A Test of Good Art 206 September 

A Test of Good Construction 62 March 

Ancient Painted Tiles 56 March 

American Institute of Architects, Banquet .... 2 January 

Architectural Education 163 August 

Architects and Experts 17 January 

Beauty as a Factor in Modern Civilization .... 117 June 

Boston Schoolhouse Commission 281 December 

Building Collapse in New York 86 April 

Building Prospects for 1905 67 April 

Building for Time 89 May 

Buying Books 212 September 

Cement Mortar 159 July 

Cheap Cottage Competition, Letchworth, Eng. . 209 September 

Church Competition Prize Winners 1 January 

Concrete Blocks 211 September 

Costly Service 105 May 

Cover Design Competition Award 189 September 

Cutting Down the Costs 237 October 

Doing His Best 2 January 

Ecclesiastical Architecture 215 October 

Exhibition of the Architectural League of New 

York 261 November 

Intelligent Development of Construction 128 June 



Page. Month. 

International Congress of Architects 281 December 

Isle De La Cite" 282 December 

Modern Changes 157 July 

Municipal Improvements and Competitions ... 1 1 1 June 

New Building Methods in London 185 August 

Obituary, Charles A. Cummings 189 September 

Obituary, Alfred Waterhouse 189 September 

Our Government Architecture 263 December 

Should the Element of Beauty be Neglected in 

our Subways 38 February 

Something New in Strikes 224 October 

Structural Development by Enactment 61 March 

The Career of W. L. B. Jenney 106 May 

The Duty of Every Architect 242 November 

The Enormous Waste by Fire 40 February 

The Gothic in the Cathedrals and Churches of 

France 51 March 

The Housing of the Poor 224 October 

The National Board of Fire Underwriters 64 March 

The Pittsburg Courthouse 24 February 

The Steel Market 213 September 

Theater Construction 67 April 

Twenty Story Tenement House 117 June 

Value of Clay Products 130 June 

Washington Advisory Architectural Board .... 46 March 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



Vol. 14 



JANUARY 1905 



No. 



CONTENTS— PLATES * * •••••' ' V :\ ?•: : /}, 

From Work ok COPE & STEWARDSON, FRANK.'*- $11 LEsf Efi&pfc ..BR-O^THER, 

WILSON EYRE, CHARLES C. HAIGHT, NEWMAN '&"HA-R^'rS, 

EDGAR V. SEELER, WARREN & WETMORE. 

CONTENTS — LETTER PRESS 

PULPIT IN THE CATHEDRAL AT COIMBRA, PORTUGAL Frontispiece 

EDITORIALS i, 2 

CONVENTION OF THE AMERICAN INSTITUTE OK ARCHITECTS 3 

ECCLESIASTICAL ARCHITECTURE Rev. William Frederic Fader 6 

NOTES ON STANDARD FORM OF SPECIFICATIONS FOR ARCHITECTURAL TERRA- 
COTTA Charles P. Warren, A. M. 8 

EDITORIAL COMMENT AND SELECTED MISCELLANY 17 







IN 



»*-/; 







■1 




PULPIT IN THE CATHEDRAL AT COIMBRA, PORTUGAL 



_ 



THE BRfCRBVILDER 




DEVOTED -TO THE • INTERESTS OF 
ARCHITECTVRE- INMATEFUALS • OF CLAY 




JANUARY 1905 ^gf 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY 

ROGERS & MANSON, 
85 Water Street, Boston, Mass. . . P. O. Box 3282. 

Entered at the Boston, Mass., Post Office as Second Class Mail Matter, March 12, 1892. 

COPYRIGHT, 1893, BY THE BRICKBUILDER PUBLISHING COMPANY. 

Subscription price, mailed flat to subscribers in the United States and 
Canada ......... 

Single numbers ......... 

To countries in the Postal Union ...... 



.00 per year 

50 cents 

.00 per year 



Subscriptions payable in advance. 

For sale by all newsdealers in the United States and Canada. Trade supplied by 
the American News Company and its branches. 

Results of the Church Competition. 

THE "jury for the Church Competition has awarded 
First Prize ($500) to Addison B. Le Boutillier, 
9 Acorn Street, Boston, Mass. ; Second Prize ($200) to 
Aymar Embury, 2d, Englewood, N. J. ; Third Prize 
($100) to E. Donald Robb, 170 Fifth Avenue, New York 
City. Mention was given designs submitted by the fol- 
lowing named : Gordon Allen and Frank E. Cleveland 
(associated), Boston; M. H. Smith, Boston; Harold W. 
Hathaway and William S. Wells (associated), Boston; 
William L. Welton, New York City; Russell Eason 
Hart, New York City; August Sieder, Jr., New York 
City; Robert Fockens, Boston. 

THE PRIZE WINNERS. 

Addison B. Le 
Boutillier is 
thirty-two years 
old, a resident of 
Boston. Began his 
architectural train- 
ing in the office 
of O. K. Foote, 
Rochester, N. Y., 
in 1S91. Was after- 
wards in the office 
of S. S. Beman, 
Chicago, and Shep- 
ley, Rutan & Cool- 
idge, Boston. Be- 
gan practice for 
himself in 1894 in 
Boston, and has 
continued it ever 
i . addison ii. le since, with excep- 





MR. AYMAR EMBURY, 2D. 



tion of six months 
spent in study and 
travel in Italy and 
France during 1896. 
For the past three 
years Mr. Le Bou- 
tillier has given 
part of his time to 
The Grueby Fai- 
ence Company as 
designer. 

Aymar Embury, 
2d, is twenty-four 
years old, a resident 
of Englewood, N. J. 
Was graduated from 
Princeton Univer- 
sity with the degree 
of civil engineer in 
1900, was given the 
University fellow- 
ship in Archa-ol- 

ogy, and obtained the degree of Master of Science in 

1 90 1. Since leaving college he has worked in various 

offices, where his architectural education was obtained. 

Mr. Embury is instructor in architecture at Princeton 

this year. 

E. Donald Robb 

is twenty-five 

years old, a resi- 
dent of New York 

City. Was grad- 
uated in 1899 from 

Drexel" Institute, 

Philadelphia. His 

early training was 

received in the 

offices of T. P. 

Chandler, Cope & 

Stewardson and 

Arthur H. Brockie 

of Philadelphia. 

At the present 

time Mr. Robb 

is connected with 

the New York 

office of Cram, 

Goodhue & Fer- 
guson. 




DONALD ROBB. 



THE BRICKBUI LDER 



THE AMERICAN INSTITUTE BANQUET. 

THERE was a time not very long ago when the con- 
ventions of the American Institute of Architects 
were pretty dry, uninteresting affairs, which attracted 
almost no attention outside the profession and very little 
inside. But after such an affair as the banquet held in 
Washington at the last convention, it will behoove the 
managers of the Institute to continue the work therein 
begun of bringing the profession and the intelligent, 
educated public more closely in touch. If these annual 
conventions were simply to serve the purpose of a 
junket on the part of the delegates, with a number of 
technical papers thrown in, neither the profession nor 
the public would be much the gainer thereby. Certainly 
no other profession has such a claim on the interest and 
attention of those whom we call the leaders in all depart- 
ments of literature, science and government as has 
architecture, and the conservative spirit which is so 
marked a feature of professional practice, while most 
excellent in its way, must give place to the progressive, 
broad-minded view which has animated the last con- 
vention and which has found so marked an expression 
in the assembly of such illustrious guests at the dinner. 
Such an event, developed in such a manner, means the 
best sort of progression. We need never fear that the 
profession will abandon any considerable portion of its 
conservative spirit and we should hope it never would, but 
we do need to get out from among ourselves, to let others 
see how we regard our work, and to give the busy men 
who control the affairs of this nation an opportunity to 
become acquainted with the points of view, the objects 
which are so dear to the heart of the architect. It re- 
mains to be seen what the next convention can do to 
keep up the procession, but it will be pretty hard to 
devise an evening more thoroughly enjoyable and valu- 
able to all associated therewith than was the evening of 
the dinner at Washington. 



A MEDAL OF HONOR. 

THE New York Chapter of the American Institute of 
Architects has established a Medal of Honor for 
award to designers of buildings represented in the annual 
exhibitions of the Architectural League of New York, 
under conditions which ought to make this medal a very 
marked honor to its recipient. The choice is limited to 
any architectural work in any portion of the United 
States completed within five years previous to the date 
of exhibit, and in order to be eligible to the award the 
architect or architects must present for exhibition one or 
more photographs of executed work, also one or more 
drawings, including a small scale plan ; and they must 
further submit to the jury such working drawings of the 
structure as they may desire to examine. 

This action of the New York Chapter is a highly com- 
mendable one in many respects. It brings the League 
and the Chapter into a more cordial relationship, and will 
undoubtedly be the means of securing a larger and better 
exhibition of architectural work. Whether it really brings 
out the best work the country produces remains to be 
seen. Architects are generally more "prone to exhibit 
drawings of proposed rather than executed work, and the 
constant trouble with past exhibitions has been they 



included so many schemes and so relatively few of the 
most prominent buildings actually constructed. If the 
choice is a wise one it ought to go a long ways towards 
making the League exhibitions of greatly enhanced value. 
These exhibitions theoretically draw from all over the 
country, but they are practically limited almost entirely 
to the work of New York architects, and it may very 
well prove that the offering of this medal may have the 
effect of greatly increasing the contributions to the exhi- 
bition from outside of the city. Another effect of the 
offering of this medal may also, we hope, be to incite 
chapters in other cities to follow a similar procedure. 
A recognition of the work of the profession is always 
fitting, and it comes with a special grace for one of the 
oldest chapters of the Institute to offer this medal 
through the intermediary of the League. 



DOING HIS BEST. 

THERE are two causes which operate against the best 
architecture. One is the indifference of the client 
to artistic possibilities or requirements, and the other is 
the inertia or indifference of the architect himself in the 
busy world which stands for architectural practice to-day. 
The temptation is ever present to get work out of the 
way, get it accomplished, anything, almost, to have things 
done, and while the spur of necessity is sometimes an 
incentive for a man to do his best, it is also very often an 
excuse for him to quite fail of reaching his ideals. There 
are a few architects in this world who seem always to be 
putting their best efforts to the front, who seem so con- 
stituted that they can withstand the pressure of business 
and can take ever\ T problem, great or small, and treat it 
in the very best possible manner, doing always something 
that is interesting, always something that is worth study- 
ing. To mention only a few as types, the late H. H. 
Richardson was one; among our contemporaries, the 
English architect Lutyens is another; and there are 
others in this country we all know and whose work is 
invariably interesting, whether large or small, and whose 
artistic judgment commands the respect of every one. 
It is not wholly a question of natural endowment or edu- 
cation. Some of our most brilliant architects will repeat- 
edly allow themselves to do work which they know is not 
worthy, nor studied, nor in which they can take any 
pride; but if we could all in our New-Year's resolves 
include a determination to at least try to let nothing go 
from our office which is not worthy, to never let our- 
selves become commonplace, to always think and show 
our thinking in our work, there would come very speedily 
a tremendous improvement in the quality of our national 
architecture. As a matter of fact, we generally do not 
use our best efforts. We become weary of trying to edu- 
cate a client. The drudgery of office practice dulls the 
sharp edge of our artistic desires, or financial considera- 
tions compel us to treat our buildings as a manufacturer 
would treat his products, and bring them out as speedily 
as possible. We know better, and some day more of us 
will do better. For the present we can only be thankful 
for the saving leaven of the few who will not be hurried, 
who insist upon taking thought, and whose work shows 
in every line how fully their aspirations are reflected in 
the personality of their work. 



■m 



THE BR ICKBU I LDER. 



3 



Convention of the American Institute 
of Architects. 

THE Thirty-eighth Annual Convention of the Ameri- 
can Institute of Architects, held in Washington, 
January n, 12 and 13, was in some respects the most 
remarkable assemblage of its kind this country has ever 
seen. It has come to be almost a truism that the people 
at large do not appreciate the standpoint of the architect 
nor understand his professional status, but this conven- 
tion will go a long way towards advancing the position of 
the architect in the eyes of public men and of placing him 
in a category which is as gratifying as it is in some ways 
unexpected. On the evening of January 11 there was 
held in the large dining hall of the Arlington Hotel a 
dinner, which, by reason of the character of its guests, 
and also because of the after-dinner speeches which were 
there presented, will be almost epoch making and is cer- 
tainly epoch marking. 

The Arlington is not a magnificent specimen of archi- 
tecture, and in its normal condition the dining hall is 
thoroughly uninteresting, but under the artistic direction 
of F. D. Millet the room was transformed. Ordinarily 
it presents an ugly walnut dado, with commonplace win- 
dows on the sides between broad, low pilasters. Mr. 
Millet covered the pilasters with plain surfaces of soft 
cre,am-colored cheese cloth. Upon each was arranged 
crossed palm branches behind simple escutcheons of 
bronze, bearing the names of the chapters. The spaces 
between the pilasters were covered with cheese cloth in 
regular, long vertical pleats, entirely concealing the win- 
dows. Above the windows a broad frieze of plain cheese 
cloth was carried entirely around the room to serve as a 
background for large swags of laurel, held at intervals by 
bronze escutcheons bearing the names of the states. 
Behind the President's seat were trophies of American 
flags and the name of the Institute, and each side of the 
ordinarily hideous mantelpiece, now entirely concealed 
by the decoration, were disposed groups of state flags in 
white, blue and gold. Just the right artistic touch was 
given to the whole decoration, and the effect was exceed- 
ingly satisfactory. But it was in the character of the 
guests and the speech making that this dinner excelled. 
President Roosevelt, the French Ambassador, Secretary 
Hay, Secretary Taft, Justice Harlan, Cardinal Gibbons, 
Bishop Satterlee, Senators Newlands, Aldrich, Nelson, 
Allison, Wetmore, Cockrell and Uryden, Hon. Elihu Root, 
Hon. Whitelaw Reid, J. Pierpont Morgan, President A. J. 
Cassatt, Lieutenant-General Chaffee, Augustus St. 
Gaudens, John La Farge, Dr. Nicholas Murray Butler, 
Henry Walters, Hon. S. P. Langley, E. H. Blashfield, 
Prof. Edward McDonald, Prof. Simon Newcomb, Henry 
Siddons Mowbray, and a long list of the most eminent 
men in the country in diplomatic, artistic and literary cir- 
cles, including also Charles Dana Gibson and Mr. Dooley, 
occupied the long raised table extending around three 
sides of the room, the balance of the floor space being 
occupied by separate tables at which were many men 
known throughout the country mingled with the dele- 
gates and visiting architects. It was an assembly which 
it would be hard to equal anywhere, and the fact that 
these gentlemen were glad to assist at the convention 
dinner and took such an active interest in the proceedings 



of the evening shows, perhaps better than any other 
one thing that has happened for years, how enormously 
the standard of the profession has increased. President 
Roosevelt gave one of his characteristic speeches, which 
was listened to most attentively. There was no disposi- 
tion to resort to oratory. It was simply an expression of 
what he intended to impi-ess upon men who are engaged 
in professional and business lives, and he particularly 
emphasized the point that the only way in which we can 
hope to have worthy artistic work done is by having such 
a growth of popular sentiment as will render it incumbent 
upon successive administrations to carry out steadily a 
plan chosen by them and worked out by experts. The 
best thing that any administration or that any executive 
department of government can do is, in his judgment, to 
surrender all these matters, within reasonable limits, to 
the guidance of those who really do know what they are 
talking about. " There are things in a nation's life more 
important than beauty; but beauty is very important. 
And in this nation of ours, while there is very much in 
which we have succeeded marvellously, I do not think 
that if we looked dispassionately we will say that beauty 
has been exactly the strong point. It rests largely with 
gatherings such as this, with the note that is set by such 
men as those I am addressing to-night, to determine 
whether or not this shall be true of the future." The 
President's address was most warmly received. The 
balance of the toast list included the following: 
"The Simple Life," Hon. Elihu Root. 
" The Supreme Court of the United States," Justice 
Harlan. 

"The House of Representatives," Representative 
James T. McCleary of Minnesota. 

"The President," by W. S. Eames, president of the 
American Institute of Architects. 
" The Painters," John La Farge. 
"The Sculptors," Augustus St. Gaudens. 
" The Place of Art in Civilization," Nicholas Murray 
Butler and his Excellency Jules Jusserand, French Am- 
bassador. 

" Art and Religion," Cardinal Gibbons. 
A signal for very general manifestations of approval 
was given when Charles F. McKim announced that Mr. 
J. Pierpont Morgan and Mr. Henry Walters had each 
given $100,000 to secure the purchase of a permanent 
abode for the American Academy in Rome. This enter- 
prise, which has been dear to Mr. McKim 's heart for so 
many years, and which has enlisted so large a share of 
his time and money, is now on a permanent footing and 
will undoubtedly become an important factor in our na- 
tional art life. 

The exercises of the evening were not concluded 
until nearly two o'clock, but not for a moment did it 
drag or was there any lack of the most absorbing inter- 
est. The Washington Times, in its editorial the next 
day, made the emphatic statement that "Congressmen 
who are wise will follow the proceedings of the thirty- 
eighth annual convention of the American Institute of 
Architects. No other body, not even Congress excepted, 
stands guard on the development of the capital with 
equal watchfulness; and no other body, Congress still 
not excepted, will leave so deep an impression upon the 
Washington of the future." 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



Of the routine business of the convention, the first 
day was given up almost entirely to reports and or- 
ganization. During the first day session extremely 
interesting papers were presented by R. Clipston Sturgis 
of Boston and William B. Mundie of Chicago, on the 
relations of architects with municipal school work. 
These two papers were in excellent contrast. In Bos- 
ton we have passed through the stage of city archi- 
tects having charge of all buildings, of specially 
appointed architects having charge of the work of the 
different departments, and have finally settled upon the 
plan of intrusting at least the schoolhouses entirely to a 
special commission. How thoroughly well this plan has 
worked is known to many of our readers, and will be 
further presented in detail during the coming year in 
these columns. In Chicago, on the other hand, they 
appear to have carried the development no further than 
to intrust all the work of the school department to a 
single architect under the immediate direction of the 
Board of Education. The excellence of Mr. Mundie's 
work is unquestioned, and we are aware that the com- 
mission idea has not been so successfully applied else- 
where as in Boston; but we do believe Chicago will 
ultimately adopt a plan more nearly akin to what is now 
working so well in Boston. Additional discussion on 
this subject was to have been presented by a paper from 
Mr. Ittner of St. Louis, but he was not able to be present 
or to send his paper. 

William H. Russell presented a resume of the meth- 
ods of financing Large building operations, throwing a 
very interesting side light on a function of the architect 
which has existed for only a very few years, and his 
remarks illustrated how the sternly practical requirements, 
the remorseless necessity of considering every expendi- 
ture as an investment and measuring its worth by the 
returns in money which it will afford, have influenced 
design. The large commercial building has forced the 
architect to be more than an artist, and the urgency of 
the problems has brought about a natural selection of the 
types and methods which are most desirable. Mr. Rus- 
sell suggests in our office buildings that we could use 
more color, more bright terra-cotta, though, as he truly 
put it, color had better not be suggested by an architect 
until he is sure he will be employed, for the average 
business man looks askance at anything but mono- 
tones. 

Grosvenor Atterbury of Xew York gave a most instruc- 
tive account of the systematic methods which he has 
evolved in his practice and by the aid of which he keeps 
control of his business, his contracts and his office force. 
All of the printed forms which Mr. Atterbury uses so 
freely were illustrated by lantern slides, and it is rather 
to be regretted that a natural feeling of hesitation on 
the part of delegates should have prevented them from 
a very frank and free discussion of Mr. Atterbury's 
paper. Generally speaking, the architect is apt to be 
lacking in systematic business ability, but this is a depart- 
ment of office work regarding which there is such a diver- 
sity of opinion that a full discussion would have proven 
very profitable to many who were present. 

The relations of specialists to architects were discussed 
by C. T. Purdy of Purdy & Henderson, engineers, and 
Edgar V. Seeler of Philadelphia. 



Mr. Purdy naturally spoke entirely from the stand- 
point of the specialist, and in our judgment his paper 
ignored one very simple remedy for the troubles which 
are sometimes involved in the specialties which go to 
make up a large modern building. The remedy is the 
most natural one in the world, namely, to educate more 
thoroughly our architects. Mr. Seeler included other 
specialists than the engineer, and called forth an applause 
of the convention by his objection to the term "landscape 
architect " as applied to those who lay out the grounds 
and the planting around a house. Such a calling is not, 
strictly speaking, architecture, and is admittedly obscurely 
named, but we are inclined to doubt whether a better 
title is likely to be found. The modern landscapist is 
certainly not a gardener; he certainly also is not an 
architect; and he really has less to do often with the 
landscape, as such, than the architect himself. Mr. Seeler 
expressed our sentiments exactly in his statement that 
there is no reason except acknowledged ignorance on the 
part of the architect why the architect and the specialist 
should not work side by side in perfect harmony, pro- 
vided of course that the dominant mind is the architect's; 
and the remedy for any clash between the architect and 
the specialist lies, first, in the more complete education 
of the architect; and, second, in untiring supervision of 
the specialist's details. 

In the discussion which followed, Mr. Post was quoted 
as stating that the employment of engineers to collaborate 
with the architect presented no objections to his mind, 
provided, however, the drawings were actually made in 
the office of the architect, as only so could the building be 
systematically developed. 

In the evening Prank Miles Day presented before a 
large gathering a very interesting report on municipal 
improvement, showing the progress made in systematic 
grouping of buildings and parks throughout the country. 
This lecture was very freely illustrated by lantern slides 
showing the magnificent stations which are under con- 
struction for the Pennsylvania Railroad and the Grand 
Central at Xew York, and for the Pennsylvania and 
Baltimore ix Ohio at Washington; also showing the 
improved park systems, improved means of trans- 
portation, the group plan at Cleveland, and many 
other of the municipal activities in our large cities 
which have sprung up within the last few years and 
which show such a widespread interest in public im- 
provements. 

The session of Friday was rather sparsely attended, 
many of the delegates having gone home. It is to be 
regretted that the interest should not be kept up at full 
heat until the very end of the convention, as many im- 
portant questions had perforce to be decided on a dwin- 
dling quorum. 

The Institute voted, upon a recommendation of Mr. 
Day, to take up for consideration at the next convention 
the subject of municipal improvement of recent years 
in Europe. This ought to be an extremely fruitful field 
for our delegates. A motion was also carried accepting 
tor the Institute membership in the National Fire Pro- 
tective Association, with the appointment of one or 
more delegates to represent it in that body. The conven- 
tion also appointed a delegate to represent it on the 
National Electrical Code. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



5 



The Institute greatly enlarged this year its list of 
elections to honorary and associate membership extended 
to foreign architects of distinction. Mr. Ricardo Valaz- 
quez y Bosco, the president of the 1904 congress at 
Madrid, was elected to honorary membership. Mr. 
Jose' Urioste y Velada, Mr. Enrique Repulle's y Vargas, 
and Mr. Luis Cabello y Lapiedra were elected to asso- 
ciate membership. These names were presented by Mr. 
Hornblower, who also illustrated by means of the lan- 
tern some of the work by each of the architects. Mr. 
Day then presented the following English architects, 
showing the work of each with an admirable set of 
lantern slides: Richard Phene Spiers, honorary member- 
ship; Edwin L. Lutyens, corresponding membership; 
George Frederick Bodley, honorary membership. The 
Institute, upon presentation by W. A. Boring, also elected 
M. Daumet to honorary membership, and Gaston F. 
Redon and Henri Deglane to corresponding member- 
ship. 

While the names of foreign members were being con- 
sidered the delegates were balloting upon officers for the 
coming year, who were elected as follows : President, 
W. S. Eames , 1st Vice-President, Alfred Stone; 2d 
Vice-President, Cass Gilbert ; Secretary and Treasurer, 
Glenn Brown ; Directors, W. A. Boring-, J. M. Donald- 
son, F. M. Day ; Auditors, Robert Stead, J. G. Hill. 

The following were also elected as Fellows of the In- 
stitute upon nomination of the Board of Directors : Gros- 
venor Atterbury, Henry F. Bigelow, Alfred B. Harlow, 
Irving K. Pond, C. B. J. Snyder. 

At this convention the Institute made two modifica- 
tions of the by-laws: the first increased the annual dues 
of Associates from $5.00 to $7.50, and of Fellows from 
$10.00 to $15.00 The necessity of this increase was 
partly to enable the Institute to carry out the work which 
has been assigned to it by successive conventions, and 
also to enable it to meet its obligations on the purchase 
of the Octagon House, Washington. The second change 
in the by-laws was aimed to do away with the present 
rather clumsy method of voting for membership in the 
Institute, under which the names of parties proposed are 
submitted for letter ballot to all members of the Institute 
from Maine to Manila. Under the revised by-law the 
member is balloted upon only by the chapter to which 
he belongs. If he is passed by the chapter, the Institute 
then sends his name to the various members throughout 
the country for comment, and the actual election is later 
by the Board of Directors. This means that practically 
the chapters elect the members of the Institute, a pro- 
ceeding which is more in harmony with the delegate 
character of the Institute and one which will greatly 
lessen the machinery of election and give the individual 
chapters a larger voice in the selection of members. 

The Institute was invited to hold its next meeting at 
Los Angeles, California, but no final vote was taken on 
the matter, it being left in the hands of the Board of 
Directors. 

The convention was very largely attended, there be- 
ing considerably over a hundred present. The delegates 
voting numbered something over eighty, and there was a 
sustained interest shown in the proceedings which was 
most encouraging to all who have the growth of the In- 
stitute at heart. 



THE remarks of Mr. Frank Miles Day introducing 
and explaining the work of the English architects 
presented for honorary and corresponding membership 
in the American Institute of Architects will be of interest 
to our readers. The names of all these gentlemen are 
familiar to architects in this country, but we have not 
had full opportunity to appreciate as fully the character 
of their work as is shown by Mr. Day's well chosen 
words. 

For honorary membership, Richard Phene Spiers, 
architect, Master of the Architectural School of the 
Royal Academy of Arts ; Fellow of the Royal Institute 
of British Architects; Past President of the Architec- 
tural Association, London, and member of many learned 
societies; Gold Medalist, and Traveling Student of the 
Royal Academy of Arts; Soane Medalist and Traveling 
Student of the Royal Institute of British Architects ; 
editor of a new edition of Ferguson's " History of Archi- 
tecture," and author of many works on architecture 
and archaeology, not alone because his attainments have 
qualified him for that honorable distinction, but because 
he has acted as friend and adviser of many students, 
now members of this Institute, giving them kindly wel- 
come, hearty sympathy and wise counsel. 

For corresponding membership, Mr. Edwin L. Lut- 
yens, architect, because in that fascinating yet diffiult art 
of domestic architecture, in which the English hold so 
distinguished a place, Mr. Lutyens has, by the strong 
individuality of his design and the high qualities of his 
style, established for himself an unquestioned position 
among those who stand highest. 

Choosing at random illustrations from the abundance 
of his work, we note at once the singular sympathy be- 
tween the buildings and their surroundings. Even with 
the good fortune of having for client a man whose hobby 
is rose growing and wall gardening and building for him 
a house near a quiet English village, it takes a master 
hand to reach a result so filled with peace and content- 
ment as in the Deanery at Sonning on Thames. 

Strongly individual and little reminiscent, as parts of 
the house are of English precedent, there is nothing 
wilful in the apparent break with that precedent, but 
something that shows a constant striving for excellence 
rather than novelty. 

But if in some cases Lutyens shows great freedom 
of treatment, he has in general a thorough knowledge 
of and-marked respect for " the well-defined way of build- 
ing of the country." For in England "every part of 
the country has its own traditional ways, and if these 
have in the course of many centuries become crystallized 
into any particular form, we may be sure that there is 
some good reason for it." 

Of this respect for old methods, the house of Miss 
Gertrude Jekyll is a good example. She herself says of 
it that "It is designed and built in the honest spirit of 
old days, and the body of it, so fashioned and reared, 
has, as it were, taken to itself the soul of a more ancient 
dwelling place." The house is not in any way a copy of 
any old building, though it embodies the general char- 
acteristics of the older structures of its own district. 

Because of the sustained interest of his work, be- 
cause of its freshness joined with its respect for tradi- 
tion, because of its sanity in the use of materials, but 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



most of all because of its high qualities of style, the 
Board commends for election, Edwin L. Lutyens. 

For honorary membership, George Frederick Bodley, 

Fellow of the Royal Academy of Arts and Cold Medalist 
of the Royal Institute of British Architects, because to him 
more than to any other man is due the change that came 
over English ecclesiastical and collegiate architecture in 
the last quarter of the nineteenth century, a change from 
the uninspired manner of the revived Gothic to a man- 
ner marked with the impress of our own times and of 
the personalities of the men who work in it, a (lothic 
not merely revived but revivified. 

Mr. Bodley was Sir Cilbert vScott's first pupil. He 
served an old-fashioned five years' apprenticeship, lodg- 
ing in his master's house. He was launched on the top- 
most tide of the Gothic revival. Drilled in the rigid 
convention of English Gothic, Mr. Bodley not unnatu- 
rally began his independent career with a revolt which led 
him to designing his first church in the utmost severity 
of form and detail and in an early French manner. 

Within the next few years Mr. Bodley, in the fresh 
vigor of his young enthusiasm, was constantly and hap- 
pily busy with new churches, and of these St. Martin's at 
Scarborough is one of the most interesting, not only for 
its intrinsic beauty and distinction, but for the fact that 
the architect here found a field in the decorative accesso- 
ries for the co-operation of his friends and fellow enthusi- 
asts, Rossetti. Madox Brown and William Morris. 

In 1869 or even earlier Mr. Bodley began to work 
with Mr. Thomas (Earner, an association that lasted for 
more than thirty years. There was never a deed of part- 
nership or any legal form. Nothing could have been 
less commercial in character than the partnership which 
bore this conjunction of names, for it would be impos- 
sible to find two artists more absolutely divested of com- 
mercial habit or instinct than George Frederick Bodley or 
Thomas Garner. 

As both men were strong designers and worked eon 
jointly in designing many of their buildings, it is often 
difficult to distinguish their work. 

In the innumerable opportunities that have fallen to 
Mr. Bodley's lot of repairing and adorning ancient build- 
ings he has ever shown the most careful and tender soli- 
citude for the preservation and expression of their intrin- 
sic beauty and historic significance, and of the picturesque 
accretions of time, accident and traditional craftsmanship. 
( )f this the old village church of Hickleton near Doncaster 
is an exanple. 

For the last thirty years Mr. Bodley's Gothic has al- 
ways been, in so far as constructive detail is concerned, 
in the "decorated" manner, but that manner has been 
so intensely perceived and assimilated as to become a 
natural, almost intuitive expression. His strong indi- 
viduality shines through his adoptive fourteenth century 
as Wren's shone through his adoptive Palladian style. 

As an example of the beauty of the detail of much of 
Mr. Bodley's work, the paneling of the new tower of 
Christ Church College, Oxford, may be presented. Deco- 
rative emphasis is given to the ancient portal below by 
the enriched paneling and triple niches, with statues of 
the founder, Cardinal Wolsey. and of two angels which 
are placed above it. 



Ecclesiastical Architecture. 



BY REV. WILLIAM KREUKR1C 1'AIiKK. 

IS The Brickbuilder aware that it is a dangerous thing 
to invite these clerical opinions upon ecclesiastical 
architecture? A recent German writer * calls attention 
to "an abuse which has made itself distinctly felt in 
England in the last fifty years. " This, he tells us, '-is 
the disposition of the clergy to encroach upon the purely 
architectural, particularly the ;csthetic and stylistic, side 
of the question. . . . These encroachments of the clergy 
upon the peculiarly architectural and artistic domain 
have proven themselves uncommonly hampering in 
England." 

Are our own architects now voluntarily to open the 
door to this "clerical encroachment " here? 

But, seriously, there is nothing to fear. If the clergy- 
man be, in matters architectural, only a layman which 
he appreciates — it may be added that it is quite Ameri- 
can to invite lay opinion and co-operation, and to expect 
only good from it. 

On this occasion particularly may we not assume a 
common ground with the architects? This series of 
papers, we take it, is evidence of the fact that some of 
the clergy are understood to have at heart, quite as 
deeply as any of themselves, the elevation of ecclesias- 
tical architecture; and that some of the architects, as well 
as some of us, are willing to be understood to be, to put 
it mildly, not satisfied with the architecture we possess. 
We are not saying who is responsible for what they and 
we deplore: whether architects, for designing us churches 
of which few are good, many bad, many even atrocious; 
or whether building committees (with them clergymen), 
for being so depraved as to get out of their architects, 
not the best they could produce, but the worst. We 
simply state the fact: our American church architecture 
is deplorable. 

It is chaotic. In our cities, conspicuously in those of 
greatest wealth and boasted culture, may be seen not 
simply churches to represent every known style ; but 
worse, scarcely one church decently consistent with 
itself in that style which it affects. Concede, only for 
the sake of argument, the analogy that one man has as 
much right to talk French, another German, as the rest 
of us to talk English: what we ask then is, let each 
speak his own tongue correctly. Do not expect us to be 
pleased with (ierman-English or with English-French! 
Is there such a thing as grammar- Can there be a liter- 
ature of the illiterate? 

We say again, that our churches, with rare exceptions, 
lack dignity and distinction. How many churches are 
there in any city that, considering what they purport 
to be, will bear comparison with the commercial, the 
domestic, the civic buildings erected and used by the 
same people? How many that compel the reverent at- 



* Hermann Muthesius, Die Neuere Kirchlickt Baukunstin England, 
[9 1 I us, in spite of the author's pronounced anti-Anglican 
altogether the best account we know of, of the great English 
movement of the past century, and deserves translation. 



THE BRICKBU I LDER 



tention of a passer-by, and by their witness of the Divine 

Majesty invite. 

" that stoop of the soul which, in bending, upraises it too"? 

How many churches that will bear repeated visiting and 
scrutiny and receive increasing homage as our capacity 
to appreciate noble art increases ; or, if but humble and 
plain, command the tribute of respect we gladly pay to 
what is sincerely conceived and honestly executed? 

And this brings us to the most vital point of all: the 
insincerity with which our architecture is cursed. How 
many churches do you know in which there is not some- 
thing of sham and pretence, side by side perhaps with 
what is genuine and costly; something to forgive, when 
one would rather admire; something of which the mere 
thought is pain and grief to the true architect as to the 
minister of God? We refer not to that imperfection 
which may yet offer touching proof that men strove hon- 
estly to give their best; but to the melancholy evidences 
of that Ananias-like striving of men to appear to have 
given better than they really did. Such things are an 
outward and visible sign of an inward and spiritual 
disgrace. 

Yet, architect and minister, one or both, have in 
almost every case had some hand in these futilities, 
these blunders, these atrocities; some share, if but by 
permission or concession and not by actual instigation 
or authorship. That reproach, though we personally 
may be measurably free from it, rests upon us both : 
upon the clerical order and upon the architectural pro- 
fession. Let us then labor together to remove it ! 

There is but one way, and it is perfectly open to us. 
Education ! The people must be taught. What archi- 
tects and clergy will consent together to teach, the people 
will of necessity accept. 

Education! But are we educated ourselves? I mean 
as to ecclesiastical architecture? 

It is characteristic of our age to approach every sub- 
ject by the methods of historical research and criticism ; 
and science demands not merely the exploitation of this 
or that attractive province, not merely the accumulation 
of particulars, their minute description and classification, 
but the investigation of all accessible forms in every cor- 
ner of the realm, their origin, their development, their 
determining heredity and environment, — in hackneyed 
phrase, their evolution. Will any one pretend that the 
architectural guides of the people know their ecclesiastical 
architecture in that way? 

The first and absolutely indispensable step, then, is 
the study of the past, not that we may thereafter simply 
adopt and copy some chosen historic type, but that in 
some future better age we may be quite emancipated 
from mere copying and delivered alike from that fantastic 
crudeness on the one hand and that slavish timidity on 
the other which, like Scylla and Charybdis, await the 
uneducated who venture upon composition. 

" But architecture is an art." Of course it is, but the 
history and principles of it form a science ; this is our 
contention. With a mere fragmentary knowledge of that 
science it is as rash to undertake a great cathedral or 
church as it would be to attempt the composition of a 
symphony with the equipment of a fondness for music 



and an understanding of the mandolin. We may build 
something big and with engineering skill make it hold 
together ; but will it be the " frozen music " of the Old 
World? 

Moreover, as an art, — nay, in its higher reaches as a 
science even, — he who would know church architecture 
must bring to it more than intellectual zest and technical 
grasp. Within that body dwells a spirit. It is character- 
istic that Mr. Holiday in his pioneer treatise on Stained 
Glass * and Mr. Cram in his excellent book on Church 
Building f both turn in the most natural way from scien- 
tific exposition to preaching Christianity, and appear 
unconscious of any digression. We may say that the 
"Symbolism" of old Durandus is trivial and foolish; 
but it is really far more foolish to expect a man who is 
devoid of the personal interest and devotion of the Chris- 
tian and the churchman to teach or to design church 
architecture. Religious art surely cannot live and grow 
apart from religion. 

But meanwhile we have churches to build and cannot 
wait for this long process of education. Very well ; let us 
get, as best we can, at least a proper general idea for 
immediate use. 

Why are we going to build this church? What pur- 
pose is it to serve? Manifestly the answer depends on 
who and what we are. 

Are we Roman Catholics or Congregationalists? Or 
which of the scores of " denominations " is ours? After 
answering that, the next question may be, How much is 
it to cost? Where is it to be? But absolutely determin- 
ing the essential things is this first question, and it ought 
to be. 

Here are these "religious differences," whether we 
will or no ; let us look at them fairly, without sentiment, 
without prejudice. Are they mere survivals of bygone 
controversies, lingering on because of the misplaced loy- 
alty, perhaps pride, of their adherents, or do they stand 
for distinctions which are still vital, for positive convic- 
tions and principles, justified in going on till their work 
be fully done and they merge into some higher unity to 
which they shall contribute each its part? Let us get 
ourselves placed; let us understand ourselves. 

Now, of course, no body of Christians will take that 
view of themselves which makes their very existence a 
state of sin ; though a very few are beginning to think 
their separate mission accomplished, and are forming 
with others some larger groups — Christian reunion at 
least so far. The majority of the Christian bodies prob- 
ably feel they still have a call to remain separate, but 
not forever. 

What is all this to architecture ? Everything; both 
for criticism of our past building, and for building here- 
after. Truth is fundamental as to religion, so to art ; 
and our ecclesiastical architecture must in straightfor- 
ward fashion, without distortion and without disguise, 
express our faiths ; to be honest, express even our differ- 
ences, if we must have such. Religious differences, which 
are sufficiently vital to keep Christians in separate bodies, 
must be sufficiently vital and organic to put forth archi- 
tectural forms fitted to express truthfully what each is. 



* Henry Holiday, " Stained Glass as an Art," London, 1896. 
t Ralph Adams Cram, " Church Building," Boston, 1901. 



THE BRICKBU ILDER. 



For example: I come upon what appears a great 
Gothic church. Its exterior suggests nave and aisles and 
transepts a*nd choir with sanctuary and altar. I enter: 
within I find an amphitheater and sloping floor, and for 
focal center a speaker's platform and an organ. Is that 
truth-telling? Had the builders any distinctive religious 
ideals they felt bound to proclaim? Then why conceal 
them? If their supreme ordinance be preaching, why 
not build frankly an auditorium? The old altar-idea had 
vitality enough to build its cathedrals ; if the new pulpit- 
idea has vitality enough, let it build, and as impress- 
ively as it can, what shall be its own. 

We might glance at the other extreme. Signs are 
not wanting that the Roman Church is adopting, in- 
creasingly, Italian forms. The tendency is significant. 
It proves again how, when the principle has sufficient 
vitality, it will develop its visible type. We may repu- 
diate the Roman idea, but we cannot easily mistake 
it. 

Speaking as an Anglican, one may frankly confess 
that while our buildings tell — as they must — that we 
have a choir and an altar, and not a mere auditorium, 
yet the uncertain emphasis, the widely varying propor- 
tion, the haphazard arrangement, precisely express the 
state of mind of a church which has what many of her 
children do not understand and do not yet appreciate. 
Again: so long as some among us "choose" Norman 
and some Byzantine, while others shudder at " Debased 
Gothic " and think to fulfill all righteousness if only 
they build buttresses (though of wood), and make every 
window opening of a particular form of arch (though 
in shingles), and have transepts (in a village chapel), 
it is too evident that we need education, both as to what 
our church stands for and as to what are the first prin- 
ciples of ecclesiastical architecture. 

Speaking still as an Anglican — inasmuch as the 
question is asked us — there is for an Episcopal Church 
at the present moment only one style. It is that which 
shall exhibit our Anglican heritage and our Anglican 
continuity. It is not a question of what we like, — for 
that matter, what is more beautiful, in rich, chaste, 
austere, religious beauty? — it is a question of telling 
the truth. Examples and inspiration are found in 
numberless mediaeval and in many nineteenth-century 
English churches, at whose altars the Holy Eucharist is 
celebrated with the Book of Common Prayer, in whose 
chancels white robed choristers sing our canticles and 
psalms and hymns. For seventy years the work has 
now gone on there, with errors and extravagances now 
and then, but in the main right and true ; the Anglican 
Church has come to understand herself, her great lineage 
and her high calling. Her outward aspect, even in 
her_ churches, 'is increasingly conforming to her own 
type. "American?" No fear but it will be American 
enough; is not the Puritan English, too? 

And to help our education, to solve the many ques- 
tions arising between architects and clegymen, let us 
have an American Church Building Society, bringing 
together architects, clergy and churchmen interested in 
these matters, building up an authoritative consensus 
of opinion, and establishing a higher standard of taste. 
Why not? 



Notes on Standard Form of Specifi- 
cations tor Architectural 
Terra-Cotta. 

KV CHARLES P. WARREN, A. M. 
TUTOR IN ARCHITECTURAL CONSTRUCTION, COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY. 

Introduction. 

TWO kinds of terra-cotta are known in architecture: 
Ornamental or Architectural Terra-Cotta, which is 
used for the facing of buildings, or as a substitute for cut 
stone, and .Structural Terra-Cotta, which is used for 
floors and partitions and for protecting steel frames of 
fireproof buildings. Contracts are always made with 
different contractors for the two kinds of terra-cotta, 
and in the following specification the Ornamental work 
has therefore been specified separately from the Struc- 
tural work. 

Architectural Terra-Cotta. 

As an ornamental material the use of terra-cotta is 
of great antiquity, being about contemporaneous with 
that of burnt bricks. It was frequently used in Italy 
during the early Renaissance, but after that it was not 
employed to any great extent until about the year 1870. 
Since then it has largely superseded the use of cut stone, 
both in Europe and in this country, especially for the 
fronts of fireproof buildings. 

Much confusion has prevailed in the specifications for 
terra-cotta work, owing to the circumstance that four 
separate trades, the Terra-Cotta Makers, the Masons, the 
Carpenters and the Iron Workers, are involved and that the 
services of these four trades are not distinctly or consist- 
ently separated from one another. For example, almost 
all specifications state that " the Terra-Cotta Contractor 
shall furnish all the terra-cotta shown on the drawings," 
etc., that " he shall provide his own scaffolds, centers," 
etc., that "he shall furnish all anchors necessary to tie 
the terra-cotta to the masonry or ironwork," etc., that 
" the mortar for the terra-cotta shall be as specified for 
brickwork," etc. 

Notwithstanding these requirements of the specifica- 
tion, what really happens in the majority of cases is this. 
The Terra-Cotta Contractor merely furnishes the terra- 
cotta at the building or f. o. b. cars; the Mason sets it 
in place and provides some of the anchors; the Iron 
Contractor supplies other anchors and sets all the 
brackets and anchors bolted or riveted to the structu- 
ral work ; and the Carpenter provides the centers and 
boxes and protects the work when set in place. 

The failure to recognize this in the specification, 
and the requiring of one trade to do the work distinctly 
within the province of another, have led to no end of 
confusion and disputes and in some cases even to strikes. 
Much of this may be avoided if the specification strictly 
defines the limits of each trade and requires it to do noth- 
ing outside of its own particular field. The following 
specification has been drawn up with this in view. It 
is offered as a suggestion to those who have experi- 
enced difficulty in having terra-cotta contracts executed 
without disputes and misunderstandings. 



,. , II 1 W 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



Contractor to Supply Terra-Cotta 

The specification should require the Terra-Cotta Con- 
tractor merely to furnish the material free of charge at 
the building (or f. o. b. cars in the case of out of town 
contracts) ready to be set in place and in sufficient quan- 
tities to keep pace with the progress of the work. All 
work to be executed in terra-cotta should either be 
marked on the drawings or colored on the elevations. 
Because of the necessity of making terra-cotta in smaller 
pieces than cut stone, considerable anchoring and furring 
is necessary. Therefore when used in connection with 
structural steel work, the Terra-Cotta Contractor should 
carefully examine the structural drawings and make suit- 
able provision in his work to enable it to be properly 
set. The pieces are all carefully packed at the shops and 
those with projections, such as capitals, which are liable 
to injury, are boxed and protected as well. This protec- 
tion should not be removed until the pieces are ready to 
be set in place. It is not advisable, however, to specify 
the exact amount of packing necessary. That should be 
left to the judgment of the Terra-Cotta Contractor as he 
is required to deliver the material in perfect condition 
at the building. 

to the Mason. 

A point not always clearly defined is the responsibility 
for the condition of the terra-cotta after its delivery at the 
building. The Terra-Cotta Contractor, under the usual 
form of specification, is at the mercy of the Mason, so far 
as the care of his material is concerned, and no matter 
how much of it may be broken or damaged by careless 
handling he is, under ordinary circumstances, bound to 
replace it, although it has passed out of his hands. It 
seems no more than fair that the Terra-Cotta Contractor's 
responsibility for the sound condition of his material 
should cease at its delivery at the building, as from that' 
time until set in the wall it is in the hands of the Mason. 
It has accordingly so been specified, and the Mason is re- 
quired to replace at his own expense any material that is 
injured. The Mason unloads the pieces from the trucks as 
they are delivered at the building or from the cars, and it 
is thus made his interest as well as his duty to store them 
in a safe place, in a careful manner and according to the 
order in which the pieces are to be used, so that it shall be 
unnecessary to handle them frequently during the process 
of setting, and to take every precaution to prevent chip- 
ping and breaking in handling from the time the material 
is delivered until it is set in position. Few mechanics, 
apparently, realize that terra-cotta is as fragile as stone 
and that it requires equally careful handling. Should any 
of the pieces have been damaged during transportation, 
however, then the Mason is required to notify the Terra- 
Cotta Contractor of the numbers of such pieces immedi- 
ately upon the arrival of the material at the building. 
When the contract is large enough to warrant it, the Terra- 
Cotta Contractor is sometimes required to send a compe- 
tent man, familiar with handling terra-cotta, to superin- 
tend the unloading and sorting of the pieces and to see 
they are correctly set in place. 

Iron Contractor to Supply and Set Iron. 

Some specifications state that the Iron Contractor shall 
furnish all the iron required for setting the terra-cotta, 



others that the Terra-Cotta or Mason Contractor, which- 
ever sets the terra-cotta, shall supply it. The Iron Con- 
tractor always furnishes and sets all iron or steel work 
which is fastened or connected to the structural work or 
frame of the building. In Plate I, for example, he would 
probably provide and set the 12 -inch I bracketed out from 
the columns, the angle iron lookouts supported by it and 
riveted to the roof I beam and also provide the two hori- 
zontal angle irons on the legs of the lookout angles ; but 
he would not set these angles unless they were bolted or 
fastened to the lookouts. But the Mason Contractor 
should furnish and set the rods between these angles 
which hold up the modillions and ornaments and the hook 
anchors which tie the blocks to the I beams, and in this 
specification he is required to do so. All this work is not 
a part of the structural work. It is required for support- 
ing the terra-cotta, and a contract with an Iron Contractor 
requiring him only "to provide and set all structural 
work required " could not be construed to include it. On 
the other hand, the Terra-Cotta Contractor or Mason 
might not be allowed according to the Trades Union 
rules to set ironwork bolted or fastened to structural 
work. Therefore the specification should clearly require 
the Iron Contractor to provide what additional ironwork 
is needed to safely secure the terra-cotta. How much 
this will amount to is one of the most troublesome ques- 
tions to decide in a terra-cotta specification. In the ordi- 
nary course of events the iron estimates are obtained long 
before the terra-cotta details are made, so the Iron Con- 
tractor is sometimes at a loss to know just what and how 
much iron will be required, and may refuse to include it 
in his estimate ; but it is for the Architect, in consultation 
with the Terra-Cotta Contractor, to take all the trouble 
necessary to inform him unless it is strictly defined. It 
is this that has led to the reprehensible custom of requir- 
ing the Terra-Cotta Contractor to provide and set the iron. 

Mason to Supply and Set Iron 

All ironwork which is not bolted or riveted to the 
structural work should be set by the Mason, who should 
also provide and set all ashlar and wall anchors, dowels, 
clamps, etc., just as he does for anchoring stonework. 
The anchors or rods used for fastening the terra-cotta 
should be wrought iron painted or galvanized to protect 
them from rust, or where the pieces to be fastened are 
small and light, copper wire may be used for anchoring 
them. The number of anchors required for each piece 
should be specified. 

AND TERRA-COTTA. 

The Mason also sets the terra-cotta, provides all mortar, 
hoisting apparatus and power and erects all necessary 
scaffolding. 

Carpenter to Provide and Set Arches and Centers 
and Protect Work. 

The Carpenter should provide and set all arches and 
centers required and also protect as soon as set all pro- 
jecting courses, such as cornices, belt courses, etc., all 
bases, capitals, jambs and other work liable to be injured. 
He should also keep all boxing in repair until the work 
is finished and ready to be cleaned down. The boxing 
must be of pine or spruce. Hemlock is unsuited for this 
purpose as it is liable to stain the terra-cotta. 



TO 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



Material and Workmanship. 
Other causes for the confusion which sometimes 
appears in terra-cotta specifications are that the tests for 
the material itself, unlike those for iron, steel and cement, 
have never been reduced to a standard and that the method 
of manufacture is not generally understood by specifica- 
tion writers, who, ignorant of technical details, sometimes 
call for impossible conditions and requirements. For 
these reasons, therefore, it has been thought advisable 
here to describe in a brief and general way the method 
of manufacture. 

a. Advantages. Aside from its economical advan- 
tages the great value of terra-cotta as a building material 
lies in its durability. When made of the right material 
and properly burnt it is practically impervious to moist- 
ure, and hence is not subject to the disintegrating action 
of frost, which is such a powerful agent in the destruction 
of stone, neither does it afford a lodgment for vegetable 
growths as is the case with many stones. The ordinary 
acid gases contained in the atmosphere of cities have no 
effect upon it, and the dust which gathers on the moldings 
is usually washed away at every rainfall. The greatest 
advantage, however, possessed by terra-cotta is its resist- 
ance to heat, which makes it the most durable material 
known for the trimmings and ornamental work in the 
walls of fireproof buildings. Although terra-cotta has 
been used in this country but for a comparatively short 
time, it has thus far proved very satisfactory, being, in 
common with the better varieties of bricks, the most 
durable of all building materials. In Europe there are 
numerous examples of architectural terra-cotta which 
have been exposed to the weather for three or four cen- 
turies and which are still in good condition, while stone- 
work subjected to the same conditions is more or less 
decayed. Terra-cotta is also much lighter than stone- 
work, weighing from sixty-five to eighty-five pounds per 
cubic foot. 

b. Manufacture. Terra-cotta is composed of practi- 
cally the same material as bricks, and its characteristics, 
so far as the material itself is concerned, are the same. 
It requires, however, for its successful production a much 
better quality of clay than is generally used for bricks, 
while the process of manufacture is entirely different. 

The first consideration in the manufacture of terra- 
cotta is the selection of the material. No one locality 
gives all of the clay required for first-class material, 
and each shade and tint of terra-cotta requires the min- 
gling of certain clays from different localities. 

A great variety of excellent clays are mined in New 
Jersey and in other near-by locations and also in the 
West, large quantities being used annually for making 
terra-cotta, fire bricks, pottery, tiles, etc. They are in a 
sufficient variety to give in themselves almost any color 
effect desired, from light cream to dark red. After being 
mined from the bank the clay is seasoned by exposure to 
air, then dried, sometimes by artificial heat, and finely 
ground. When this has been accomplished what is called 
" S ro S " or " g r it " i s added to the clay to cause a partial 
vitrification of the mass during burning and also to pre- 
vent by its presence the excessive shrinkage of unbaked 
clay. The grog or grit consists of fragments of old 
ornamental terra-cotta, old pottery and fire bricks broken 
in small pieces; this mixture is then taken to a crusher 



where it is thoroughly crushed and ground. A suit- 
able proportion of ground clay and grog is now mixed, 
and the mass is then tempered in a pug mill or between 
rollers. After passing through this process it is thor- 
oughly mixed and has the consistency of putty; it is 
plastic and easy to work. This plastic mass is then 
formed into small cakes, of seventy-five or one hundred 
pounds, for convenience in handling, and sent to the 
pressing rooms. 

If several pieces of terra-cotta of the same size and 
shape are required, a shrinkage model at the scale of 
about thirteen inches to twelve inches of plaster and clay 
is first made ; the background of the model being of plaster 
and the ornament of clay, and from this a plaster mold is 
taken. When the plaster molds are hard and dry the 
plastic clay is pressed into them by hand and allowed to 
remain for a few hours, until it has acquired sufficient 
stability to be relieved from the mold, one mold lasting 
for about fifty impressions. Sometimes, in very partic- 
ular work, the modeler may be called upon to retouch 
some of the pieces after having been relieved from the 
mold. 

The unburnt terra-cotta is next dried to evaporate 
the moisture it contains, then sprayed with a properly 
prepared coating of clay and chemicals to give the color 
and texture of the surface required, and finally put into 
the kilns where it remains for about ten days, baking 
and cooling before it is ready for use. Properly speak- 
ing the terra-cotta is baked and not burnt, as it is never 
exposed to fire, but to heat radiated from brick ovens, 
just as bread is baked. Therefore it is strictly incor- 
rect to speak of "hard burnt" terra-cotta, but as the 
usage of this term is universal it seems unwise to 
change it in the specification. During the baking, 
which is carried on at a white heat, (a temperature of 
from 2,000 degrees to 2,300 degrees Fahrenheit,) the 
metallic oxides and silicates produce a partial vitrifi- 
cation on the exterior of the terra-cotta. This harder 
skin or coating, which adds so much to the durability 
of the material, should remain intact and under no cir- 
cumstances be chipped, chiseled or broken, although 
the joints may sometimes require chiseling or trimming 
in order to insure a close fit. 

If only a single piece of terra-cotta is to be made, 
or where no repetition is intended, a mold may not 
be necessary, the clay being modeled directly into the 
required shape. The finished product thus bears the 
direct impress of the modeling artist. It can be studied, 
improved or modified, and, when entirely satisfactory, 
baked. On this account terra-cotta possesses, for highly 
decorative work, an advantage over all other building 
materials. 

C Inspection and tests. A sharp, metallic, bell-like 
ring and a clean, close fracture are characteristics of a 
homogeneous, compact and strong terra-cotta. No 
spalled, chipped, flashed or warped pieces should be 
accepted. The terra-cotta should be slightly glazed or 
vitrified on the surface, which should be so hard as to 
resist scratching with the point of a knife, and all mold- 
ings should come together perfectly at the joints. Terra- 
cotta is subject to unequal shrinkage in baking, which 
sometimes causes the pieces to become twisted. When 
this is the case great care must be taken in laying the 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



1 1 



ARCHITECTURAL TERRA COTTA. 

Details of Cornice and Balustrade . 




Another method of arxJnonnQ the balustrade foan 
.shown at 'A'. It avoids Ibe hori2ontal pint- in the 



rail which is not electable. 



""Where special ■iron construction is required for 
Subverting the Terra Cotta. Ibe. Terra Cotta 
Contractor shall design the' same subject to the 
Architects, approval " 

See Structural Iron Drawings C Roof Framing Plan) 
for the sizes and seeing of the Tees and Angles 
in lt)e Cornice . — 



" Iron Contractor .shal 
froYide and set iron ord ^ 
steel uroi*. f astened or -h 
connected to structural 
vrorrt." - 



• Provided by Iron 
Contractor^ but not 
set unless bolted to 
Tees) and -sel by 
Mason 

"The Mason Contractor ^- 
shall provide all usual V 
strop iron and wire an- ^_ 



"All projecting courses shall have washes 
.ana dribs where necessary and as directed." 

J^fl " Rails far balustrades, shall be made to receive 
a continuous channel or L * 



-JDalustrade. must be anchored to roof by L» 
provided and set by the Iron Contractor 
(see Roof Framing Plan .) The anchors 
should never be exposed as indicated by 
the dotted lines 



chors and set all anchors, rods, etc., not fasten - 
ed to the structural worK " 

"Where terra cotta is used constructively the — 
Web* and partitions must be so arranged as 
to <giY« the portions of terra cotta bedded in 
the walls a crushing strength equal to "that 
of the best brich" masonry. " 



"All coping and all washes more than i"wide shall 
have raised filleted horizontal -joints, 
for detail of joints see Plate II. 

Peam bunched every 6" for terra colta S" above 
bottom of tower flange. . 



"The Terra Cotta Contractor must maKe all provision 
in the pieces for anchors, he rods, ttanqers, etc.* 
'The Mason Contractor shall at his own expense 
do all necessary cutting and fitting of terra cotta that 
may te. required at the building.'including all fitting 
.around anchors, steel and von worK. ." 




Scale., One irxr> «raab one fooh 



CPW 19CM. 



PLATE I. 



12 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




THE BRICKBUILDER 



l 3 



blocks, otherwise the long, horizontal lines of a building 
such as those of string courses or cornices, which are 
intended to be straight, are apt to be uneven, and the 
faces of blocks of plain flat ashlar are often "in wind," 
as it is called. This shrinkage amounts to almost an inch 
to the foot from the time the terra-cotta is molded until 
it is baked, and although proper allowance is made for it 
in molding, yet it is sometimes subject to slight varia- 
tions. Twisted and warped blocks are sometimes set 
true by chiseling, but this, as before mentioned, should 
not be permitted, for if the vitreous surface be removed 
the material in some cases may not be able to withstand 
the attacks of the atmosphere so well. 

The specification states that "a sufficient number of 
over pieces must be provided to guard against delay from 
faulty material. " There is no rule for determining the 
number, which must be left to the discretion of the 
manufacturer. 

Color and Finish. 

The color of terra-cotta ranges from white to a deep 
red, according to the chemical constituents of the clays 
used. Within the past fifteen years a great impetus has 
been given to the production of special colors. In 1885 
fully four-fifths of the terra-cotta produced in the United 
vStates was red ; now hardly one-fifth is of that color, 
white, buff and gray being the prevailing colors. These 
colors are natural to the clay. Others, green, brown, blue, 
etc., are obtained just as in enameled brickwork by spray- 
ing the clay with a thin coating or slip composed of clay 
and chemicals. An irregular greenish color, however, 
may sometimes be due to absorption of moisture, an in- 
dication of a porous surface, or more probably to under- 
baking, as alkali salts present in the clay and not thor- 
oughly consumed come out that color. 

Formerly, when red terra-cotta only was used, no slip 
was applied, the color being the natural one of clay. 
Hence it was the custom to specify that " all terra-cotta 
shall be uniform in color throughout the entire block." 
Although this is still a requirement of some specifications, 
it can no longer be insisted upon. Almost all terra-cotta 
is now colored by spraying a body with a finer slip of clay 
and chemicals colored as desired. Three body colors only 
are ixsed, red, buff and gray, the surface color being 
applied to them, so now it is only in rare cases that the 
color is " uniform throughout the entire block." 

The terms "vitreous," " dull finish," " matte finish," 
"glazed," " semi-glazed " and "enameled" are used to 
designate the different surface finishes of terra-cotta, and 
they are all sometimes incorrectly applied. As a matter 
of fact there are but two surfaces ; one has a dull, vitreous 
finish, also called ' ' standard finish " by the manufacturers, 
produced by the fluxing cf metallic oxides and slip upon 
the surface of the body terra-cotta, and the other has a 
bright porcelain-like, glazed or enameled finish, usually 
formed by a coating of slip covered with another of glaze. 
Glazed surfaces are sometimes given a dull glaze. This 
can be produced as a natural consequence of the process 
of manufacture, when it is known as a " matte finish," or 
it may be produced artificially by sand blasting a highly 
glazed surface. There is no such finish as ' ' semi-glazed " 
now made by terra-cotta manufacturers. 

The most durable surface, perhaps, is the first one, 
produced by fluxing oxides and slip upon the clay body. 



But in any case, for the sake of durability, the finish 
should cover all exposed surfaces perfectly and should be 
absolutely non-absorbent, so that it may be cleaned down 
with sponge and water. Highly glazed work, if it has not 
been sand blasted, is generally tested with red ink to 
prove its non-absorbent qualities, and an exposure test is 
sometimes called for to determine whether the glaze 
crazes or pits. There are few glazes, however, that may 
not craze slightly if exposed. All surfaces of the body 
terra-cotta, except ornaments and background of same, 
are generally given a vertical drove, smooth rubbed, fine 
pointed or other finish in imitation of stone masonry. 

Details and Drawings. 

In this as in all other building contracts a list of draw- 
ings furnished for estimating should be given the Con- 
tractor to avoid any misunderstanding. The Architect 
generally makes three-quarter-inch scale details and also 
full sizes of all terra-cotta work, but on account of the 
shrinkage in baking, which, as before mentioned, amounts 
to about one inch to the foot, the full sizes must all be re- 
drawn larger by the Contractor at the works to allow for 
this, so that the finished product will be the required size. 
It is an excellent practice, and one which obtains in many 
offices, for the Architect to procure from the Terra-Cotta 
Contractor a shrinkage rule for making the details, in 
order to avoid redrawing and the consequent chance of 
error. 

Modeled Work. 

Just as in carved stonework, plaster models are made 
of all ornamental terra-cotta work, not only to get the re- 
lief, etc., which cannot be shown so easily on the full size 
details, but also, as has been said, for the purpose of mak- 
ing a mold from the model for the pressing of the actual 
pieces. These models are made by the Terra-Cotta Con- 
tractor at his own works at the shrinkage scale. It is 
frequently specified, as it has been in this specification, 
that the models must be inspected and approved by the 
Architect before any of the terra-cotta is baked. Where 
the factory is at some distance, however, considerable 
delay and inconvenience might result if the specification 
should require the Architect to personally inspect and 
approve the models before beginning work. In such 
cases, therefore, the alternative given in the specification 
of submitting photographs of modeled work for approval 
is much more convenient for all concerned. 

Sizes. 

Terra-cotta, whether plain or ornamental, is always 
made of hollow blocks formed with webs inside so as to 
give extra strength and keep it true while drying. Al- 
though terra-cotta can be made solid, making it hollow 
requires less raw material, the pieces dry quicker, can be 
burned quicker and, of course, are less expensive. Then 
the weight of hollow terra-cotta, which is much less per 
cubic foot, also effects a saving in freight, cartage and cost 
of handling at the building. The hollow blocks are 
generally made from 18 inches to 2 feet long, from 
6 to 12 inches deep and of a height determined by the 
character of the work, although pieces have been made 
from 6 to 8 cubic feet in volume and weighing one-quarter 
of a ton. The outer shell is made 1% inches thick and 
the webs and partitions about 1 inch thick. The parti- 



H 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



tions should have numerous holes in them for conven- 
ience in handling and to afford a clinch for the mortar 
and brickwork used for the filling and backing, and 
they should be so arranged that the open spaces shall not 
exceed 6 inches. In fact, all the work should be divided 
into as short lengths as practicable. Short lengths are 
more easily handled and are less liable to break and warp 
than long ones, although, contrary to the general belief, 
small pieces are more expensive to manufacture than 
large pieces, and the Terra-Cotta Manufacturer, in laying 
out the sizes, only endeavors to keep the Architect within 
bounds. Usually when the Terra-Cotta Manufacturer 
advises a reduction in the size of a piece the Architect 
will be wise to accede to his request. As a rule it is im- 
practicable to span an opening of any considerable length 
in one block, and even window sills are generally made 
in pieces about 18 inches or 2 feet long. Jamb blocks 
are usually 1 foot 6 inches in height or thereabout. 
Mullions, transoms and tracery should be made in as 
many pieces as the design will admit, and if there are 
several members in the reveal moldings they should be 
divided, care being taken that the joints are well broken 
or bonded in elevation. String courses and cornices 
should be divided into as short lengths (2 to 3 feet) as 
convenient. Plain ashlar, in which the warping is more 
evident than in molded surfaces, should not exceed 12 by 
24 inches in size where it has a depth or bond in the 
wall of only 4 inches, although it can be made larger for 
a 6 and 8 inch bond. 

All terra-cotta work, therefore, should be laid out with 
these limitations in view, and a careful study of the sizes 
of the blocks and the position of the joints should be made 
on the 34-inch scale drawings. Two ways of providing 
for this are specified. The first is to require the Con- 
tractor to investigate the sizes and manner of jointing 
and to consult with the Architect in regard to producing 
the best results, which, owing to the special nature of the 
material, he is better fitted to do. The second is for the 
Architect to sh<%w the position of all the joints and the 
sizes of all the pieces, the work being so designed as to 
form part of the construction and to adapt itself as far as 
possible to being divided into pieces of moderate size. 
When used for trimmings in connection with brickwork 
it is necessary that the pieces shall be of the exact height 
to bond in with the courses of bricks, and a small section 
of brickwork should be built up to get the exact heights, 
before the final drawings for the terra-cotta are sent to 
the manufacturer. The depth of the bond should always 
be specified by the Architect, care being taken not to 
make it excessive. Where it is not specified, Terra- 
Cotta Contractors figure on 4 inches for flat work without 
any projections. As noted on Plate II, the bond for some 
of the pieces is excessive. Although this may be shown on 
the Architect's drawings, in the actual working out of the 
pieces just as good results would be obtained by reduc- 
ing the bond to 4 inches, thus doing away with cutting 
around the ironwork, and in some cases with the neces- 
sity for anchors. 

Constructive Terra-Cotta. 

When terra-cotta is used constructively, that is, when it 
is bedded into and forms part of the wall, it should have 
a strength at least equal to that of the best brick masonry. 
The safe working strength of ordinary hollow blocks is 



five tons per square foot, but by a careful arrangement 
of the webs and partitions and by filling them solid with 
concrete or brickwork the crushing strength may be 
increased to ten tons per square foot. 
Drips, Joints, Etc. 

It was formerly the custom to specify that window 
sills, copings and other horizontal courses should have 
"roll or lap joints, " as they were called, in which the 
joint was protected by a % round mold raised above the 
surface, as shown in Figure A, Plate II. Terra-Cotta Con- 
tractors objected to this because of the difficulty of mak- 
ing the roll, of its liability to become broken off or 
chipped in handling, and also becaiise it precluded the 
possibility of rubbing the terra-cotta on the rubbing bed 
and recommended instead a raised filleted joint, shown 
in Figure B, which has now superseded it. The pieces 
should terminate under the wooden sill rather than 
against the edge, and a raised fillet across the end let 
into a groove on the underside of the sill, as shown, pre- 
vents water from penetrating the wall during driving 
rains. 

Where buildings are trimmed with terra-cotta the 
cornice is generally made of the same material, as it is 
much lighter and cheaper than stone, especially if elabo- 
rately decorated, besides permitting of lighter walls. With 
stone cornices it is necessary that the various pieces be 
of sufficient depth to balance on the wall. With terra- 
cotta cornices, however, this is not necessary or custom- 
ary, the various pieces being made to build into the wall 
only 8 or 12 inches and to be supported by ironwork. 

Generally small steel L's and T's, as shown in Plate 
I, are used for supporting the projecting members, and 
where the projection is so great as to overbalance the 
weight of the masonry on the built-in end, allowing for 
the weight of snow on the projection, the inner ends of 
the supports are anchored by rods carried down into the 
wall until the weight of the masonry above the anchor is 
ample to counteract the leverage of the projection. 
Therefore, wherever iron is used for tying the cornice to 
the walls it is necessary to determine the method of 
anchoring before the pieces are molded, as in manufac- 
turing them holes or slots must be made for inserting 
the beams, rods and anchors. 

Cutting and Fitting. 

Before any of the terra-cotta pieces are shipped from 
the factory they are carefully fitted together by the Con- 
tractor and numbered to the numbers on the " setting 
plan," which is sent to the Mason to enable him to prop- 
erly set the work. Vertical joints are rubbed down on a 
rubbing bed in order to straighten out inequalities and 
make a neater finish. Other cutting and fitting is neces- 
sary at the building, as, for example, for the fitting of 
the terra-cotta work around the ironwork and frame, but 
this should be done by the Mason as he handles and sets 
the work. It might be argued that he would be unable 
to estimate how much of an item this might be, but every 
specification for the erection of a building at present 
requires the Mason to do all cutting and patching for all 
other contractors, and it is no more difficult to estimate 
for the terra-cotta work than for theirs. 

Setting, Mortar, Joints, Backing, Etc. 

Terra-cotta should always be set in either natural or 



. — , 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



'5 



Portland cement mixed with sand in about the proportion 
of one to two. The method of setting the terra-cotta is 
similar to that of stone setting and is done by the Mason 
As soon as set the outside joints should be raked out to a 
depth of 3/£ inch to allow for pointing and to prevent 
chipping. The terra-cotta should be built up in advance 
of the backing, one course at a time, and all the voids in 
blocks set in the wall should be filled between the wall 
lines with mortar, into which bricks should be forced to 
make the work as solid as possible. All blocks not sol- 
idly built into the walls should be anchored with galvan- 
ized iron clamps the same as used for stonework, and as 
a rule all projecting members over 6 inches in height 
should be anchored in this way. After the walls are up 
the joints should be pointed with Portland cement col- 
ored with a mineral pigment to correspond with the color 
of the terra-cotta. The pointing is done in the same way 
as for stone, except that the horizontal joints in all sills 
and the washes of belt courses and cornices should be 
raked out about 2 inches deep and calked with oakum 
for about 1 inch and then filled with an elastic cement. 
The joints in terra-cotta are about the same thickness as 
those in good stone ashlar, ^ inch, with a maximum thick- 
ness of yk inch. In enameled work finer joints r « inch 
thick are used, with a maximum thickness of % inch. 

Cost. 
A single piece of terra-cotta or a plain cap or sill costs 
about the same as sandstone or limestone when the rough 
stone can be delivered at a price not exceeding 90 cents 
per cubic foot. When, however, a number of pieces 
exactly alike are required, they can be produced in terra- 
cotta cheaper than in stone, unless the terra-cotta has to 
be transported at a large cost for freight. The advantage 
in point of cost in favor of terra-cotta is greatly increased 
if there be a large proportion of molded work, and espe- 
cially if the moldings are enriched, or if there are a num- 
ber of ornamental panels, carved capitals, etc. The use 
of terra-cotta for trimmings and especially for heavy cor- 
nices in place of stone often reduces the cost of walls and 
foundations, as the weight of terra-cotta will be much less 
than that of stone, and the walls and foundations may be 
made lighter in consequence. 

Time Required. 
Finally, contracts for terra-cotta and the drawings 
should be made at least six weeks before the material will 
be used because of the time required to make it. Archi- 
tects should bear this in mind when laying out their 
work. If they delay making their drawings they cannot 
expedite matters by hurrying the Terra-Cotta Contractor 
and urging him to turn out his work in four weeks or 
less. Six weeks is the shortest reasonable time in which 
it can be done. 



Standard Form of Specification for 
Architectural Terra-Cotta. 

Expressions in italics may be changed. Expressions in parenthesi s 
( ) maybe omitted and those in brackets [ ] substituted instead, pref- 
erence generally being given to the first. 

All sizes and dimensions are approximate and not absolute. 

If made a sub-contract insert suitable general clauses. 
Contractor to Supply Terra-Cotta 

The Terra-Cotta Contractor shall furnish and deliver 

free of charge (at the building) or | f. o. b. cars], as 
fast as required but without encumbering or inter- 
fering with the work of other contractors, all the 
terra-cotta (shown on the drawings) [colored pink on 
the elevations] or (hereinafter specified;) [the terra- 
cotta is used in connection with the structural steel 
work, and a careful study of the structural steel 
drawings should be made by the Terra-Cotta Con- 
tractor, as he must supply any additional labor or 
materials, other than shown on the drawings, neces- 
sary to properly construct the terra-cotta. | 

All pieces are to be carefully packed in hay or straw for 
transportation, and those with projecting parts, 
liable to injury, such as caps, bases, etc., are to be 
thoroughly protected by boxing or crating, which pro- 
tection shall not be removed until the pieces are 
ready to be set in place. 

to the Mason. 

The Mason Contractor must unload the terra-cotta (at 
the building) or | from the cars] and store the same 
in a safe place and in accordance with the setting 
plans, to avoid a frequent handling of the pieces ; 
should any pieces have been damaged in transporta- 
tion he shall notify the Terra-Cotta Contractor im- 
mediately upon the arrival of the material. He shall 
also take every precaution to prevent chipping and 
breaking from handling, from the time the material 
is delivered until it is set in place, and shall replace 
at his own expense any material so injured. 

[ Where contractislarge enough to warrant it. ] The Terra- 
Cotta Contractor shall at his own expense send a 
competent man to the building to superintend the 
unloading and sorting of the terra-cotta and to see it 
is correctly set in place. 
Iron Contractor to Supply and Set Iron. 

The Iron Contractor shall furnish all iron and steel work 
necessary to support the terra-cotta and to tie the 
same properly to the steel and iron frame of the 
building, except the usual strap iron and wire 
anchors which are to be provided and set by the 
Mason. 

The Iron Contractor shall also set all iron and steel 

work fastened or connected to the structural work. 

Where special iron construction is required for support- 
ing the terra-cotta, the Terra-Cotta Contractor shall 
design the same, subject to the Architects' approval. 
Mason Contractor to Supply and Set Iron 

The Mason Contractor shall furnish all usual strap iron 
and wire anchors, rods, bolts and hook bolts re- 
quired to properly support and tic the terra- 
cotta to the masonry and to the steel frame, and he 
shall also set all anchors, rods, bolts, etc., not fas- 



i6 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



tened to the structural work; the anchors shall be 
of (galvanized wrought iron) | wrought iron 
coated with asphaltum put on hot | or { proper size 
copper wire). 

and Terra-Cotta. 
He must also set all terra-cotta work and provide all 

mortar, all hoisting apparatus and power, and erect 
all scaffolding to properly set the same. 

Carpenter ro Provide and set Arches and Centems 
and Protect Work. 

The Carpenter shall provide all arches and centers 
required and set, ease and strike same. 

He must also protect with pine or spruce hoards 

(not hemlock), as soon asset, all projecting courses 
and cornices, all bases, capitals, jambs and otherwork 
liable to injury and keep the same covered until 
the front is cleaned down. 

Material and Workmanship. 

The material for all terracotta must be carefully selected 
clay, hard burnt and free from all imperfections of 
any kind; it must give a sharp, metallic, bell-like 
ring when struck, show a uniform fracture and be so 
hard as to resist scratching with the point of a knife. 

All blocks must be straight and true, out of wind and 
be provided with necessary webs and ribs ; where 
continuous molds are used they must be of uniform 
size and come together closely at the joints, and 
ashlar and other flat pieces must be straight and 
show no wavy surfaces or lines when set. 

No warped, swollen or twisted, under or over burnt, 
spalled, chipped, cracked, discolored or painted 
pieces will be accepted. 

A sufficient number of over pieces must be provided 
to guard against delay from faulty material. 
Coloh \\i> Finish. 

All terra-cotta, except in . . . where it is to be enameled 
or glazed, is to have a vitreous surface of a uniform 
buff color corresponding to sample in Architects' 
office, and all surfaces except ornaments and back- 
ground of same shall have a (vertical drove finish.) 

Enameled or glazed terra-cotta shall be of a uniform 

{ivory white) shade and shall have a smooth surface 
with a (bright finish) j dull finish, free from any 
gloss whatever produced by sand blasting the glazed 
surface particularly prepared for this purpose | 
(matte finish, free from any gloss whatever,) like 
sample in Architects' office; the enamel or glaze 
must cover all exposed surfaces perfectly, be abso- 
lutely non-absorbent, and maintain its surface and 
color without crazing or popping when exposed to 
the weather. 

Hi i ah.s and Drawings. 

The Architects will furnish ( full size) | large scale | or 
(shrinkage scale) details for all terra-cotta work, 
which must be executed in strict conformity to 
them. 

The following is a list of drawings furnished for 
estimating: . . . 

The Terra-Cotta Contractor shall furnish working draw- 
ings for all terra-cotta work, showing all details, 
joints, etc., and also for all ironwork, /. <., anchors, 



brackets, rods, etc., which must be approved by the 
Architects in writing before any of the terra-cotta 
work is begun; he shall also keep at the building 
setting drawings for the use of the Mason setting 
the work. 

Modeled Work. 

This Contractor shall also furnish models for all 

ornamental work and shall employ for this ptirpose 
the very best modelers and sculptors, i Photo- 
graphs of all modeled work shall be submitted for 
approval) [All modeled work will be inspected by 
the Architects before burning | and no work shall be 
burnt until such (approval) | inspection ] shall have 
been obtained by the Contractor. 

All moldings will be profiled so as to draw from the 
molds and those in . . . are to be undercut after 
pressing. 

Sizes. 

(The Terra-Cotta Contractor shall carefully investigate 
the sizes and manner of jointing the terra-cotta and 
consult with the Architects in regard to producing 
the best results. ) or | Each piece of terra-cotta shall be 
of the size shown on the drawings, unless otherwise 
detailed by the Architects, and all joints also must 
be as indicated on the drawings; should it become 
necessary to change them the Contractor shall notify 
the Architects and obtain their written approval 
before making the change. | 

Unless otherwise shown the bond for all terra-cotta 
shall be 4 inches. 

Constructivk Terra-Cotta. 

Where terra-cotta is used constructively the webs and 
partitions must be so arranged as to give the por- 
tions of terra-cotta bedded in walls a crushing 
strength equal to that of the best brick masonry; 
the Terra-Cotta Contractor will be held responsible 
by the Architects for the structural capacity of all 
such work. 

Washes and Drips. 

Projecting courses shall have washes and drips where 
necessary and as directed by the Architects. 
Joints. 

All sills and copings, and all washes more than 3 inches 
wide, shall have (raised filleted) horizontal joints, 
and the sills shall have a raised fillet across the end 
to be let into a groove on the under side of the 
wooden sill. 

Copings. 

All copings, except ordinary vitrified salt glazed tile cop- 
ing, shall be provided by the Terra-Cotta Contractor, 
which shall be made with reglets for eounterflash- 
ing, as (shown on the drawings and details) [di- 
rected] wherever they come within 8 inches of the 
roof. 

Reglets. 

All other terra-cotta work coming in contact with roofs 
or flashings shall also be made with reglets to re- 
ceive the same. 

Soffits. 

All soffits are to be made plain except . . . 



THE BRICKBU ILDER. 



17 



Dowx Spouts. 

Cut all openings for down spouts or conductors, allowing 
Yi inch all around for expansion. 
Gutters. 

The cross section of all gutter moldings is to be uniform, 
the pitch for the metal gutter being formed by 
furring or cementing. 

Balustrade. 

Rails for balustrade shall be made to receive a contin- 
uous channel or L iron. 

Rubbed Work. 

All work in first and second stories shall have rubbed 

horizontal and vertical joints rubbed down on a rub- 
bing bed at the factory. 

Cutting and Fitting. 

The Terra-Cotta Contractor shall carefully fit all terra- 
cotta work together at his factory and correctly num- 
ber the same for setting to correspond with setting 
plans, which he shall furnish. 

He shall also make all provision in the pieces for anchors, 
tie rods, hangers, etc., hereinafter specified or 
shown on the working drawings approved by the 
Architects. 

The Mason Contractor, however, shall at his own 

expense do all necessary cutting and fitting of terra- 
cotta that may be required at the building, including 
all fitting around anchors, steel and iron work, etc. 
Setting. 

All terra-cotta work shall be set true to a line and closely 
fitted. 

Mortar. 

The mortar is to be as specified for brickwork. 
Thickness ok Joints. 

All joints throughout, except in enameled work, shall be 
well filled and as near ^ inch thick as possible, 
3/$ inch being the maximum thickness allowed: 
enameled joints shall be as near 's inch thick as 
possible, with a" maximum of ^ inch. 

All pointing shall be done {with the same mortar) as the 
work progresses, except {the enameled ashlar joints) 
where colored mortar shall be used, in order to make 
the joints as inconspicuous as possible: the horizon- 
tal joints in all sills and projecting courses shall 
be raked out 2 inches deep, calked with 1 inch of 
oakum and then filled in with (an elastic cement). 
Backing. (Plate I.) 

Each piece of terra-cotta set in the wall shall be filled in 
and backed up between the wall lines with brick- 
work laid in cement mortar (as specified for brick- 
work ) . 

Cleaning Down. 

When directed by the Architects the Mason Contractor 
shall clean down all terra-cotta together with the 
brickwork, repoint the joints and leave the entire 
work satisfactory to them. 

Defective Work. 

If any cracking, blistering, deterioration or discoloration 
shall occur in the work at any time within a period 
of one year from the issuance of the final certificate, 
all such damaged portions must be replaced and 
made good by the Terra-Cotta Contractor without 
cost to the Owner. 



Editorial Comment and 
Selected Miscellany 

ARCHITECTS AND EXPERTS. 

THE position of the expert in relation to a great mod- 
ern building is something which is more persist- 
ently, we believe, misunderstood by the expert himself 
than by any one else. In fact, the expert on individual 
features of a great building is so recent a factor and has 




WOMAN S MAGAZINE BUILDING, ST. LOUIS, MO. 

Herbert C. Chivers, Architect. 

Built of St. Louis Hydraulic-Press Brick. 

taken himself so seriously, on the whole, that it is only 
natural that from his standpoint the position of the archi- 
tect as the director of the whole work and his own position 
as efficient manager of a portion of that whole work should 
become often confused. There is probably not one archi- 
tect in fifty who knows as much about plumbing as any 
one of a dozen or more first class plumbers in any large 
city. Neither is the architect likely to know much 
practically about carpentry or about masonry or anyone 
of the dozen or more trades which ordinarily enter into 
the make-up of a building, but regarding which there is 




detail, merchants and miners s. s. co. 
BALTIMORE, Ml). 
Charles E. Cassell & Son, Architects. 
Atlantic Tcrra-Cotta Co., Makers. 



BUILDING, 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



no question of the 
architect's knowl- 
edge. Twenty-five 
years ago there were 
experts in plumbing 
who, it was assumed, 
would in time usurp 
a certain portion of 
the architect's func- 
tions ; b u t wit h 
greater diffusion of 
k n o w 1 e d g e t h e 
plumbing expert has 
almost disappeared 
as a factor, and it is 
only on the branches 
of engineering, pure 
and simple, of deco- 
ration in a lesser degree, and to a certain extent of land- 
scape work, that the architect is supposed to be suffi- 
ciently inefficient not to be able to come to a right 




MCKINLEY HIGH SCHOOL, CHICAGO. 
W. B. Mundie, Architect, 
Built of dark gray brick made by Columbus Brick & Terra-Cott. 



feeling in this matter 
is very clear and has 
been formed by ob- 
servation of the 
practice both among 
engineers and archi- 
tects. The employ- 
ment of specialists 
about a building, 
when that specialist 
is given complete 
control of one de- 
partment, is not so 
much a practical or 
engineering or archi- 
tectural necessity as 
a matter of business 
and constructive ex- 




DIAMOND NATIONAL BANK BUILDING, PITTSBURG, PA. 

Mi Clure & Spahr, Architects. 

Fireproofed by National Fireproofing Co. 

decision. And yet from our experience in the various 
cities of this country we believe that architects who 
would be classed as thoroughly well trained, are, as 
a rule, better acquainted with the engineering practices 
involved in their buildings than they are with the details 
of such simple things as masonry or plumbing. Our 








pediency. It is not that the architects are not able to. 
either through themselves or their trained corps of help- 
ers, successfully plan all the ordinary details connected 
with a large build- 
ing ; but it is 
rather that such 
work, while a 
function of archi- 
tecture, can safely 
be left to those 
who make a special 
business of it, 
leaving the archi- 
tect more free to 
attend to the more 
vital matters of 
architectural de- 
sign and planning. 
No architect with 
a large practice to- 
day would under- 
take to superin- 
tend personally all 
his buildings. He 

leaves these to specialists. At the same time he can 
very easily control his superintendence, and he does not 
actually need to surrender any real function of his pro- 
fession by handing 
certain details 
over to others to 
work out. Just as 
a partnership of 
two or more archi- 
tects has come to 
be considered an 
advisable archi- 
tectural expedi- 
ent, so has the 
e m pi o y ment of 
the specialist in 
the engineering, 
decorative and 
1 an d s c a p e work 
proven itself to be detail, executed by the new vokk 
a business advant- architectural tekra-cotta 



DETAIL, EXEC! IM> V.\ BRICK, TERRA- 
COTTA ,\ TILE CO. 




THE BRICKBU I LDER. 



19 




►,.»-., *> -».**•**«•". 



.^ „ . ^.Jt&tes* 



A Y/^"* ^ 







of special problems into our large buildings. 
We advise the employment of specialists. We 
believe it is for the good of the building and 
for the better development of the profession, 
but under no circumstances ought the special- 
ties to be worked out distinctly from the 
architecture. If the steel construction or the 
heating and ventilation is placed in the hands 
of an engineer, that engineer should make his 
drawings in the office of the architect, under 
his immediate direction and in daily consulta- 
tion, not only with the architect himself, but 
with his assistants, before working out the 
other details of the building. To an equally 
positive extent is this true of the decoration 
and of the landscape work. The arts and the 
sciences, the practical requirements and the 
artistic touch, are one and inseparable if a 
building is to be a success. And it is the failure 
to recognize the absolute necessity of personal 
contact and cooperation that has brought 



CONSERVATORY, HOUSE 2047 CHESTNUT STREET, PHILADELPHIA. 
Wilson Eyre, Architect. 



tage to the architect himself. And while such surrender of 
a portion of the work could very easily be carried too far 
and the engineering details worked out quite distinct from 
the architecture, to the detriment of the building as a 
whole, it is beyond question that the standard of edu- 
cational requirements on the part of our architects has 
on the whole fairly well kept pace with the introduction 





"O" 




1 ^ c 




about a separa- 
tion of feeling 
between some 
architects and 
some experts, 
a feeling which 
is bound to 
lessen rather 
than increase as 
experience and 
greater educa- 
tional oppor- 
tunities offer 
themselves to 
both parties, 
and especially 
in proportion 
as our archi- 
tectural suc- 
cesses are better 
rounded and 
more complete. 



PLANS, HOUSE 2047 CHESTNUT STREET, PHILADELPHIA. 
Wilson Eyre, Architect. 



IN GENERAL 

The brick 
from which was 
built the new 
addition to the 
Hotel Imperial, 
illustrated in 
the half-tone 
plate form for 
this number, 




KEITHS THEATRE, PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

Bruce Price, Architect. 

Terra-Cotta made by Conklin^-Armstrong Co. 



20 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




EXHIBIT OF THE WINKLE TERRA-COTTA CO., 
world's FAIR, ST. I.OUIS, MO. 

were furnished by Robert C. Martin & Son, 156 Fifth 
Avenue, New York. 

Wilkinson & Magonigle were the architects for the 
Sheldon Court Dormitory, illustrated in The Brick- 
builder for December, and not H. Van Huren Magonigle, 
as given at the time. 

Jesse T. Johnson, architect, n 13 State Life Building, 
Indianapolis, Ind., has succeeded to the business of 
Dupont & Johnson. Manufacturers' catalogues and 

samples desired. 

The exhibit of 
the Tiffany Enam- 
eled BrickCompany 
at the St. Louis 
Exposition was 
a w a r d e d G r a n d 
Prize by the judges. 

The Toronto 
Beaux Arts Club 
h a s j u s t b e e a 
formed, having as 

its purpose the ad- 
vancement of its 
members in their 
respective callings, 
and also the pro- 
motion of good 
fellowship. The 
membership will 
comprise archi- 
tects, draughtsmen, 
designers and those 
i.ow relief glazed figure decora- who are engaged in 
tion in office of northwestern kindred work. The 

TERRA-COTTA CO., RAILWAY EX- following officers 

change building, Chicago. were elected : Hon. 




President, Frank Darling; Hon. Vice-Presi- 
dents, C. H. Acton Bond, W. A. Langton; 
President, S. Ashton Pentecost; First Vice- 
President, W. B. Van Egmond; Second Vice- 
President, Franklin E. Belfry; Secretary- 
Treasurer, L. McGill Allan. 

The twentieth annual exhibition of the 
Architectural League of New York will be 
held in the building of the American Fine 
Arts Society, 215 West Fifty-seventh Street, 
New York City, from February 10 to March 4 
inclusive. 

The subjects for the Gold and Silver medals. 
the President's Prize, and the Henry O. Avery 
Prize, three competitions which are held 
under the auspices of the Architectural 
League of New York, are as follows: Medal 
Competition, "A Village Block in a Small 
Country Town "; President's Prize, Design for 
a Book-Plate; Avery prize, A Terra-Cotta 
Flower Box Suitable for L T se on a Porch 
Between Columns. 

At the second annual election of the Archi- 
tectural Draughtsmen's Club of New York the 
following officers were elected to serve on the executive 
committee for the year 1905: President, L. A. Cramer; 
vice-president, A. T. Rose; recording secretary, W. F. 
Anderson; corresponding secretary, W. T. Smith; treas- 
urer, A. M. Hedley. A programme of varied and inter- 




RESIDENCE OF CHARLES HEAD, ESQ., BOSTON. 

Shaw & Hunnewell, Architects. 

The rear wall leaked badly when built in 1889. It was treated with 

Cabot's Brick Preservative and has never leaked since. 



THE BRICKBU ILDER. 



21 




DETAIL OF FEATURE OVER ENTRANCE, 40-46 BROADWAY, 

NEW YORK CITY. 

Henry Ives Cobb, Architect. 

Terra-Cotta made by Excelsior Terra-Cotta Co. 

esting monthly prize competitions, combined with a 
series of discourses by prominent professional men, will 
constitute the year's current work. 

In 1880 the Boston Fire Brick Company having a fire 
brick plant on its hands with no one to manage it, and 
the firm of Fiske & Coleman having an established busi- 
ness in the buying and selling of fire brick, sewer pipe, 

etc., but having 
no fire brick plant, 
formed a " merg- 
er," the firm tak- 
ing the manage- 
ment of the joint 
business under the 
title, "Boston Fire 
Brick Company, 
Fiske & Coleman, 
Mgrs. " This 
merger agreement 
has been renewed 
from time to time 
till now, with 
some changes in 
the name of the 
managing firm, 
but with Mr. 
George M. Fiske 
v always at the head 
detail executed by new jersey of the manage- 
terra-cotta co. ment. Recently 




Mr. Fiske and Mr. Thomas W. Peirce, who for the past 
two years has been treasurer of .the Fiske Brick Com- 
pany, have purchased a controlling interest in the Boston 
Fire Brick Company, and the following officers of the 
corporation have been elected : George M. Fiske, president ; 
Thomas W. Peirce, treasurer; J. Parker B. Fiske, clerk. 
The above are also directors with Charles B. Warren and 
Thomas B. Griggs. The business will go on as before 




DETAIL, BY GEORGE E. MURPHY, ARCHITECT. 
Perth Atnboy Terra-Cotta Co., Makers. 

under the title, "Boston Fire Brick Company, Fiske & 
Company, Mgrs. " ; the managing firm consisting of George 
M. Fiske, J. Parker B. Fiske and Thomas W. Peirce. 

The trustees of the University of Pennsylvania 
announce the third competition for the Alumni Fellow- 
ship in Architecture. This fellowship, of the value of 
one thousand dollars, was established in 1903 for annual 
award during a term of five years in recognition of the 




STABLE AT LEXINGTON, KY. 
Copeland & Dole, Architects. 
Roofed with American "S" Tile, Cincinnati Roofing Tile & Terra- 
Cotta Co., Makers. 

action of the General Architectural Alumni Society in 
securing by general subscription among its members, for 
the needs of the School of Architecture, a fund of five 
thousand dollars. 

All persons under thirty years of age who have taken 
at the University of Pennsylvania either the degree of 
B. S. or M. S. in architecture or the certificate of the two- 
year special course in architecture are eligible to the com- 
petition, save only such as may have already secured 
opportunities for foreign travel and study equivalent to 
those conferred by this fellowship. 

WANTED : By an institution engaged in numerous building 
operations, youngarchitect or architect's senior student and draughts- 
man ; one possessed of some practical knowledge and with an aptitude 
for detail. He will be required to scrutinize plans and specifi- 
cations furnished by architects ; keep in communication with the 
clerk of the different works ; see that detailed working drawings are 
promptly placed in the hands of the various contractors; and gener- 
ally to exercise a systematic supervision of the operations. Perma- 
nent position. The salary will be in keeping with the experience and 
capabilities of the appointee. Address Inspector, care The Brick- 
builder. 

DRAUGHTSMAN WANTED : Steady position offered if satis- 
factory. Apply Atlantic Terra-Cotta Co., Tottenville, Staten Island. 




Designs calling for a more expen- 



Competition for a Fireproof House 

Constructed of Terra=Cotta Hollow Tile "Blocks To cost $10,000 
First Prize, $500 Second Prize, $200 Third "Prize, $100 

PROGRAMME 

HE possibilities in the use of burnt clay in its various forms in our domestic architecture have only begun to be realized. 
That dwellings of moderate cost should be made fireproof is not only recognized as desirable, but practicable. 
The object of this competition is to call out designs for a house, the walls, floors and partitions of which are 
to be of terra-cotta hollow tile blocks. 

The cost of the house, exclusive of the land, is not to exceed $10,000. 
sive house will not be considered. 

A detailed statement of costs must accompany each design. This statement is to be typewritten on one side 
only of a sheet of paper measuring 11 inches x 8'_. inches. 

A further object of this competition is to encourage a study of the use of burnt clay products of the particular class men- 
tioned, in an artistic as well as practical manner, and to obtain designs which would be appropriate for such materials. 

In the selection of blocks for exterior walls, terra-cotta hollow tile fireproofing blocks must be employed, and not architec- 
tural terra-cotta blocks. 

REQUIREMENTS: The house is supposed to be built in the suburbs of a large city, upon a corner lot, with a frontage of 
100 feet towards the south and 150 feet on the side street towards the east. The grade is practically level throughout. The 
house is to be two stories high with an attic. This attic may be either in the pitch of the roof or a third story may be treated as 
an attic with a flat roof. On the tirst floor there is to be a reception room, a library, a dining-room, a kitchen and the ordinary 
allowance for pantries, coat rooms, stairways, etc. The front hall may be treated as desired. In the second story there are to be 
two bathrooms four chambers, a sewing room, a den, linen closet, etc. The third story should contain at least two servants' 
rooms, besides a storeroom. Fireplaces, bay windows, seats, etc , are at the option of the designer. 

The clear height is to be in tirst story 10 feet, second story 9 feet, third story optional with the designer. The cellar 
need not be specially planned, but will have a clear height of 8 feet. Arrangement of piazzas to be left with the designer. 

CONSTRUCTION : While the method of construction for walls, floors and partitions is to be determined by the designer, 
the following suggestions are offered as being practicable and admissible : 

First. Outside walls may be of hollow tile blocks 8 inches thick, lined on the interior with 4-inch furring tile, the treat- 
ment of the faces of the blocks to be appropriate for such materials. 

Second. Outside walls may be of hollow tile blocks 8 inches thick, lined on the interior with 4-inch furring tile, the face 
of the wall to be rough cast or plastered. 

Third. The outside walls may be faced with brick, with a backing of 8-inch hollow tile blocks. 

Fourth. The outside wall may be built with an outer and inner wall, with an air space of 4 inches between, using in each 
wall a 4-inch hollow tile. The treatment of the face of such a wall, and the manner of bonding the outer and inner walls, 
are left to the designer. The plaster finish may be applied direct to the interior surface of such a wall. 

If hollow tile blocks are used for facings, any special features in the finish or treatment of their exposed surfaces should be 
given in a footnote on sheet showing elevations. 

For the interior partitions terra-cotta blocks are to be used. 

For the floors one of the long span, terra-cotta hollow tile block systems now on the market, which are adapted up to 
spans of 20 feet without the use of steel beams, or a system which employs terra-cotta hollow tile blocks in connection with 
light steel construction. 

DRAWINGS REQUIRED : On one sheet the front and a side elevation, at a scale of four feet to the inch ; also plans of 
first and second floor, at a scale of eight feet to the inch, and on another sheet details showing clearly the scheme of construction 
for the exterior walls, the floors and the partitions, together with other details drawn at a scale sufficiently large to show them 
clearly. Graphic scales to be on all drawings. 

The size of each sheet is to be exactly 24 inches by 36 inches. The sheets are not to be mounted. 

All drawings are to be made in black line without wash or color. All sections shown are to be crosshatched in such manner 
as to clearly indicate the material, and the floor plans are to be blocked in solid. 

Each set of drawings is to be signed by a nom de plume or device, and accompanying same is to be a sealed envelope with 
the nom deplume on the exterior and containing the true name and address of the contestant. 

The drawings are to be delivered flat at the office of The Brickbuilder, 85 Water Street, Boston, Mass., on or before 
April 15, 1905. 

The designs will be judged by well-known members of the architectural profession. 

In making the award the jury will take into account, first, the fitness of the design in an artistic sense to the materials em- 
ployed ; second, the adaptability of the design as shown by details to the practical constructive requirements of burnt clay ; third, 
the relative excellence of the design. 

Carefully made estimates giving relative costs of fireproof and ordinary wood construction for houses built from the de- 
signs awarded the three cash prizes will be obtained by the publishers of The Brickbuilder, and given at the time the designs are 
published. 

The prize drawings are to become the property of The Brickbuilder, and the right is reserved to publish or exhibit any or 
all of the others. Those who wish their drawings returned, except the prize drawings, may have them by enclosing in the 
sealed envelopes containing their names ten cents in stamps. 

For the design placed first in this competition there will be given a prize of $500.00. 

For the design placed second a prize of $200.00. 

For the design placed third a prize of $100.00. 

In the study of this problem, competitors are invited to consult freely with the manufacturers of burnt clay fireproofing or 
their agents. This competition is open to every one. 





1 



i 
1 



THE BRICKBU ILDER. 

VOL. 14. NO. 1. PLATE 1. 



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HOUSE, 1509 WALNUT STREET, PHILADELPHIA, PA 
Newman & Harris, Architects. 



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THE BRICKBU ILDER. 

VOL. 14. NO. I. PLATE 5. 




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VOL. 14. NO. 1. PLATE 6. 




THE BRICKBU ILDER. 

VOL. 14. NO. 1. PLATE 4. 




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INTERIOR, ST. IGNATIUS EPISCOPAL CHURCH, WEST END AVENUE, NEW YORK CITY. 

Charles C. Haight Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

JANUARY, 

1905. 



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ADDITION TO THE HOTEL IMPERIAL, NEW YORK CITY. 

(tallest building of the block.) 

Warren & Wetmore, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDCR. 

JANUARY, 

1800. 




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THE BRICKBUILDER. 

Published monthly by ROGERS & MANSON, 85 Water Street, Boston, Massachusetts. 

Entered at the Boston, Mass., Post Office as Second Class Mail Matter, March 12 1S92. 
Copyright, 1893, by the Bkickhiiu.dbr Publishing Company. 



Subscription price, mailed flat to subscribers in the United States and Canada 
To Countries in the Postal Union 



$5.00 per year 

$6.00 per year 
For sale by all newsdealers in the United States and Canada. Trade supplied by the American News Company and its branches. 



Competition for a Village Church 

First Vrize, $500 Second Prize, $200 Third Vrize, $100 




PROGRAMME 

HE problem is an Episcopal Church in a large village. The location may be assumed in 
any portion of the United States. The lot is 80 feet wide on the west and 180 feet deep 
on the south. It is on a corner of two streets of equal importance. To the southwest a 
main avenue communicates with the principal square of the village, the grade of this 
street down to the square being 7 per cent. The lot itself is perfectly level and is in the 
residential portion of the village. The problem considers only a church with sacristies 
for clergy, choir and altar guild. At some future time the property immediately adjoining to 
the north is to be acquired, and on this property will be erected a parish house and rectory. 
The church will, therefore, be placed and designed with this future extension in view. 

The church is to seat five hundred, the choir thirty. A small side chapel is optional. 
The following points must be considered in the design : 

A. Frank and logical expression of the prescribed material. 

B. Historical and traditional associations of the institution for which the structure is provided. 

C. Historical and architectural antecedents, associations and surroundings of the assumed 
location. 

Drawings required : 

A plan at a scale of 16 feet to the inch, a front elevation and a side elevation at a scale of 8 feet 
to the inch, all on one sheet, and a sheet of details at a scale of one-half inch to the foot. The size 
of each sheet shall be exactly 24 inches by 32 inches. The sheets are not to be mounted. All draw- 
ings are to be in black ink, without wash or color, except that the walls on the plan are to be 
blacked in. 

The exterior of the building is to be designed entirely in terra-cotta, and the same material may 
be used at will in the interior. Colored terra-cotta, or faience, may be employed. 

It must be borne in mind that one of the chief objects of this competition is to encourage the 
study of the use of architectural terra-cotta. There is no limitation of cost, but the designs must 
be suitable for the location, for the character of the building, and for the material in which it is to 
be executed. The details should indicate in a general manner the jointing of the terra-cotta and the 
sizes of the blocks. 

In awarding the prizes, the intelligence shown in the constructive use of terra-cotta and the 
development or modification of style, by reason of the material, will be taken largely into consid- 
eration. 

Every set of drawings is to be signed by a nom de plume or device, and accompanying same is 
to be a sealed envelope with the nom de plume on the exterior and containing the true name and 
address of the contestant. 

The drawings are to be delivered flat at the office of THE BRICKBUILDER, 85 Water Street, 
Boston, Mass., charges prepaid, on or before December 15, 1904. 

The prize drawings are to become the property of THE BRICKBUILDER, and the right is 
reserved to publish or exhibit any or all of the others. Those who wish their drawings returned 
may have them by enclosing in the sealed envelopes containing their names, ten cents in stamps. 

The designs will be judged by three well-known members of the architectural profession. 

For the design placed first in this competition there will be given a prize of $500. 

For the design placed second a prize of #200. 

For the design placed third a prize of $100. 




15: 



-0 



REPORT 



OF THE 



JURY OF AWARD 



THE fury of Award wish to commend the 
competitors for an excellent series of de- 
signs submitted in competition, and espe- 
cially to commend the sheets of details, which in 
many eases were admirable in design and rendering. 

The following considerations influenced the de- 
cision, apart from general merit of plan and mass: 
First, manifest terra-cotta treatment of materials; 
second, expression of a village church rather than of 
a church for a large community. 

A very considerable number of the designs were 
essentially adapted to stone, and had been changed 
to terra-cotta in material only, not in specific treat- 
ment, and an equally considerable number were 
more allied in type to a church for a large com- 
munity rather than to a village church. Especially 
was this the case with the designs in which a Classic 
or Gregorian type of architecture was adopted. 

The plans were judged for their general more 
than for their specific merit; that is, failure to 
thoroughly comprehend details of ecclesiastical ser- 
vice was not deemed fatal if the plan was otherwise 
an able one. 

The diagonal approach and seven per cent grade 
were considered in relation to the position and effect 
of the masses of the body of the church and tower. 

First Prize ( pages 4 and 5 1. The design is one 
fora village church, unmistakably of terracotta, with 
excellent details. The plan is simple, well arranged, 
the proportions of exterior openings express changes 
in plan, the tower is well placed and proportioned to 
the mass of the church. The objection to the plan is 
the irregularity of the piers supporting the clerestory 
caused by the penetration of the tower into the aisle, 
which however could be readily adjusted. The but- 
tresses are well treated, and the fenestration is good 
and well contrasted with wall surfaces. 

The porch and window opposite the chancel are 
especially well designed, the arch treatment of this 
window being very effective. The variation of wall 
treatment by decorated headers is peculiarly sug- 
gestive of terra-cotta. 

The termination of the tower could be improved 
both in its silhouette and in the horizontal course, 
which seems heavy. 

Second Prize (pages 6 and 7). This design ex- 
pressed terra-cotta treatment better than any other 
in the series, and is manifestly a village church, but 
there are serious objections to its masses both in 
plan and ensemble. The tower is well placed, but 
is too low, the cubical mass of the aisle portion does 
not compare well with the mass of the church, and 



the plan is badly broken at the chancel end. It was 
the admirable detail sheet and the feeling of terra- 
cotta which placed this design high, despite a general 
heaviness of mass. 

Third Prize {pages 8 and 9). As farasplan, 
proportion and artistic quality are concerned, this is 
the best design presented, but it is hardly a village 
church. In all other respects this design is to be 
most highly commended, in plan, masses, position 
of tower, composition and details. It required a 
certain sense of justice to the other competitors on 
the part of the jury to place this design third, and 
the fact that it was premiated despite its size in- 
dicates its superiority to all others of its class. 

First Mention (pages 10 and 11). A well pro- 
portioned, well planned design, with good masses 
and tower well placed, details and fenestration ex- 
cellent. This design, in common with others, has a 
certain lack of termination in the tops of the towers 
and buttresses, and also lacks wall surface at the ends 
of the series of large nave windows. It would have 
made a marked improvement in the design if the 
windows nearest the ends of the church had been 
made smaller than the others. 

Second Mention (pages 12 and 13). With good 
scheme of plan, but eccentricities of minor parts 
which would compose badly in perspective. Strong 
accent of vertical motives and well placed and well 
handled detail. The fenestration is peculiarly in- 
genious. 

Third Mention (pages 14 and 15). A pronounced 
"Beaux Arts" design, with the virtues and faults 
of the type, but excellent of its kind. Admirable 
plan and proportions of nave wall and openings. 
Nave would seem very thin on end. Tower with 
interesting termination. Xo character whatever, 
traditional or otherwise, of a church in the design, 
but it would make a very handsomely proportioned 
facade for a civic hall. Detail sheet extremely well 
rendered. 

Mention (pages 16 and 17). Well planned, well 
massed church. Top of tower is especially well 
handled and effective. Detail sheet admirably 
drawn. 

Mention (pages [8 and 19). Well planned, well 
massed church, well detailed and fenestrated, but 
of not so great interest as others of its type. 

Mention (pages 20 and 21). Small cathedral, 
rather dry and uninteresting with harsh fenestration. 

Mention (pages 22 and 23). A peculiar adapta- 
tion of a transepted plan with piers and aisles 
omitted, extremely difficult to treat successfully 



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where tower penetrates mass. Tower seems too 
large for church. Otherwise excellent church, with 
admirable grouping of detail, of fenestration and 
parapet. 

Design (page 24). A most remarkably consistent 
apotheosis of parallel bands and rectangular masses. 
Embryonic architecture, very harmonious from the 
unanimity of its factors, and very childlike in its 
lack of development. Ingeniously worked out and 
well rendered. 

Design (page 25). Gregorian type, with conse- 
quent clumsy detail, plan not especially good. Poor 
transition between solids of tower. Bad relative 
proportion of transept and nave windows. Thin 
porch. 

Design (page 26). Gregorian, the best of the 
Gregorian designs, with very excellent side facade 
skillfully proportioned. Porch would seem light for 
the mass behind as plan indicates. Zones of tower 
not as well relatively proportioned as the remainder 
of building. 

Design (page 27). Gregorian, poor plan, unin- 
teresting side elevation. Detail of clock zone to 
tower seems heavy for modillioned cornice below. 

Design (page 28). Church of good proportions, 
of stone in character. The scheme of carrying the 
columns around the base of the tower as a peristyle 
seems unjustified by the plan. 

Design (page 29). A Spanish or Mexican type, 
best expressed with white plastered wall. Tower 
invades the church floor. Decoration around end 
window seems excessive. 

Design (page 30). Has interesting portions and 
details. The Giralda-like tower needs greater 
height, the belfries would seem thin on edge. The 
roof of the side porch would make an awkward 
termination for the colonnade, and the colonnade 
itself seems gratuitous. The entrance and gable 
motive could be made very effective. 

Design (page 31). Mission type, well propor- 
tioned and detailed. Dome relation to nave and 
transept difficult of treatment and not sufficiently 
explained on plan and elevation. 

Design (page 32). Uninteresting French Modern 
Romanesque, not well planned, with lantern too 
small for tower. 

Design (page ^t,). Over-rendered and over-de- 
tailed, chamfered tower coarse in scale. Masses of 
chapel group badly about the apse with its flying 
buttresses, which latter seem hardly justified by the 
weight they are called upon to carry. 

Design (page 34). Poor plan. Thin Roman- 
esque, with constructive solids poorly related to each 
other. Tower not well placed. 

Design (page 35). Consistent and interesting, 
essentially a village church in terra-cotta. Tower 
badly placed. Well rendered. 

Design (page 36). Romanesque. Gable and 
flanking towers not well related, windows in chancel 
end badly proportioned with wall masses. 

Design (page 37). Elaborate Italian Roman- 



esque. Tower poorly placed. Wall areas and open- 
ings not well proportioned. 

Design (page 38). Undoubtedly a village church, 
but with too many and various motives. 

Design (page 39). Plastic. Has much merit. 
The tower especially is very good. 

Design (page 40). Excellent front, well placed 
detail and good fenestration. 

Design (page 41). Good mass. Comparatively 
uninteresting design. 

Design (page 42). Exterior admirably expresses 
plan. Type is that of a stone church. 

Design (page 43). Masses on either side of tower 
not well balanced. Well rendered design, with wall 
surface somewhat too equally ornamented, producing 
lack of contrast. 

Design (page 44). A small cathedral with no 
plain surfaces, over-decorated. 

Design (page 45). Size of transept window too 
large for slight projection of transept and for other 
fenestrations. Over-decorated. 

Design (page 46). Exterior well expresses plan. 
Good tower. This design, with several others al- 
ready commended, has distinct merit but is not 
equal to others of its type. 

Design (page 47). Poor relative proportions of 
masses, especially in the scale of chancel to mass of 
church. Fenestration restless. 

Design (page 48). A village church, but with 
harsh and heavy detail. 

Design (page 49). Peculiar and not successful 
tower, seemingly without termination. Poorly pro- 
portioned window over entrance. 

Design (page 50). Planned and rendered with 
certain architectural knowledge, but bizarre in de- 
sign and exceedingly restless in sky line. 

Design (page 51). A reminiscence of Wrexham, 
with the faulty fenestration of the tower. 

It will be seen from the criticisms, which are in- 
tended merely to suggest possible improvements in 
the designs, that there were many designs of nearly 
equal merit and that very slight differences caused 
some to be placed ahead of others. These differ- 
ences were found in thegeneral proportions of masses 
and of windows to walls and to each othcr,in contrasts 
of details with surfaces and in skill in the detail 
sheets. It will also be noticed that the majority of 
the presented designs are Gothic in type, which is to 
be expected from tradition and from the natural 
picturesqueness suggested by a hilly village site; 
but on the other hand there were no so-called Colo- 
nial types of design presented, and no very excellent 
ones of the types suggested by the brick and terra- 
cotta of Northern Italy. The Gothic types were the 
best presented. In this competition, as in many 
another, architectural precedent has influenced the 
designers more than it need to do, and it is still pos- 
sible to imagine work less bound by precedent 
which would be premium compelling. The one ex- 
ample (Design, page 24 ) which approached the prob- 
lem from this point of view was merely embryonic. 



(The arrangement of plates following " Mentions" is not intended to indicate the order ot merit of the designs.) 



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THE BRICKBUILDER. 



Vol. 14 



FEBRUARY 1905 



No. 



CONTENTS — PLATES 

From Work of CRAM, GOODHUE & FERGUSON AND GEORGE S. MILLS, 
McKIM, MEAD & WHITE, MORGAN, HOWARD & WAID, 
ROBERT C. SPENCER, Jr. 

CONTENTS — LETTER PRESS 

CHURCH OF NUESTRA SENHORA DA VITTORIA BATALHA, PORTUGAL Frontispiece 

EDITORIALS 23 

ECCLESIASTICAL ARCHITECTURE: 

SOME NEEDED AMENDMENTS Rt. Rev. C. K. Nelson 24 

NOTES ON ECCLESIASTICAL ARCHITECTURE Rev. Daniel D. Addison, D. D. 24 

THE TEST OF CHURCH ARCHITECTURE Rev. Herman Pane 25 

BUILDING A CHURCH Rev. John IV. Sitter 26 

BOSTON BRICKWORK. I 27 

AN IMPORTANT TEST OF FIREPROOF CONSTRUCTION 33 

TWO INTERESTING EXAMPLES OF FIREPROOF CONSTRUCTION 36 

EDITORIAL COMMENT AND SELECTED MISCELLANY 38 




THE BRICKBVILDER 



DEVOTED -TO -THE • INTERESTS 
ARCHITECTVRE- IN • MATERIALS • OF CLAY 



FEBRUARY 1905 *■« 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY 

ROGERS & MANSON, 
85 Water Street, Boston, Mass. . . P. O. Box 3282. 

Entered at the Boston, Mass., Post Office as Second Class Mail Matter, March 12, 1892. 
COPYRIGHT, 1893, BY THE BRICKBUILDER PUBLISHING COMPANY. 

Subscription price, mailed flat to subscribers in the United States and 

Canada ......... $5.00 per year 

Single numbers ......... 50 cents 

To countries in the Postal Union ...... $6.00 per year 

SUBSCRIPTIONS PAYABLE IN ADVANCE. 

For sale by all newsdealers in the United States and Canada. Trade supplied by 
fhe American News Company and its branches. 

ADVERTISING. 

Advertisers are classified and arranged in the following order: — 

PAGE 

Agencies. — Clay Products ... II 

Architectural Faience II 

" Terra-Cotta . II and III 

Brick Ill 

" Enameled ... Ill and IV 



PAGE 

Cements IV 

Clay Chemicals IV 

Fire-proofing IV 

Machinery IV 

Roofing Tile IV 



Advertisements will be printed on cover pages only. 



TIME IN FIREPROOF HOUSE COMPETITION 
EXTENDED TO MAY 15. 

IN deference to the expressed wishes of many who in- 
tend entering the Competition for a Fireproof House 
(see programme on page 44), but who need more time for 
a proper study of the problem, the time limit set for 
drawings to be sent in is extended from April 15 to 
May 15. 

THE PITTSBURG COURTHOUSE. 

THE late H. H. Richardson was one of the very few 
really great architects this country has ever pro- 
duced. It is therefore of the utmost importance that 
anything which is done in connection with the Pittsburg 
Courthouse, his latest and in some respects his most suc- 
cessful piece of work, shall be undertaken only after the 
most mature deliberation and after consultation with the 
very best talent the country affords. We cannot see any 
real necessity for disturbing the building at all. On three 
sides the courthouse is surrounded by a district which is 
not covered by expensive or well-built structures, and 
though the effect of the tower is greatly marred by the 
proximity of tall office buildings which completely over- 
shadow it from one direction, that is the fault of the office 
buildings and not of the tower, and the remedy surely is 
not to destroy the courthouse because its neighbors are 



unsatisfactory. The Allegheny County Bar Association 
has taken tne initiative in a very commendable way. It 
has quoted the opinion of experts to show that any of the 
proposed changes would not accomplish the results had 
in view, namely, greater privacy of the courts and increased 
capacity, while any attempt to alter the building would 
hamper the work of the courts for at least three years and 
cost out of all reason. They show in conclusion : 

™( 1 ) That the proposed alterations of the courthouse 
would amount to the destruction of the architectural 
beauty of the present building. 

(2) That the cost of procuring the additional room in 
the method prescribed would be excessive and uneconom- 
ical. 

(3) That the public convenience would be better sub- 
served by building a separate building or buildings to 
take care of the offices which are not essential to the 
transaction of the business of the courts. 



THE National Sculpture Society of New York has 
sent out a brochure on the subject of "Art as an 
Educational Force and a Source of Wealth." It is very 
fully illustrated with views of the most notable of the 
municipal art work abroad and forms an excellent adjunct 
to the agitation which is now being so pronounced in most 
of our cities towards the improvement of municipal art 
conditions. The art in the Congressional Library at 
Washington was only seven per cent of the total cost of 
the building. The art of the Hotel de Ville at Paris cost 
twelve and one-half per cent of the total cost, and the 
Sculpture Society makes a good recommendation that by 
proper enactments ten per cent of the total cost of every 
public building should be expended in historic art, sculp- 
ture and painting, and that of the total cost of municipal 
government a definite, even though small (say one-half 
to one per cent), appropriation be devoted to beautifying 
the city by suitable landscape and monumental treatment 
of its parks and streets. 



WE have received the Year Book of the Columbia 
University Architectural Society, which presents 
in excellent form examples of the work of the architec- 
tural students in the various years. Such publications 
are thoroughly to be commended. A certain amount of 
judicious publicity is a distinct encouragement to the 
students and serves as a valuable record from year to 
year of the progress of the university. In this case 
Columbia certainly has cause for nothing but approval of 
the work of its students. 



24 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



Ecclesiastical Architecture. 

SOME NEEDED AMENDMENTS. 

BY RIGHT REV. C. K. NELSON, BISHOP OF GEORGIA. 

THERE are problems upon which the profession does 
not appear to have reached an agreement. First, the 
well-known chancel arch, revered by many because it 
seems to introduce properly a choir reduced from the 
nave. Ecclesiology suggests this reduction on the ground 
that they who enter here are a chosen few, the kleroi 
(clergy) and the communicants. We make the issue that 
this is a blunder except where there is a structural rood 
screen of great solidity. The acoustics, the value of the 
singers' dignity, the grandeur of the high altar and its 
surroundings are best subserved by carrying nave walls 
at practically the same width and the nave roof at the 
same height to the extreme east end of the building. The 
trial once fairly made will debar any future experiments, 
except in small buildings. 

Second, the east window. Many will be found to 
inveigh against the innovation of omitting this legend- 
ary feature of Anglican churches. Let me ask them 
to think that three lancets of very dull glass in an Eng- 
lish atmosphere, screened on the outside by climbing 
ivy, is a totally different thing from the American 
copy, large glaring windows backed by a strong eastern 
sun, painful to the eyes of the congregation, and utterly 
ruinous to the artistic effect of the sanctuary, worse in 
its way than a great plate-glass mirror over a fireplace, — 
one of the most inartistic productions that has ever been 
invented. We plead for the abandonment of the great 
east window, or at the least for a modification which 
places the openings as far as possible above the floor. 
The erection of a chapel across the east end of the 
building has this in its favor, that it usually destroys 
the possibility of one of these distracting features of 
American churches. 

Third, the organ. Take us back to the choir in the 
west gallery,* set your instrument anywhere you can 
find place, but do not bring it under the arches of a choir 
aisle, the space usually left by narrowing the chancel, 
opposite which, for a very apposite purpose, is the vestry. 
Fifty per cent of the value of the organ is lost and 
fifty per cent of extra cost added by the common arrange- 
ment. The contest over this question has begun in 
England; we hope it will appear in America. Let us 
give the organ a mouth out of which to speak. Let the 
loft be above in a transept, range the pipes on either side 
of the choir (overhead), but in no case shut up the instru- 
ment behind piers and arches. It will not be found im- 
practicable to place the organ in a gallery on pillars, over 
the west door (not in the narthex), for the effect there will 
be to drive the congregation in the same direction that the 
choir leads (thus solving to a great extent the complaint 
that congregations nowadays will not sing), and a trial 
will show that an organ thus set is by no means away from 
the choir in the ordinary American parish church. 



* There are worse things in church arrangement than a choir gal- 
lery and organ at the west end, against which the witticism of I 
Wilmer of Alabama was directed. As he looked up to the supporting 
arch of this part of the church, SO I Iced him what he was think- 

ing- He replied, "An inscription for that arch." "What should it 
be? " asked his friend The Bishop replied with characteristic solem- 
nity, " To the glory of the choir and in memory of God." 



NOTES ON ECCLESIASTICAL ARCHITECTURE. 

BY REV. DANIEL DULANY ADDISON, I). D. 

THE adaptation of ecclesiastical architecture to the 
spirit of the time is dangerous business, because 
the spirit of the time is so illusive, often like the fashion 
of a day; and there is a past and future to be taken into 
account. The spirit of a generation, even if we think we 
have found it, may be the last thing to be considered be- 
cause of its transitory character. The spirit of the cen- 
turies, the trend of the universal religious soul, is of 
more account. There are certain principles of reverence 
and aspiration which have expressed themselves among 
Anglo-Saxons that are safer guides than the commerical 
ideals of a limited epoch. If one ignores the past and 
makes concessions, a modified and restrained vaudeville 
theater, with gilt and realistic frescoes, might be the model 
of the modern church, or a well arranged lecture hall, or 
an elongated room, so that everybody may crane the 
neck of curiosity. Hut a church, the shrine of worship 
and inspiration, connotes to Anglo-Saxon ideas relating 
to humanity as a whole, and ideas of God. 

As to style, therefore, that which has appealed with 
unfailing persistence to the Anglo-Saxon religious spirit 
seems the best adapted. We are governed by English 
ideals, in literature, government and ethics, and prob- 
ably we will be so governed. Let us therefore seek the 
best in England for our inspiration, rather than tamper 
with the Classic lines of Greece or the domes of Moham- 
medan mosques. 

The term " Gothic " is vague, but it suggests that Eng- 
lish architecture which is congenial to the Anglo-Saxon 
religious spirit. A church should be lofty in the interior, 
giving a sense of spaciousness, mystery and uplift. It 
should have length, giving perspective and a feeling for 
distance. Pillars and columns should never be sacrificed 
to any idea of utility and the better view, for with the 
arches in stately succession they suggest the orderliness 
and simplicity of religious truth. 

The chancel with sanctuary and altar should never be 
shallow and stunted in appearance. The chancel arch 
has been a most unfortunate tradition. This hiding in a 
cavelike orifice, with low roof line and contracted walls, 
the essential glory of the church, its choir and altar, is a 
strange perversion of the instinct of worship. At the 
very point and climax of the building there should be a 
widening, an elevation and deepening. So often there is 
a contraction and compression of this feature, into a 
decorated hole in the wall. Let the chancel be the height 
of the church, and let the width of the transept be con- 
tinued up to the sanctuary, so that there may be vistas 
and spaces, thus giving the expansion and size necessary 
to a genuine idea of the ultimate use of the church; a 
building arranged in stages of religious progress, up the 
nave to the widening transept, and the chancel, deep and 
lofty, helpful to the soul in seeking the Eternal. 

A church should never be an academic copy of any- 
thing. It must be true to the spirit of worship, not to 
the letter. Take some theme as a starting point, and let 
it grow in beauty and truth as the genius of the reverent 
architect indicates and as the need of the special parish 
church requires. Freedom of growth and of adaptation 
to the past and future, as well as the present needs of the 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



25 



particular branch of humanity for which it is built, must 
be encouraged. The church should be individual, having 
its own marks and messages, remembering what men 
have done before. Let no architect think that he has 
done a good piece of work if he has copied an Oxford 
tower or worked in a bit of Canterbury. He must not 
make a patchwork, but a harmonious whole infused with 
his own and the people's reverence. 

A church is not built solely for the preacher's dis- 
course. If any preference is to be given, it should be to 
the total effect, on the emotional, aesthetic, historic and 
worshiping consciousness of the people. Instruction 
can never take the place of adoration and the eager pre- 
senting of one's life as a living sacrifice in the house of 
God. A church is not the house of man, adapted to his 
eccentricities and built to suit his ideas of coziness, soci- 
ability and education, but it is the house of God, built 
to give our best to the Creator, — an expression of 
Eternal elements within us. 

The educated and understanding architect should 
never give way before the amateur clergyman or the 
ignorant layman. To save the city from monstrosities, 
the architect should firmly hold to the best traditions of 
his art; courageous authority is a strong antidote to 
ignorant caprice. 

The day of great churches in America has yet to come; 
but it will come. The spirit which builds the magnifi- 
cent buildings of commerce and finance must soon find 
expression for its deeper instincts in structures to the 
glory of God. There will be the chance to build for the 
fundamental and vital forces resident in humanity struc- 
tures which will appeal to the modern spirit and be in 
consonance with the best religious impulse of the race. 
Whether it be the village church or the cathedral, the 
thought must not be that you are building for the utility 
and pleasure of men, but for the glory of historic Chris- 
tianity and the Eternal Father revealed through Christ. 



THE TEST OF CHURCH ARCHITECTURE. 

BY REV. HERMAN PAGE. 

THE first essential to any true understanding of 
chuixh architecture is that there shall be a clear 
comprehension as to the true purpose of a church build- 
ing. Everything depends on this. Practically there is 
great confusion of mind among clergy, laity and archi- 
tects as to the idea which a church should express. With 
the happily growing belief that religion must touch life 
in all of its phases there seems to be much doubt in the 
minds of many people as to the difference between a 
church and a concert hall, a Young Men's Christian Asso- 
ciation building or a clubhouse. 

In an earlier article Bishop Potter has pointed out 
with much force the fact that the true church is a build- 
ing that stands clearly for God's presence in the world. 
It must be a building which instantly makes one think of 
God when he passes it. Supremely must it be a building 
which makes him feel God's presence when he enters it. 
This is the first and last test of a good church building. 
True indeed it is that the amusement park belongs to God 
as certainly as the cemetery. Yet we do not care to have it 



laid out in the same fashion. We do not expect a railroad 
station to look like a theater, though both buildings are 
desirable. We expect a hotel to differ from a private 
house, though both buildings are the homes of men. So 
the church must have its own distinctive architecture, by 
which it shall unmistakably declare God's presence in his 
world. 

The true church building, then, must have a monu- 
mental character. All its lines and all its arrangements 
must conduce to one end, — the symbolizing of God's pres- 
ence. The church, be it large or small, that fails in this 
respect fails entirely. It means everything to realize 
this truth. When this is clear, other difficulties resolve 
themselves, as will be apparent. 

First let us notice the much discussed questions as to 
columns, slanting floors and a circular arrangement of 
seats. Why is there such discussion ? Simply because 
men are not clear as to the purpose of a church. Many 
think of it primarily as a meeting place or an auditorium, 
the first requisite being that they shall see and hear the 
minister and the musicians easily. Consequently the 
test of every nook and corner of the building is whether 
one can see and hear well from it. Of course columns 
are an obstruction ; and slanting floors and a circular 
arrangement of seats are a great advantage. Now it is 
desirable — exceedingly desirable — that in a church as 
many people as possible shall see and hear the minister 
and singers well ; but there is a far more important ques- 
tion than this. It is, do the columns and slanting floors 
and circular theatrical seats help or hinder those present 
in realizing the presence of God? There can hardly be 
but one answer. Such floors and seats at once suggest 
the theater and the concert — not God's presence. The 
huge auditorium without columns and arches — with 
every corner visible from every seat — is entirely devoid 
of the variety, the light and shade, the glory and the 
mystery that characterize the relations of God with his 
children. No American who has worshiped in a church 
of the auditorium type fails to be impressed and uplifted 
by the variety and mystery of the great European 
churches, with their many columns and aisles, their 
transepts and their chapels. The sense of the unseen 
which is behind the columns, so mysterious yet so near, 
makes us realize as nothing else can the presence of the 
great Unseen One who is the source of all life and hope. 
A large church without columns is usually a dull and 
uninspiring place. On the other hand, the presence of 
such columns, while they may spoil a few seats for see- 
ing and hearing, gives a variety which is indescribably 
valuable in a church. 

Church committees recognize the value of lofty walls, 
towers and fine windows. It is to be hoped that they 
will soon recognize the far greater value of columns, so 
that they will be willing to spend money on enough extra 
floor space so that they can have columns and also have 
as many good sittings as they need. 

The problem is the same when we turn to the ques- 
tion of the chancel. Is the building to stand for God or 
simply for seeing and hearing? If it is to stand for God 
it is essential that the chancel be large and glorious. It 
should be the center of all eyes and thoughts, and the 
altar should be its focal point. This is no mere question 
of ecclesiastical doctrines. It is a simple matter of archi- 



26 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



tecture. Shall the central idea of a church building 
inhere in the minister placed on high before the congre- 
gation, or shall it inhere in the structure of the building 
itself, to symbolize the fact that there is One present 
before whom minister and people shall humble themselves 
and whose service is for minister and people alike? If the 
church is to stand for the presence of God it must empha- 
size to the eyes of all something stronger and holier and 
more glorious than any man. Hence the need of an 
impressive chancel and a splendid altar. 

A few words may be added as to the best style for 
church architecture in this country. We may assume 
that any style which uses columns and emphasizes the 
chancel is good. There is room for the Roman and 
Byzantine forms, for a restrained Renaissance and for all 
the varieties of Gothic in a country like ours which has 
a climate as varied as Europe and people almost as diver- 
gent. St. Augustine and Pasadena hardly call for the 
same type of architecture as Chicago and Portland. 

Conditions of climate, people, building lots and envi- 
ronments must all be considered in the planning of the 
right church building. When all this has been said, 
however, it must be admitted that our typical civilization 
is busy, aspiring and ambitious. It is full of lights and 
shadows and is infinitely varied. The bulk of our people, 
moreover, live in the region of smoke and snow. There 
is surely no architecture which so completely expresses 
all these facts as does the Gothic. It is strong and aspir- 
ing. Its variety is endless. Light and shadow are of its 
very nature. The snow slips off its steep roofs. The 
smoke and grime of the great city simply enhance its 
ruggedness; and it seems almost like a growth of the soil 
in our country landscape. 

When we consider also that Gothic is essentially the 
architecture of our Anglo-Saxon forefathers, and that the 
genius of our American civilization is essentially Anglo- 
Saxon, there are surely the strongest reasons for feeling 
that the true architectural style for our churches — as a 
matter of heritage and as a matter of true expression — 
is pre-eminently the Gothic architecture. 



BUILDING A CHURCH. 



BY KEY. JOHN W. SUTER. 



THE earliest name for a Christian was disciple, and 
the earliest name, perhaps, for Christ was Teacher. 
The Church which perpetuates His life and endeavors to 
make it real to humanity is likewise the teacher. The 
term Ecclcsia Docens is more than merely an indication of 
part of the Church's activity. It is, rightly understood, 
an expression indicative of the Church's essential charac- 
ter and vital function. 

It is possible to carry over this thought into the hous- 
ing of the Church. Every church building should be an 
Ecclcsia Doc ens. In developing this idea the following 
elements are especially to be emphasized: 

First. The church building should teach reverence. 
It must be a building which in itself, as one enters its 
door, invites to worship. It is not merely that one is to 
be struck by the beauty of his surroundings, or to be im- 
pressed with the aesthetic value of any detail ; it is the 



total impression which must work its effect. It make s 
it instinctive for the man who enters a true church's 
door to uncover, and then to hush his voice, and finally 
to kneel. Moreover the people of America are coming 
to require this thing of the church building more and 
more. They are desirous of the privilege and education 
of going to a church that compels them to feelings of 
reverence and to acts of worship. The demand for a 
teaching church in this sense is one that cannot be es- 
caped ; the people who build churches will have to reckon 
with it. In a recent article in the (hit look the Rev. 
Gerald Stanley Lee puts this thing in his inimitable way. 
"A man," he says, "cannot feel himself moved to rev- 
erence when he is asked to drop into a back parlor, 
called a church, and to look at a painted picture of the 
Holy Ghost as a dove over the preacher's head. He 
does not seem to be in the presence of an infinite and 
masterful God. The church of the future should be one 
that suggests nations and empires, centuries of love and 
sacrifice and patience, and it shall gather the great cities 
like children about its feet." 

Second. The church building that is true to its func- 
tion must provide the proper framework for the speaking 
voice of the preacher. It is true that the age is feeling 
after a deeper feeling of reverence and expects its church 
building to teach it that, but it is equally true that the 
age is waiting for the voice of the prophet, and expects 
its church building to be a place where that voice can be 
heard. So far from its being true that preaching has 
had its day, it has not yet begun to realize its possibilities. 
For a building which presents the aspect, as one enters 
its door, of a theater or lecture hall, to call itself a 
church is monstrous. The stage and the sloping floor 
and the amphitheater of seats have their uses and advan- 
tages, but it is not possible to combine them in any way 
and to find the result a church. But it is not to be for- 
gotten that it is equally monstrous for a building, how- 
ever lofty and impressive and ecclesiastical in appearance, 
to call itself a church if it has no pulpit, that is, place 
where a man can stand and speak the message so 
that every listener in the church can hear it. The 
teaching church must surely be the place where the 
truth is taught; and while truth may be taught in 
many ways, the central and controlling method must 
forever be the method of human speech. It is not 
necessary to argue this point. The chief problem of 
the architect is undoubtedly this: he is to make a 
house which shall serve as the dwelling place of the 
teaching church, a place where the Christian, who is 
always the disciple, the learner, may find himself at 
home, and where he will meet the Christ, who is forever 
the Teacher and Master. And if the building is truly 
to symbolize the Church which is to worship beneath its 
roof, it must somehow combine in its construction these 
two essential teaching elements. It must by its very 
being teach men to worship, and just as truly by its 
very being invite men to listen to the spoken word of 
God. 

Neither the " back parlor" nor the lecture hall can 
be a church and bring a man to his knees, but no more 
can a stately pile of aisles and arches that can house only 
a spectacle and never an " audible," and where the word 
from the lips of a man becomes a jumble of echoing inco- 






THE BRICKBUILDER. 



27 



herence. " In the church," said St. Paul, " I had rather 
speak five words with my understanding than ten thou- 
sand words in a tongue." 

It is quite possible to speak of either of these elements 
in a way to belittle them or to brand them as selfish ends. 
The sense of worship may be faulted as an emotional sen- 
timent, and the desire to hear a sermon may be called 
merely a thirst for information or for a sensation. Either 
one may be debased, either one may be conceivably the 
expression of a selfish wish for a pleasurable experience; 
but we know that at heart these things are essentially 
great, and that they are equally the demands of a human 
soul for the best, not merely for itself, but that a man 
may turn that best to the service of his fellow man and to 
the glory of his God. 

TJiird. While the successful combination of the two 
elements spoken of above constitutes the chief problem of 
the architect, there is another possibility, far from unim- 
portant, which the idea of the teaching church suggests. 
This possibility is the element of distinctiveness in any 
given church building, that is to say, the branch of the 
Church to which the parish belongs, the locality in which 
it is placed, the development of its own special history 
and all the elements of circumstance surrounding the 
given problem, ought to give the church building an indi- 
vidual expression which is the outcome of its own unique 
personality. The Christians of America have been, as a 
rule, totally indifferent to adequate architectural expres- 
sion or to aesthetic or symbolic considerations. There 
have been bodies of Christians who have taken delight in 
exalting the significance of the Bible and its central place 
in the life of the Church, but as a rule they have never 
had any distinctive place for the book in their church 
buildings, at any rate no impressive symbolic emphasis 
upon its importance. There is a great body of Christians 
that believes in immersion as the true method of baptism, 
but in spite of this splendid opportunity for baptistries, 
these are practically non-existent in their churches, and 
Christians of this type are quite content with tanks con- 
cealed under platforms. Illustrations of this sort might 
be multiplied, but the same neglect of the teaching oppor- 
tunity is shown when one considers local history and char- 
acteristics. History is short in America, but not so short 
as to deserve neglect. Speaking generally, it would seem 
fair to assert that an architect called upon to build a 
church should first of all devote considerable time to a 
study of the situation, meaning by situation not merely 
the shape and size of the lot, the possibility of local mate- 
rial, the requirements of the given congregation and the 
type of architecture which the parish claimed as its 
choice, but something more than that. He should famil- 
iarize himself with the history of that branch of the Church 
of which the given congregation is a member, with that 
special parish's own local history and with the general 
topography and history and community character of the 
place in which the church is to stand. He should also 
consider the possible symbolism which the church's name 
may suggest or the special sides of work or teaching 
with which it has been occupied. By remembrance of 
this sort of teaching possibility a church building may 
stand, not only as an example of a certain type of archi- 
tecture, but may attain to distinction as the speaker in its 
own place of a special message. 



Boston Brickwork. I. 

COLONIAL ERA. 

THE expression " Boston brickwork " is nearly a rep- 
etition ; if the phrase "red brickwork" were used 
the tautology would be complete. New York implies 
brown stone ; Chicago, light stone ; and San Francisco, 
wood ; but the red brick of our forefathers is as popular 
to-day in the Puritan capital as it was two centuries ago. 
The Bostonian reputation for reserve and caution is evi- 
denced nowhere more than in the thousands of modest 
facades which line the most important as well as the 
minor streets. Indeed it is not an exaggeration to aver 
that, as a general rule, streets on which are built the 
homes of the wealthy and solid citizens are of a practi- 
cally unbroken red, while the use of light-colored brick- 
work is left much to the architectural " half world " of 
Roxbury and South Boston. Like all rules, this has its 
meritorious exceptions, but we fancy it is a correct state- 
ment of the situation; and the characteristic thing about 
this situation is that the rougher and poorer the quality 
of the bricks the greater is their popularity. While sand- 
stone and marble are hardly good enough for the New 
Yorker of even comparatively moderate means, the Bos- 
ton millionaire insists on the usual selected red eastern 
water-struck brick for the facade of his mansion, some- 
times, as a concession to the frivolous architect, laid 
" Flemish bond with black headers." Our principal 
avenues thus have a distinctly provincial aspect entirely 
unworthy of the city's importance, and this aspect is 
enhanced by the narrow frontages of the buildings. As 
some compensation for this self-consciousness in architec- 
tural expression it must in justice be said that speaking in 
a general way Boston architecture is characterized by a 
dignity, a self-control and freedom from mere flippancy 
which almost always impress the stranger most favor- 
ably. Moreover, the commercial structures, as investment 
buildings, are conceived in a somewhat more liberal 
spirit, in order to attract a prospective tenancy, so that 
the business part of the city has, aside from its narrow 
and winding streets, a fairly good appearance, although, 
owing to the height limit of one hundred and twenty-five 
i'eet, the majestic sky-scrapers of other American cities 
are wholly lacking. 

Fifty or sixty years ago the city of Boston must have 
presented a much more uniform and organic appearance 
than at present. In 1840 to 1850 the population was 
something over eighty thousand. Seen from any direc- 
tion the tide of houses flowed gently up the slopes of the 
three hills culminating in the Bulfinch dome, "resting 
like a mural crown upon a kingly city." The buildings 
were closely built, rarely over three or four stories in 
height, with pitched roofs, and the public buildings — city 
hall, market house, hospitals and churches — -were planned 
in scholarly fashion and rose above the ordinary roofs in 
their proper proportions. 

While Boston has no " sky-scrapers " within the com- 
monly accepted meaning of the term, the domes and 
spires, which once gave the city a distinctive profile, are 
now dwarfed and obscured by commercial structures of 
considerable height ; and instead of setting an example of 
purity and elegance in design, the municipal and other 



28 



THE BRICKBUI LDER 




I. HOUSES WITH RIDGE POLES PARALLEL TO THE STREET. 2. MOUNT VERNON STREET, THE GRECIAN PORCH. 





3. A TYPICAL OLD BOSTON DOORWAY. 



4. BEACON STREET, THE INCHES HOUSE. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



29 




DOORWAY OF THE INCHES HOUSE. 



6. HOUSE WITH PORCHES OF SLENDER COLUMNS. 




7. NEW HOUSE ON COMMONWEALTH AVENUE. 



8. BEACON STREET, THE AUSTIN HOUSE. 



3° 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



1 








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9. PORCH OF THE AUSTIN BOUSE. 



IO. BEACON STREET AND HANCOCK AY EM 1. 




II. OLD HOUSES OPPOSITE THE COMMON. 



1:. HOUSES ON BEACON STREET. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



3i 




13. BAY STATE ROAD. 
Reappearance of Balcony Type. 



public buildings are 
generally content to 
follow in the wake of 
private architecture. 

As a result the pres- 
ent aspect of Boston is 
that of a rather ill- 
arranged and congested 
mass of buildings in 
which the most impor- 
tant buildings are gen- 
erally found fronting 
on the narrowest 
streets. This mass is 
totally devoid of vista 
or symmetry, and 
would be devoid of any 
relief whatever were it 
not for the noble ex- 
panse of the Common 
and Public Garden in 
its very heart, which, 
though badly laid out, 
gives rise to several in- 
teresting situations 
along the bordering 
streets. Such are the 
stretch of Beacon Street 
from Charles Street to 
the State House which so much resembles famous Pic- 
cadilly, or Tremont Street from Winter to Boylston which 
recalls Princes Street in Edinburgh, or the Parisian per-, 
spective of Arlington Street. These and a few other 
prospects, however, fail to redeem the hopeless confusion 
of the city in general, and owing to the injudicious en- 
actment of restrictive ordinances which prevent proper 
development of some of the best sites there appears to 
be little prospect of improvement in this direction. 

The characteristic Boston house of early days stood 
with ridge pole parallel to the street. A balcony of cast 
iron in Grecian pattern ran along the block at the level 
of the second-story window sills, and was the only 
attempt at ornament. In a few cases there was a Grecian 
porch with fluted columns of brown sandstone or white 
marble, but usually the door was recessed in a simple 
semicircular arch or plain linteled opening. On account 
of the stone being set " on end " most of these columns, 
which still remain, are in a much deteriorated condition. 
These houses have now mostly disappeared from what 
has become the business section, but hundreds of them 
remain on Beacon Hill and in unfrequented streets of 
the North and West ends. Well-preserved relics of colo- 
nial dwellings which possess any striking individuality 
are rather scarce at the present day, although a large 
number of houses from eighty to one hundred years old 
are still standing. The long slope of Beacon Street 
opposite the Common and the still steeper streets in the 
rear contain a number of good colonial doorways with 
side lights and occasionally an interesting facade. The 
Inches house, some time remodeled and with a story 
added in perfect taste by Hartwell & Richardson, is prob- 
ably the best and still retains its walled garden, sheds 
and stabling in the rear. Lower down on Beacon Street 



is a house with a porch of slender columns, a reminis- 
cence of which has lately appeared on outer Common- 
wealth Avenue. 

Probably of all the houses on the Beacon Street slope 
the old Austin house excites the greatest admiration. 
Its ample and dignified facade of age-mellowed brick, with 
its delicate and refined detail, is heavily overgrown with 
wisteria, whose blossoms cluster around ancient window 
panes, almost matching the tints of the old magnesium 
glass which the sun's rays, through the summers of a 
century, have turned to a rich purple. 

If space would permit it would be interesting to pre- 
sent photographs of every house along the slope from 
Park to Charles streets. A few will suffice to illustrate 
the various types. The house corner of Beacon Street 
and Hancock Avenue is a stately mansion of the old 
school, say about 1840, with a graceful balcony. No. 11 
shows the iron balcony reproduced on a still older house, 
and No. 13 is introduced to show the outcropping of the 
same motif, half a century later, on a new house on Bay 
State Road. No. 14 is from Mount Vernon Street near 
by, and again illustrates the familiar type. 




14. 



MOUNT VERNON STREET. 



Before passing to buildings of modern design a few 
views of old Boston meeting-houses are introduced. A 
dozen or more of these interesting structures remain and 
yield nothing in dignity to the ecclesiastical architecture 
of our own day. The motif is practically alike in all, — 
an auditorium consisting of a large hall with pitched 
roof, at the front of which is placed centrally a tower or 
belfry, which may or may not terminate in a spire. These 
buildings were usually inspired by the London work of 
Wren and Gibbs, and above the roof of the main church 
were commonly executed in wood. 

The lower portions were built of the small rough brick 
of that period and, owing to the disproportionate expense 
of masons' and stonecutters' labor, were but little orna- 
mented. Practically all of these churches were painted 
outside, excepting the old West Church, now standing and 
used as a branch of the Public Library, whose brick walls 
have aged to a charming tone. These remaining spires, 



3* 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




'*U - r 



Li if I i 1 1 




SlBT 



¥ 




I ^. OLD SOUTH MEETING-HOUSE. 



[0. PARK STREET MEETIXC-HOL'SE. 






17. HANOVER STREET MEETING-HOUSE. 



10. OLD NORTH CHURCH. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 14. NO. 2. PLATE 13. 





PFCOND FLOOR PLAN. 



■4^J-» 



PORTE COCHERE 




FIRST FLOOR PLAN. 

PLANS, HOUSE AT CANTON, ILL. 
Robert C. Spencer, Jr., Architect. 



=LATES 15 and 16. 





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THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 14. NO. 2. p LATE 14 . 



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THE BRICKBUILDER 



33 



especially those of the Old South, Old North and Park 
Street churches, are of much sentimental as well as archi- 
tectural importance. The historic Old South spire, 
though low and simple, has a graceful loggia, which gives 
a pleasing play of light and shade. That at Park Street 
is much more elaborate and is an extremely attractive 
piece of work. 

In few cases can it be said that the tower is well joined 
to the church proper, the study of the architect having 
been mainly expended on the detail and profile of the 
spire itself. In the case of the Park Street spire much 
care in design is evidenced, not only by the rather elab- 
orate scheme, but by such refinements as inclining the 
axes of the columns toward the center and by the careful 
detailing of the pediments and balustrades. 

The meeting-house in Hanover Street has a front in 
two stories which, in its high-shouldered fashion, seems 
to recall some of the Jesuit work of Rome. 




STATE HOUSE. 



In this connection it is proper to mention the State 
House with its extension. The " Bulfinch front," though 
not free from serious architectural defects, is undeniably 
one of the most imposing as well as pleasing architec- 
tural compositions that the early years of the Republic 
produced; and if the colonnade were executed in stone or 
marble instead of wood it might take rank as one of the 
country's important buildings. As it is, its effect is 
much damaged by the frequent painting it receives in 
colors according to the varying tastes of successive com- 
missioners. The problem placed before the architects 
of the vast extension was a difficult one. Its solution 
can hardly be regarded as satisfactory, though in fair- 
ness to them due allowance should be made for the many 
obstacles in their way. 



I do not want art for a few, any more than education 
for a few, or freedom for a few. No, rather than art 
should live this poor, thin life among a few exceptional 
men, despising those beneath them for an ignorance for 
which they themselves are responsible, for a brutality that 
they will not struggle with rather than this, I would that 
the world should indeed sweep away all art for a while, as 
I said before I thought it possible she might do; rather 
than the wheat should rot in the miser's granary, I would 
that the earth had it, that it might yet have a chance to 
quicken in the dark. — Wm. Morris, in " The Lesser Arts. " 



An Important Test of Fireproof 
Construction. 

THE Pittsburg Terminal Warehouse and Transfer 
Company is about to erect a system of forty ware- 
houses along the Monongahela River front in Pittsburg, 
under the direction of Charles Bickel of Pittsburg as 
architect, and Kindel & Glaffey as engineers. These 
buildings will cover an area of 370 x 390 feet, with a 
basement .and six stories. The exterior walls are to be 
of brick, no stone being used in the construction, even 
the sills being of terra-cotta. The total height of build- 
ing, from the railroad track to top of parapet wall, is 90 
feet. The first floor is arranged for a terminal station, 
with six tracks entering the building and wide receiving 
and distributing platforms. The building throughout 
is of skeleton construction, with Z bar columns resting 
on concrete footings and concrete piles, the floors being 
calculated for a live load of 350 pounds per foot with 
a factor of safety of 4. The construction throughout 
is strictly fireproof. The floors are divided into square 
bays. In each bay four terra-cotta arches will be carried 
across each bay on the diagonal, springing from the 
bottom flanges of the corner beams and with a rise of 
18 inches and bearing at the center against eight-inch I 
beams, cambered to conform to the rise of the arches, 
bearing on the center of the sides of the bay and 
intersecting at the crown of the arches. By this method 
of construction it will be possible for one entire bay or 
floor to collapse in the event of some heavy object strik- 
ing the arch and its failure would not influence the 
adjoining bays; also, the diagonal arches will transfer 
the loads in great part directly to the columns, thus 
permitting of much lighter beam construction than is 
usually employed. The arches will be of hollow porous 
terra-cotta blocks 6 inches deep, 8 inches wide, and not 
over 12 inches long, set with broken joints. The tops of 
the arches will be leveled with concrete and receive a 
two-inch cement finish. 

The roof is constructed on the Johnson system, with 
a wire mesh laid over centering, imbedded in three- 
quarters of an inch of one to two and one-half Portland 
cement mortar, upon which will be laid the cement 
blocks covered with cement mortar and made smooth for 
composition roof. 

In order to demonstrate the capacity of the floors, a 
most careful test was made at Pittsburg by a committee, 
consisting of Professor Ira H. Woolson of Columbia Uni- 
versity, W. L. Lemmon, consulting engineer for the 
National Board of Underwriters of New York, and W. D. 
McGill, chairman of the Local Underwriters' Board, and 
the fire marshal of Pittsburg. As a result of these tests 
and of the thorough fireproofing qualities of the build- 
ing the insurance rates will be the lowest ever given 
upon any building of this class in the country. 

Professor Woolson's official report on the test is given 
herewith: 

Columbia University, Department of Mechanical 

Engineering, Testing Laboratory. 
Report of a fire, water and load test made upon a 
hollow tile groined arch floor constructed by the National 
Fireproofing Company, at their plant in Pittsburg, Pa. 



34 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



Tested December 7, 1904. Test started, n a. m. Water 
applied, 3.16 p. M. Age of floor when tested, twenty- 
four days. 

Method of Construc noN. 

The test building was of steel frame construction 
20 x 22 feet, with corner posts and I beam girders be- 
tween. The longer girders were twenty-four inches 
deep, and the shorter ones eighteen inches deep. This 




BUILDING BEFORE TEST, LOAD OF 270 POUNDS PER 
SQUARE FOOT. 

frame was encased by a thirteen-inch brick wall on two 
sides and by a nine-inch combination tile and cement wall 
on the other two sides; the object being to study the 
relative merits of the two types of walls as fire barriers. 
The floor to be tested constituted the roof of the test 
building. It was constructed by forming a groined arch 
of six-inch hollow tile between the girders, with a rise 
of seventeen inches at the crown. Above the tile was 





SHOWING METHOD OF METAL CONSTRUCTION. 

concrete filling of about four inches over the crown and 
eighteen inches at the haunches. The arches were 
sprung from the corners of the rectangular floor space 
instead of the sides, thus throwing the greatest thrust to 
the corners, where the framework could best resist the 
load. 

For purpose of reinforcement, two eight-inch beams 
were put in between each pair of girders at the 
middle and meeting in the center of the floor span. 
These beams were cambered to the curvature of the arch 
and divided the test floor into four equal parts. They 
were encased by the floor tile. 

The construction was practically a reproduction of 
one unit of the floor system to be used in the new Pitts- 
burg Terminal Warehouse and Transfer Company ware- 
houses, in which there are to be 800,000 scpiare feet 




AFTER TEST, LOAD OF 1,000 POUNDS I'EK SuUARK FOOT. 



INTERIOR <)!•" TEST l'HAMI'.F.K AFTER FIRE. 



of floor space, all divided into spans 20 x 22 feet. 
In the warehouse building the thrust on one side of a 
girder would be resisted by the stiffness of the girder 
itself, supported by the thrust on the opposite side, due 
to the adjoining floor span. To approximate these con- 
ditions in the test building, large I beams were placed 
vertically against the outside of the walls, two on each 
side, spaced to give reinforcement to the girders at 
points about one-third of the span from each corner post. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



3S 



These I beams were securely anchored at the bottom and 
were fastened in pairs across the building just over the 
roof by large tie-rods with turn-buckles to bring them 
snugly to place. .Similar tie-rods were put up in di- 
agonally between the corner posts, the effect being to 
hold the main girders securely in place and prevent pos- 
sible deformation. Full details of the construction are 
shown in the illustrations. 

The floor proper of the test building was formed of 
an open checker-work of brick, the same as a kiln Moor, 
and upon this the fire was built. The ceiling was fifteen 
feet four inches above the floor. Suitable draught open- 
ings, smoke flues and firing door were provided. 

The concrete fill was mixed in the proportion of one 



electric pyrometer couples suspended through the floor 
from above and hanging about six inches below the ceil- 
ing. One couple was near the crown of the arch, and 
the other in a corner, distant about three feet from each 
wall. 

Readings were made upon each couple every three 
minutes. The fuel used was dry refuse wood, the fre- 
quency of firing being determined by the temperature of 
the test chamber. The "Log of Temperature Read- 
ings," together with plotted curve for one couple, is 
given herewith.* 

Deflections. 

The deflections which occurred at various stages of 
the test were measured by a Y-level reading upon a rod 




:i 



fili 



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^-Structural oteel Detailo- 

— Fob — 

— Floor arch Construction — 

To DC USTD In 

"-River -~° Railroad Termunjal -' 
=~ W\rei-iou5E - Transfer C" = 

""" waremouce — 
= Pittsburgh Ra — 



=National Fire Rroc fing. ( ? — 

'Contractor.-,— 

^LC I : — 



Vulcanite Portland cement, three river sand and six 
gravel. The tile ceiling was given a coating of one 
inch of cement. 

Purpose of the Test. 
The purpose of the test was to determine the effect 
of a continuous fire below the floor for four hours at an 
average temperature of 1,700 degrees Fahr. , the floor 
carrying at the same time a distributed load of 270 
pounds per square foot, at the end of the four hours, the 
under side of the floor (or ceiling), while still red hot, to 
be subjected to a one and one-eighth inch stream of cold 
water at short range under 60 pounds' pressure for ten 
minutes, deflection of floor to be measured continuously 
during the test. 

Temperatures. 

The temperatures of the fire were obtained by two 



located upon the middle of the floor slab. The deflec- 
tions were read by Mr. Bailey, an engineer detailed from 
the Pittsburg Testing Laboratory. 

Report Pittsburg Testing Laboratory, Limited. 
Pittsburg, Pa., December 7, 1904. 
Record of arch deflection under action of fire and 
water. 

Test conducted December 7, 1904, at the National 
Fireproofing Company, Plant No. 1, Pittsburg, Pa. 

The table gives full details of the variations in level 
throughout the test. 



*An exact record of temperatures was taken every three minutes. 
After the test was fairly under \v.i\ the temperatures varied from 
1,000 to nearly 2,200 degrees. The average from 11.15 a. m. to 3- '5 p - M - 
was 1.725.4 decrees for one couple, and 1,642.2 degrees for the other, 
showing a very even distribution oi ln.it throughout the chamber. 
The complete record is omitted here for lack ot space. -Eds. 



36 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



TlMl . 


1)1 1 LECTION. 


Time. 


Defi ection. 


A. M. 


Feet. 


A. M. 


Kl KT. 


I 1 . 03 


.0 


C.48 


O.OI 


II.I8 


O.OI 


2.03 


O.OI 


' i-33 


0.02 


2. iS 


O.OI 


1 [.48 


O.03 


2-33 


O.OI 


P. M. 




2.4S 


O.OI 


I2.O3 


0.04 


3°3 


0.015 


r2. t8 


0. 04 


3- 1 8 


0.015 quenched 


iz-33 


0. 03 


3-28 


0.02 


1 2.48 


o.o.5 


3-38 


0.03 


1 °3 


0.03 


,v4.i 


°-°3S 


1. 18 


0.02 


3-48 


0.04 


'•33 


0.02 







Maximum drop of arch 0.04 feet. 

Water. 

The water was applied by city firemen with a steamer 
detailed for the purpose from the Pittsburg: Fire Depart- 
ment. Owing- to the location of the hydrant, it was 
necessary to use 500 feet of three-inch hose, but the engi- 
neer reported that he maintained a pressure on his gauge 
varying from 100 to 120 pounds per square inch during 
application of the water, and this was augmented by a 
fall of 40 to 50 feet between the engine and the test 
house; so although a long line of hose was used, it is safe 
to say that the nozzle pressure was well above 60 pounds. 
The firemen estimated it at 75 to 80 pounds. 

In applying the water the stream was thrown back 
and forth over the whole ceiling as much as possible, and 
iv >t allowed to strike continuously in one place. As it 
was not practicable to flood the roof, as is customary in 
tests of this character, the stream was played on the ceil- 
ing continuously for ten minutes at full pressure. 
Results of the Test. 

( hving to the very large size of the test chamber and 
an insufficient flue area for the volume of fire, together 
with the fact that the fuel supply in the early part of the 
test was not suitable to feed a fire of such magnitude, it 
was impossible to get high temperatures during the first 
half of the test. 

The quality of the fuel was changed during the latter 
part of the test, and the building having become 
thoroughly heated it became easy to maintain high tem- 
peratures. 

Because the temperatures in the early part of the test 
were low, which resulted in lowering the average, it was 
decided to ignore the first fifteen minutes of the test, and 
make it up by extending the time fifteen minutes over 
the four hours. The temperatures during the first fifteen 
minutes are given in the "Temperature Log," but they 
were not used in calculating the averages. 

The cement coating on the ceiling began to blow off 
al )i iiit ten minutes after the fire started, and a consider- 
able portion of it fell before the expiration of the test. 
The roof was covered with a load of hollow tile several 
feet deep, making it impossible to ascertain whether any 
cracks developed there or not. As the roof was in com- 
pression in all parts, and the deflections recorded were 
very small, it is not likely that cracks did occur there. 

After application of the water it was found that the 
cement coating was gone, and the tile exposed where the 
water struck the ceiling, but the tile appeared to be in 



perfect condition, with no cracks or broken parts. At 
least none were apparent under a hasty inspection by 
torch immediately after the test. 

The maximum deflection recorded during the test was 
a trifle under one-half inch, and the average temperature 
at the middle of the ceiling was 1,725 degrees Fahr. 

The illustrations show the building during all periods 
of the test, and indicate the condition of the test floor 
and building after the test. An illustration is also shown 
of a duplicate test building in process of demolition. It 
gives a good idea of the arrangement of the eight-inch 
cambered beams and the construction in general. 

The company informed me that the floor was subse- 
quently loaded up to 1,000 pounds per square foot with a 
maximum deflection of one and one-half inches. 
Respectfully submitted, 
(Signed) IRA II. WOOLSON. 



Two Interesting Examples of Fire- 
proof Construction. 

THE construction of moderate cost dwellings and 
apartment houses built entirely of fireproof mate- 
rial, while still in the experimental state, has recently 
been developed in two notable instances. We illus- 
trate in this number one of three double houses, lately 
built in Pittsburg for the president of the National 
Fireproofing Company. All of the constructive ma- 
terials employed were burned clay products, and 
most of the material was of hollow tile, such as is 
commonly used for wall and floor construction. The 



r 






DiMlMG HoOA 




FLOOR PLANS. 

materials have been employed with a great deal of 
ingenuity and effectiveness from a structural stand- 
point, and the houses were designed so economically 
that, while the cost is a trifle more than for ordinary 
construction, the expense of maintenance is reduced 
very materially, and it is not believed necessary to 
carry fire insurance on the structures. On the exte- 
riors the houses present the appearance of being built in 
the ordinary manner, of brick. As will be seen by the 
illustrations, however, the outside walls consist only of a 
single layer of face brick backed up with common hollow 
brick. The foundations are formed with conduit tiles, 
9 x 13 x 36 inch, forming a 13-inch wall. The partitions 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



37 



are of 6-inch hollow tile, and these are constructive walls 
which support the floors and the roof. All of the floors 
are of hollow tile of the Johnson system of long span 




FOUNDATION. 

arches, the maximum span being about 17 feet. These 
floors are reinforced with steel network, but no steel 
beams whatever are used in the construction, and the 
floors are practically monolithic, the hollow tiles being 
laid in straight courses in cement. The porch construc- 
tion is similar to the floors, and is finished with a grano- 
lithic surface. The roof is of Spanish tiles, the gutters 
and conductors being of copper. 

The interior finish is simple but durable in character, 
and the houses are well equipped in plumbing, hot 
water, etc. The finish, of course, is of wood. The 




FURRING OF HOLLOW BRICK. 

upper floors are of slate. The contract price, complete, 
for each house was $4,600. This is an increase over 
ordinary construction of only about $500, as was shown 
by actual bids received; but in view of the fireproof 
qualities the houses are well worth the difference, and 
they rent so readily for $45 a month that it is the 
owner's intention to construct twelve more of the same 
character. We do not present these as samples of archi- 
tectural design, but as evidence of what can be accom- 
plished by an intelligent use of burned clay products. 
They demonstrate amply what we have always claimed, 
that ten per cent additional cost will for simple work 
give a thoroughly fireproof house in place of the ordinary 
inflammable cellular construction. As far as relates to 
design, a good design costs no more in fireproof material 
than in ordinary cheap construction. It should be borne 



in mind that in the case of these houses the manufac- 
turer of the burned clay products is himself the investor, 
and they offer a most valuable illustration of what those 
who are most familiar with burned clay products can 
accomplish in this direction. 

Another and somewhat more ambitious construction 
in the same line has been called to our attention and is 
illustrated herewith. The Campania Apartment Build- 
ing has been erected at Akron, Ohio, from the design of 
Bunts & Bliss, architects, for the Akron Fireproof Con- 
struction Company, who are the owners and tile manu- 
facturers. This is quite a good sized building, as will be 
seen by the illustration, and is constructed entirely, within 
and without, of burned clay material and almost entirely 
of cull tile which the Construction Company had on hand. 
The outside and center walls are built up partly in three 
thicknesses of 4 x 12 x 12 inch tile and partly of two 




PARTITIONS OF HOLLOW TILE. 

thicknesses of 6x6x12 inch partition tile, the outside 
being veneered with alternate courses of paving blocks 
and standard paving bricks, the different sizes being 
used so as to bond with the six-inch tile courses of the 
side walls. All these tiles are laid in Portland cement. 
The webs run vertically and the outside facing tiles, 
which are 4 x 6 x 12 inch, have smooth exterior surfaces, 
while the balance have the usual scratch surface of parti- 
tion tiles. 




THE FLOORS. 

The cornices, sills, lintels and belt courses are all of 
tile moldings made in presses in the same manner as 
floor and partition tiles are made. All the partitions are 
of four-inch hollow tile, with a single tile five feet long 



3« 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



for each tread. Even the tank on the roof is constructed 
of tiles reinforced with steel bands and plastered on the 
inside with Portland cement. In actual construction all 
the walls and partitions were carried up simultaneously, 
and when a floor level was reached the flooring — which 
is on the Johnson system with six-inch tiles spanning 
17 feet 3 inches — was laid at once over the whole area 
before the next story walls and partitions were started, 
thus affording a perfectly uniform iloor surface, tying 
the walls and floors thoroughly together. Wooden floor- 
ings were omitted entirely. A composition of plaster 
and sawdust or wood pulp was floated true over the tile 
blocks and a wooden strip carried around the edges of 
the rooms for nailing carpet. 




THE CAMPANIA APARTMENT, AKRON, OHIO. 
Bunts & Bliss, Architects. 

The exterior of the building has been treated in a 
very dignified manner, which agrees admirably with the 
character of the material and, as far as we can judge with- 
out knowing the color effect, presents a very satisfactory 
appearance. The building contains twenty-one suites, 
was completed in about nine months from the time it was 
started, and cost only about $45,000, which is a very 
moderate price for a structure of these dimensions. 

In illustrating these two examples of fireproof houses 
we wish to emphasize the fact that they are distinct 
marks of progress. We will not evolve at one bound a 
complete system of construction and exterior treatment 
in burned clay products upon which no improvements 
can be made. But the fact that each of these instances 
represents buildings which are thoroughly fireproof in all 
their details and at the same time are eminently success- 
ful from the investment standpoint, while offering abun- 
dant opportunity for satisfactory architectural treatment, 
shows conclusively that fireproof dwellings are not a fancy 
of a manufacturer or a theorist, and that there is no valid 
financial, aesthetic or constructive reason why our dwell- 
ings and hotels of even the most humble nature should 
not be constructed in the same manner as these buildings. 



Editorial Comment and 
Selected Miscellany 



SHOULD THE ELEMENT OF BEAUTY 
NEGLECTED IN OUR SUBWAYS? 



BE 



AT the time of the construction of the Boston Sub- 
way, the first of its type in this country, all who were 
interested in a proper solution of the problem urged, 
but without avail, that the element of beauty should be 




SOUASH COURT TOR HOUSE AT MT. KISCO, N. V. 
Morgan. Howard & Waid. Architects. 

thoroughly considered. It has been the fortune of the 
New York Subway to profit by experience elsewhere 
and make a deliberate and quite acceptable attempt 
to rationally adorn the interior. We hope that all 
future constructions of this sort will be distinct im- 
provements upon what has gone before, but it will 
not do for those who are interested in municipal 




APARTMENT, NEW YORK CITY. 

Neville & Bagge, Architects. 

Terra-Cotta furnished bv New York Architectural Terra-Cotta Co. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



39 





Eta 



* . . - , i ♦ - • 

1 ' ■ ' .■ Mr ! 





DINING ROOM AND LIBRARY FROM THE HALL. 



THE STAIR HALL. 



HOUSE FOR A. B. ROBERTS, ESQ., BALA, PA. 
Baker & Dallett, Architects. 



4 o 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




art to take this for 
granted. Among 
the earliest examples 
of any form of sub- 
wax- construction was 
the so-called two- 
penny tube in Lon- 
don, which was con- 
structed without the 
slightest regard for 
anything except to 
push the trains 
through at the great- 
est speed at the least 
expense. The sta- 
tions were hopelessly 
homely and dismally 
unattractive, and we 
have no doubt that 
subway construction 
was held back for at 
least ten years be- 
cause of the thoroughly uninviting appearance of this 
first underground railroad. New York at present undoubt- 
edly leads the world in the character of its subway, and 
yet they have made only a beginning in the metropolis ; 
and if half the schemes which are proposed are carried 
out there will be a tremendous change in the appearance 
of the city and in the means of communication. But if 
this improvement is going to be thoroughly welcomed by 
the people the subway constructions must be neat, 
clean, wholesome, sanitary and, last but by no 
means least, beautiful. The initial cost of the 
added element of beauty ought never to be con- 
sidered. The people will tire and sicken of long 
tubes of grimy soot and accumulated filth just as 
they did and have in London. For that matter, 
the way having been once shown so well, it will 
be pretty hard for a company now to undertake 
to omit good looks from the assets of an under- 
ground railroad. The people would be quite as 
prompt to demand it as they have been to order 
the removal of advertising features, and it is so 
much cheaper to build right from the start than 
it is to attempt a veneer of good looks on a hope- 
less construction that in the long run, consider- 
ing that the future subways will be obliged to 
consider art, it is cheaper to put it in at the first. 
Subway constructions offer what is practi- 
cally a new field for the architect. We do not 
feel that the problem is by any means solved 
even in New York. The stations, excellent as 
they are, could certainly be improved upon by 
the very architects whose skill made them what 
they are. And we believe the numerous sub- 
ways, which are undoubtedly to be constructed 
in all of our large cities within the next ten or 
fifteen years, will in time develop a thoroughly 
rational, consistent and beautiful treatment, 
which will be in many re-spects unique, and 
will offer a remarkable opportunity for the exer- 
cise of architectural ability. There is every 
indication that the adornment of our subways 



STABLE OF HOUSE AT CANTON, II. I. 
Robert C. Spencer, Jr., Architect. 





will be considered in 
a very different light 
from what was mani- 
fested by the earlier 
of the elevated rail- 
way stations. To a 
certain extent iron, 
copper and bronze 
will find use, but the 
main reliance for 
combined perma- 
nence and beauty 
will undoubtedly be 
on the burned clay 
products. The walls 
must be faced with 
some material which 
will neither collect 
dirt, be easily de- 
faced, nor be diffi- 
cultof cleansing. All 
these conditions are 
satisfied by faience, enameled terra-cotta tile and brick, 
in addition to which is the element of permanent color 
which can really be supplied by no other known mate- 
rial. We look therefore to see a very successful use 
made of these large opportunities. Chicago at present 
has the most comprehensive system of subways in the 
country, but these subways are entirely for freight, 
and the passenger subway has not yet made its appear- 
ance. It is bound to come, just as it is bound 
to be demanded in the congested portions of 
every large city. When the subway was first 
proposed for Boston it was urged against it that 
to take the cars off of the street would ruin 
business. As a matter of fact it has been found 
to be just the other way, and not only has busi- 
ness increased where tracks have disappeared, 
but property has increased enormously in value 
when relieved from the oppression of the noisy 
cars. The elevated railroads in every case have 
depreciated property along their lines. The exact 
opposite result has followed the introduction of 
the subway, and though the latter may cost four 
or five times :is much as the former, in the course 
of years it is really cheaper. 




IKCO VASES. 

Made by the 
Gates Potteries. 



THE ENORMOUS WASTE BY FIRE. 

THE waste of property by fire throughout the 
United States has increased far more rap- 
idly than our knowledge of how to prevent it. 
The time of marked increase has coincided 
pretty closely with the development of our fire 
resistive construction, and it is a seeming anomaly 
that the more fireproof buildings are built in this 
country, the more care we take in devising the 
best construction, the greater is our annual fire 
bill. The loss now averages $150,000,000 per 
year, having more than doubled since the era of 
steel frame building construction began in 1883. 
A country less wealthy than our own would have 
been bankrupt long ago with such a perpetual 
throwing away of property. And it is hard to 






THE BRICKBU ILDER. 



4i 




nri 1 > 1 iji 



•i«VJ, 




THE AGNES MEMORIAL SANATORIUM, DENVER, COLORADO. 
Roofed with Ludowici Interlocking Red Spanish Tile. Gove and Walsh, Architects. 



altogether explain either why such conditions exist at all, 
or still more why they should be allowed to persist. 
Merchants and manufacturers are obliged to carry fire 
insurance in order to protect their credit, and under the 
present conditions the cost of insurance is a heavy and a 
discouraging tax on industrial enterprises, while because 
of the constant outgo the earnings of insurance com- 
panies are very small. The net profits of all of the 
companies in the United States during the preceding ten 
years were swept away by the conflagrations of 1904. 
We will very soon be confronted with the necessity of 
either reducing our fire losses or insuring our buildings 
ourselves, for the companies cannot long continue in 
business under such conditions. 

And the worst of it is that in no cities are there any 
signs that the conditions are improving. A year ago the 
wise ones looked pityingly at Baltimore and declared 
that for its structural sins it had been visited by such a 
fire, but the same results could happen in any one of 
twenty or thirty large cities of this country. As the 
wealth of our country has increased, the merchants, the 
shops, the warehouses have increased their stores more 
than correspondingly, so that when a fire is once started 



the loss may run up into the millions in a few minutes. 
Million-dollar fires are no longer infrequent. The burn- 
ing of a single block may consume the combined pre- 
mium receipts of all the local fire insurance companies 
for several years; and such a district as exists on each 
side of lower Broadway demands more fire insurance 
capital than the world can supply 

The New York Sun, in discussing this, raises the very 
pertinent question whether a city of the size of New York 
would not find it economical to prohibit the further erec- 
tion of combustible buildings. Unfortunately our legis- 
lators still cling to the idea that height is a measure of fire 
risk, and even our most stringent laws permit a man to 
build a fire trap and store it full of expensive goods, pro- 
vided only he does not carry it more than seventy or 
eighty feet high. This is wrong in principle and mis- 
chievous in fact. So long as we permit inflammable 
areas to surround our fireproof buildings we must expect 
disastrous conflagrations, and until the right of the 
whole demands that in the business districts of a large 
city nothing but fireproof construction shall be allowed 
we will continue to throw our profits into the fire, an 
annual tribute to our lavish ways of building. 




HOUSE FOR LOUIS BEEZER, ESQ., PITTSBURG, PA. 
Beezer Brothers, Architects. 



4 2 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 




INTERIOR COURT, RAILWAY EXCHANGE BUILDING, CHICAGO, ILL. 

I). H. Burnham & Co., Architects. 

Finished entirely in Glazed Terra-Cotta made by 

Northwestern Terra-Cotta Co. 



MR. R. GUASTAVINO, to whom the architectural 
profession owes so many original conceptions in 
regard to fireproof construction, has just issued the sec- 
ond portion of his treatise on the " Function of Masonry 
in Modern Construction." The idea of the work is pri- 
marily to impart to beginners in architecture the funda- 
mental principles of properly utilizing masonry to protect 
perishable materials. The author has given his name to 
a species of construction which has met with a great deal 
of favor in this country, a construction which is as old as 
the use of cement, which was thoroughly known to the 
Romans, was used with great success in Spain up to the 
days of the late Renaissance, but which came to this 
country as a revival and as the thought of one man. The 
Guastavino construction is for many purposes extremely 
well adapted. It has been used with great success in 

the New V o r k 
Subway, and in 
some of our public 
buildings it has 
had a most able 
and efficient inter- 
pretation. It is 
interesting to read 
this book in the 
light of all the 
writer has practi- 
cally accom- 
plished. Theory 
never is exactly in 
accord with prac- 
tice, and the en- 
thusiasm which 
kept alive the 
author's energies 
aii for sacred heart church, through the earlier 

BRADDOCK, PA. ' , , 

by Atlantic Terra-Cotta Co. - VCarS before hlS 

John T. Comes, Architect. construction was 




received as a suc- 
cess is manifest in 
the pages of this 
brochure ; but with 
it all is a quantity 
of useful, practical 
information on the 
subject, which could 
have been acquired 
only with the help 
of the hard lessons 
of necessity. 




DETAIL EXECUTED BY THE INDIAN- 
APOLIS TERRA-COTTA CO. 



THE AGNES MEMORIAL SANATORIUM. 

THE Agnes Memorial Sanatorium was founded and 
endowed by Mr. Lawrence C. Phipps of Pittsburg 
and Denver in memory of his mother. 

The object of the institution is the care and cure of 
patients afflicted with tuberculosis in its incipient forms. 
The present buildings, being five in number, are 
arranged as follows: Administration building, medical 
building, two pavilions (one for women and one for men) 
and power plant, the latter large enough to accommodate 




CARNEGIE LIBRARY, WABASH, INI). 

Wing & Mahurin, Architects. 

Covered with American " S " Roofing Tile. 

double the present demands, and the building so arranged 
as to increase the present power one-third. 

The buildings are erected on the highest eminence 
east of Denver and five miles from the business center of 
the city. The grounds of the sanatorium consist of one 
hundred and sixty acres. 

The buildings are built of brick cemented on the 
exterior with Ideal (Colorado Portland) cement left in its 
natural color, a warm gray, and roofed with Ludowici red 
Spanish tiles. 

The interiors of the medical building and pavilions 
are finished with as little woodwork as possible. No trim 
whatever is used; all corners and angles are rounded; 
patent plaster was used and all walls and ceilings painted. 
The floors are narrow quartered southern pine varnished, 
and finished against the walls with a concave shoe. 

All lavatories are tile and marble. 

All partitions between sleeping rooms are sound- 
proof. 



., 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



43 



The buildings are heated by steam operated by the 
Paul Automatic Vacuum System. Direct indirect radi- 
ators are used. 



NEW BOOKS. 



Structural Designers' Handbook. By W. F. Scott. 
New York: Engineering News Publishing Company. 

This handbook, essentially a diagrammatic treatise on 
the subject of structural design, contains also a full tabu- 
lation of the properties of market shapes of materials. 

It is presented to the architectural and engineering 
professions with the thought that it may be the means of 
shortening and possibly eliminating much of the compu- 
tation and drudgery which are necessary accompaniments 
of structural designing. 

The diagrams presented are time-saving devices, use- 
ful and suggestive to the non-expert and the student, 
since the diagrams illustrate graphically the relations of 
the various factors of proportion, span loading, etc., for 
the variable conditions of ordinary practice. 

Throughout the work the New York Building Code 
has been followed, because it is everywhere recognized as 
conservative and safe. 




HB 



PANEL OVER THE ENTRANCE TO FACTORY OF VICTOR 

TALKING MACHINE CO., CAMDEN, N. J. 

Ballinger & Perot, Architects. 

Made by Excelsior Terra-Cotta Co. 

American Estates and Gardens. By Barr Ferree. 
340 pages. Cloth bound. Size, io>^ x 13^ inches. 
275 illustrations. Price, $10.00 net. New York: Munn 
& Co. 

The building of the great homes of America has 
necessarily involved the development of their surrounding 
grounds and gardens ; the work of the landscape gardener 
has rivaled, in its dignity and spacious beauty, that of the 
architect. If but little is known of our great estates, still 
less is known of their gardens, of which, in spite of the 
comparatively short period that has been given for their 
growth, we have some very noble instances among us. 

"American Estates and Gardens" is a sumptuously 
illustrated volume in which the subject of the more nota- 
ble great estates, houses and gardens in America receives 
adequate treatment. An effort has been made to select 
as great a variety as possible of the styles of architecture 
which have been introduced into this country, as being 
specially adapted to the peculiar conditions of American 
country life. 

Although the exteriors of some of the houses shown 
in this work may be familiar to a certain number of read- 
ers, few have had the privilege of a visit to their interiors, 
and for that reason special attention has been given to 
reproductions of many of the sumptuous halls and rooms 
of people of wealth, and no better way can be obtained 
of learning how the favored few live. 



IN GENERAL 

The Brook- 
lyn Chapter of 
the American 
Institute of 
Architects will 
hold its fifth 
annual exhi- 
bition at the 
Pouch Gallery, 
Clinton Ave. , 
Brooklyn, April 
7 to 22. Ex- 
hibits of draw- 
ing, photo- 
graphs, sculp- 
ture and objects 
of industrial art 
are desired from 
all interested. 
Detailed infor- 
mation will be 

sent to intending exhibitors on application to W. A. 
Parfitt, secretary of the Exhibition Committee, 26 Court 
Street, Brooklyn. 

Clinton M. Hill (formerly Bacon & Hill) and Thomas 
M. James, architects, have formed a copartnership under 
the firm name of Hill & James. Offices, 35 Congress 
Street, Boston. 

Edgar O. Hunter and P. C. Rubush have formed a 
copartnership for the practice of architecture. Offices, 
Fitzgerald Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 

Frederick A. Jaerschky, architect (formerly of Jersey 
City, N. J.), has removed to Binghamton, N. Y. Offices 
in the Binghamton Press Building. Catalogues and 
samples desired. 




PANEL BY GEORGE B. POST, ARCHITECT. 
Perth Amboy Terra-Cotta Co., Makers. 




DETAIL EXECUTED BY GLADDING, McBEAN & CO. 

Walk C. Jones and M. H. Furbringer have formed a 
copartnership for the practice of architecture. Offices, 
vScimitar Building, Memphis, Tenn. 

George R. Morris and Frank E. Clifford have formed 
a copartnership for the practice of architecture. Offices, 
657 Calvert Building, Baltimore, Md. Samples and 
catalogues desired. 



44 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



Copeland & Dole, architects, whose offices were re- 
cently destroyed by fire, have moved to the Royal Build- 
in-. Fulton and William streets. New York City. Cata- 
logues and samples desired. 

Herbert Matthews, architect. Merchants' Bank Build- 
in-, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada, would be glad to re- 
ceive manufacturers' catalogues and samples. 

F. (i. Brown, architect formerly of Danville. 111.), 
has removed to Los Angeles, Cal., and formed a co- 
partnership with ]. W. Krause under the firm name of 
Krause & Brown, Stimpson Building. Catalogues and 
samples desired. 



Company, whose product seems to find a special favor 
for the fronts of buildings. It is claimed by the manu- 
facturers that their bricks, used in combination with 
glazed terra-cotta, cost but little more than the best 
quality of pressed bricks. The Tiffany Company will 
also furnish their material for the new National Bank 
Building at Charleston, W. Va., also for a large store 
building at Des Moines, Iowa, C. C. Cross & Sons, 
architects. 



WANTED — A FIRST-CLASS DRAUGHTSMAN. One com- 
petent to make perspectives. Send samples of work, state experi- 
ence and salary expected. R. H. Hunt, Chattanooga, Tenn. 



The new 1 Jeering Building, F. B. and [.. 1.. Long, 
architects, which is to be built in Minneapolis, will have, 
as a finish for its exterior, glazed terra-cotta and enam- 
eled bricks. About eighty thousand cream color, satin 
finish, stretcher bricks will be used, in addition to twenty 
thousand special made bricks for corners and jambs. 
They will be supplied by the Tiffany Enameled Brick 



WANTED — A THOROUGHLY COMPETENT DRAUGHTS- 
MAN. One experienced in church and school work. Must be able 
to lay out scale and detail drawings from preliminary sketches. Give 
age, training, references and salary expected. Ernest & Hausel- 
mann, House Building, Pittsburg, Pa. 

WANTED A FIRST-CLASS ARCHITECTURAL 

DRAUGHTSMAN. Apply at once, giving full particulars, to Shand 
& La Faye, Columbia, S. C. 



-M 



-*1 




Competition for a Fireproof House 

Constructed of Terra-Cotta Holloti) Tile "Blocks To cost $10,000 

First Prize, $500 Second Prize, $200 Third Prize, $100 

PROCRA MJUE 

HE possibilities in the use of burnt clay in its various forms in our domestic architecture have only begun to be realized. 
That dwellings of moderate cost should be made fireproof is not only recognized as desirable, but practicable. 

The object of this competition is to call out designs for a house, the walls, floors and partitions of which are to be of terra-cotta hollow tile 
blocks 

The cost of the house, exclusive of the land, is not to exceed $to,ooo. Designs calling for a more expensive house will not be considered. 

A detailed statement of costs must accompany each design. This statement is to be typewritten on one side only of a sheet of paper measuring n 
inches x8', inches. 

A further object of this competition is to encourage a study of the use of burnt clay products of the particular class mentioned, in an artistic as well as 
practical manner, and to obtain designs which would be appropriate for such materials. 

In the selection of blocks for exterior walls, terra-cotta hollow tile fireproofing blocks must be employed, and not architectural terra-cotta blocks 

REQUIREMENTS : The house is supposed to be built in the suburbs of a large city, upon a corner lot. with a frontage of ico feet towards the south 
and 150 feet on the side street towards the east. The grade is practically level throughout. The house is to be two stories high with an attic. This attic may 
be either in the pitch of the roof or a third story may be treated as an attic with a flat roof On the first floor there is to be a reception room, a library, a din- 
ing room, a kitchen and the ordinary allowance for pantries, coat rooms, stairways, etc. The front hall may be treated as desired. In the second story there 
are to be two bathrooms, four chambers, a sewing room, a den, linen closet, etc. The third siory should contain at least two servants' rooms, besides a store- 
room. Fireplaces, bay windows, seats, etc , are at the option of the designer. 

The clear height is to be in first story 10 feet, second story 9 feet, third story optional with the designer. The cellar need not be specially planned, but 
will have a clear height of 8 feet. Arrangement of piazzas to be left with the designer 

CONSTRUCTION : While the method of construction for walls, floors and partitions is to be determined by the designer, the following suggestions are 
offered as being practicable and admissible : 

First. Outside walls may be of hollow tile blocks 8 inches thick, lined on the interior with 4-inch furring tile, the treatment of the faces of the blocks to 
be appropriate for such materials 

Second. Outside walls may be of hollow tile blocks 8 inches thick, lined on the interior with 4-inch furring tile, the face of the wall to be rough cast 
or plastered. 

Third. The outside walls may be faced with brick, with a backing of 8-inch hollow tile blocks. 

Fourth. The outside wall maybe built with an outer and inner wall, with an air space of 4 inches between, using in each wall a 4-inch hollow tile. 
The treatment of the face of such a wall, and the manner of bonding the outer and inner walls, are left to the designer. The plaster finish may be applied 
direct to the interior surface of such a wall. 

If hollow tile blocks are used for facings, any special features in the finish or treatment of their exposed surfaces should be given in a footnote on sheet 
showing elevations. 

For the interior partitions terra-cotta blocks are to be used. 

For the floors one of the long span terra-cotta hollow tile block systems now on the market, which are adapted up to spans of 20 feet without the use 
of steel beams, or a system which employs terra-cotta hollow tile blacks in connection with light steel construction. 

DRAWINGS REQUIRED : On one sheet the front and a side elevation, at a scale of four feet to the inch ; also plans of first and second floor, at a scale 
of eight feet to the inch, and on another sheet details shewing clearly the scheme of construction for the exterior walls, the floors and the partitions, together 
with other details drawn at a scale sufficiently large to show them clearly. Graphic scales to be on all drawings. 

The size of each sheet is to be exactly 24 inches by 36 inches The sheets are not to be mounted 

All drawings are to be made in black line without wash or color. All sections shown are to be crosshatched in such manner as to clearly indicate the 
material, and the floor plans are to be blocked in solid. 

Each set of drawings is to be signed by a nam dt plume or device, ar.d accompanying same is to be a sealed envelope with the nom de plume on the exterior 
and containing the true name and address of the contestant. 

The drawings are to be delivered flat at the office of THE BRICKBUILDER. 85 Water Street, Boston. Mass., on or before May 15, 1905. 

The designs will be judged by well-known members of the architectural profession. 

In making the award the jury will take into account, first, the fitness of the design in an artistic sense to the materials employed; second, the 
adaptability of the design as shown by details to the practical constructive requirements of burnt clay ; third, the relative excellence of the design. 

Carefully made estimates giving relative costs of fireproof and ordinary wood construction for houses built from the designs awarded the three cash 
prizes will be obtained by the publishers of THE BRICKBUILDER, and given at the time the designs are published. 

The prize drawings are to become the property of THE BRICKBUILDER, and the right is reserved to publish or exhibit any or all of the others. 
Those who wish their drawings returned, except the prize drawings, may have them by enclosing in the sealed envelopes containing their names ten cents in 
stamps 

For the design placed first in this competition there will be given a prize of $500.00. 
For the design placed second a prize of $200.00. 
For the design placed third a prize of $100.00. 

In the study of this problem, competitors are invited to consult freely with the manufacturers of burnt clay fireproofing or their agents. This competi- 
tion is open to every one. 





DETAIL OF NORTH FRONT OF HOUSE FOR T. JEFFERSON COOLIDGE, J R, ESQ. AT MANCHESTER, MASS. 

McKim, Mead & White, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILOER, 

FEBRUARY, 

1S06. 




HOUSE FOR T. JEFFERSON COOLIDGE, JR.. ESQ., AT MANCHESTER, MASS. 

McKim, Mead & White, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDEFI. 

FEBRUARY, 

1905. 



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THE BRICKBUILDER. 

Vol. 14 MARCH 1905 No. 3 

CONTENTS — PLATES 

From Work of GROSVENOR ATTERBURY, BARNEY & CHAPMAN, CRAM, 

GOODHUE & FERGUSON, PRICE & DE SIBOUR AND POPE, 

HORACE TRUMBAUER. 

CONTENTS — LETTER PRESS 

CLOISTER, CHURCH OF NUESTRA SENHORA DA VITTORIA, BATALHA, PORTUGAL, 

Frontispiece 

EDITORIALS 45 

ECCLESIASTICAL ARCHITECTURE By R. Clipston Sturgis 46 

BOSTON BRICKWORK. II 52 

MODERN BR1CKBUILDING IN FRANCE By Jean Schopfer 57 

EDITORIAL COMMENT AND SELECTED MISCELLANY 62 



4 6 THE BRICKBUILDER. 

Ecclesiastical Architecture. 



BY R. CLIPSTON STURGIS. 

IT is very seldom that the men of one profession who 
are called upon to do work for men in another profes- 
sion have such an opportunity of exchanging views 
as has been offered here by the editor of The Brick- 
buii.dkr. It should be mutually helpful to architects and 
clergymen to know what each thinks should be the archi- 
tectural expression of the Church. 

To discuss intelligently such a problem, one must, 
however, have a clear idea of just what is meant by the 
Church; for the word means essentially different things 
to different bodies, and even to different people who pro- 
fess the same faith. At the risk of appearing to encroach 
on the privileges of the clergy, I must explain at the out- 
set what my understanding is of the meaning of the word 
"Church"; only thus can I attempt to make clear the 
principles which I believe should govern the architectural 
expression of the Church. 





KINGS CHAPEL, BOSTON, MASS. 

The Church is primarily then an historic body with 
tradition, custom, ritual, all expressing the accumulated 
spiritual experience of many centuries. Viewed in this 
way it is impersonal, authoritative, final. It is also a 
' ' lively faith " — in the language of our forefathers — and 
that which is alive must grow, must change. This change 
is due not merely to environment and the character of the 
times, but also to special gifts, to special individuals, who 
are able to put old truths in a fuller and more perfect 
way, or even at times to add new spiritual truths to the 
body of the faith. Viewed in this way it is the force of 
the individual rather than the authority of the past which 
is preeminent. 

At times in the history of the Church now one now 
another of these views has been emphasized, some- 
times over-emphasized to the exclusion and temporary 
obscuration of the other side. 

Up to the Reformation these two existed side by side 
in a Church which, however divided, was yet one. Since 
the Reformation the Church has been divided, roughly 



INTERIOR, KING'S CHAPEL, HOSTOX. 
Looking West. 

speaking, between those who lay most stress upon the 
historic tradition of the Church and those who lay most 
stress upon the individual expression of the present. In 
brief it is the altar and the pulpit. 

Before attempting to show how these two points of view 
may affect church building, I want to say a word about 
the articles that have already appeared. The first is by 
the Rt. Rev. Henry C, Potter, Bishop of New York; the 
second by the Rev. William Frederic Faber; the third 
by the Rt. Rev. C. K. Nelson, Bishop of Georgia; the 
fourth by the Rev. Daniel Dulany Addison ; the fifth by 
the Rev. Herman Page ; the sixth by the Rev. John 
W. Suter. 

Notwithstanding the fact that all these men belong 
to the Protestant Episcopal Church there is one note in 
every paper, which surely applies to every faith, that 
church architecture should be a reverent art. This 
surely is of absolutely prime importance. Another 
point, which is most admirably put by Dr. Faber, is that 
the building should express our faith; for, he adds, '•reli- 
gious differences, which are sufficiently vital to keep 
Christians in separate bodies, must be sufficiently vital 
and organic to put forth architectural forms fitted to 
express truthfully what each is." In thus expressing 
our faith it may well be that even in one communion there 




INTERIOR, KING S CHAPEL, BOSTON. 
Looking East. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



47 







ST. MICHAELS CHURCH, CHARLESTON, S. C. 
Built 1760. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH, SAVANNAH, GA. 
Built 1819. 



ST. PHILIP S CHURCH, CHARLESTON, S. C. 
Built 1837. 



may be differences in the point of view, and some con- 
gregations may hope with Mr. Suter that the time has 
come for the voice of a prophet and wish to insure, even 
at some architectural sacrifice, that he shall be heard ; 
while another, like Mr. Page, 
may feel that it is more im- 
portant to have the mystery of 
nave and aisles, even if some 
seats are thereby injured. 

The letters as a whole are 
very helpful, and Dr. Faber's 
paper especially seems to me 
one which every architect who 
is to build a church shoidd 
read, mark, learn and inwardly 
digest. His horror of insin- 
cerity, his plea for more 
knowledge, — both on the part 
of clergy and architects, — are 
things which should be laid to 
our hearts. Bishop Nelson 
calls attention to two points 
which every architect ought 
to know, that a chancel arch 
is not a necessity, and that an 
eas rt window _jmh.ich obscures 
the altar with its glare is bad. 
Ur. Addison, in urging adher- 
ence to the traditional Angli- 
can forms of Gothic, gives the 
true reason for the omission 
or subordination of the chancel 
arch, the accent that should 
be laid, and the importance 




PULPIT, PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH, SAVANNAH, GA 



that should be given to the choir and sanctuary. It seems 
perhaps a little strong to say that columns "should 
never be sacrificed to any idea of utility," but it is very 
pleasant for an architect to hear such an expression 

from one outside his own pro- 
fession. vStill more must we 
feel indebted to him for his 
advice that "the educated and 
understanding architect 
should never give way before 
the amateur clergyman or the 
ignorant layman." Architects 
would choose always to work 
for clergymen who had such 
sound views as Mr. Addison 
on matters architectural, and 
they might feel well content 
to sit under such a man and 
accept what he has to say in 
regard to his own profession 
as authoritative. This atti- 
tude is, in fact, a recognition 
of the value of trained service, 
expert not amateur. 

Men of the world, especially 
I think professional men, like 
to see in a clergyman the 
stamp of his profession. The 
clergyman who appears and 
acts on most occasions as a 
mere layman will rarely com- 
mand the respect and attention 
that is given to the clergyman 
who believes his calling is in- 



4 8 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




A SMALL I'ARISH CHURCH WITH ROOD SCREEN AND PULPIT 
OUTSIDE. 

deed " Holy Orders," and that by his calling he is set 
apart from his lay brethren, having graver duties, graver 
responsibilities. 

I propose to try to indicate what architectural expres- 
sion belongs to the two extremes, the type which empha- 
sizes the altar, the type which emphasizes the pulpit. 

The altar type centers the whole interest at the altar, 
and builds the church around it. It begins with the 
sanctuary, where the highest act of worship takes place. 
Around the sanctuary is everything connected with the 
service, the seats for the choir and clergy who voice the 
prayer and praise of the congregation, and the various 
rooms which allow the service of altar and choir to be 
reverently conducted and in due order. Then, and then 




only, is consideration given to the body of worshipers. 
So distinctly emphasized is this fact, of the all impor- 
tance of the choir as opposed to the nave, that a whole 
series of buildings arose which were nothing but a choir, 
such as the college chapel type. The nave therefore is 
distinctly subordinate, and because so subordinate it may, 
in a great church or a cathedral, be almost separated from 
the choir by chancel arch and structural rood. Such 
division may be really necessary, as the worshipers at the 
daily services may well be all in the choir. In the 
smaller church, however, of ordinary parish dimension, 
chancel arch and structural rood are not only unneces- 
sary, but also a distinct injury to the church. For chan- 
cel arch may serve then merely to injure and dwarf what 
should be, if not the largest, at least the most glorious 
art of the church. 




A LARGE PARISH CHURCH WITH ROOD SCREEN AND OBJEC- 
TIONABLE EAST WINDOW. 



S. CUTHBERTS, WELLS, ENGLAND, TYPICAL PARISH 
INTERIOR, LOOKING WEST. 

The nave then, though so distinctly subordinated to the 
choir in the altar type, has yet its special significance and 
its special structural form. If the choir or sanctuary 
typify the head of the Church, the nave is the body; if 
the sanctuary is Christ in glory, the nave is the Church 
militant which, through the rood, passes to the Church 
triumphant. 

In all that the historic Church has built, has imagined 
or has borrowed, she has ever seen in it some symbol 
of her Faith. So the form of the cross, whatever its 
origin, is associated in Christain churches with the cross 
of Christ, and the triple form of the aisle with the Trin- 
ity. It is seen therefore that the cruciform and the 
aisled nave have a significance so important, and an as- 
sociation of so many centuries with the history of the 
Church, as to make us think carefully before they be 






THE BRICKBUILDER 



49 




THE CATHEDRAL, WELLS, ENGLAND, TYPICAL ENGLISH 
GOTHIC. 

discarded for utilitarian reasons, lest in the exchange we 
lose more than we gain. Seen in this light, Dr. Addi- 
son's statement that "columns should never be sacrificed 
to any idea of utility " is not the extravagant fancy of 
an idealist, but the sober judgment of one who weighs 
the evidence. 

If the nave represents the people, and the choir the 
ordained channel through which the people approach 
God, the font is the ordained means by which the people 
are admitted to the Body of the Church. It is therefore 
significant and therefore right that the font should be in 
the main body of the church, and preferably at its actual 
entrance. Baptism is the first great sacrament of the 
Church, and the baptistery is rightly given architectural 
accent and importance at this place. 

In such buildings as these I have described the preacher, 
who expounds the Word or the doctrine of the Church, is 
distinctly subordinate to the priest. The latter stands 
between God and His people, and, in a peculiar way and 
with peculiar power (the gifts bestowed in ordination), 
presents to God the worship, prayer and praise of the 
people. More than that he gives them the sacraments, - 
baptism and the holy eucharist and the blessing of God. 

In all such acts he is speaking the words of the 





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flftttf w 
HI :• 

„■■:■■' I ■I ;;< ^0$\^"'^©te* 






7/11 IaV i '-"— ^/^5rS2SH 


Jm 



Church, he is teaching with all the authority of the accu- 
mulated spiritual inspiration of the ages. When he 
enters the pulpit he is still the priest, he may also be the 
prophet, inspired of God, but he is, after all, very much 
on his own resources, speaking indeed God's message as 
God has given him power or ability so to do, but he is not 
necessarily, as he is at the altar, speaking with authority. 
The pulpit then is quite subordinate in such a church. 
It is never in the sanctuary, it is rarely in the choir, ex- 
cept in great cathedrals or college chapels where the choir 
contains everything that is necessary for the complete ser- 
vice of the Church (except the font). It is generally out- 
side the rood screen and sometimes, especially in a large 
church, actually in the nave, so as to bring the preacher 
in closer touch with his hearers. When the priest 
is at the altar or in the choir it is almost immaterial 
whether or not the people can hear his words, for all 
know what he is saying; but in the pulpit it is essential 




st. mary's parish church, taunton, England. 



PARISH CHURCH, WITH TOWER AT THE CROSSING. 

that every one should hear. The position of the pulpit 
will depend then, not so much on historical precedent, but 
on the size and plan of the church, and it will be so placed 
as to give the preacher the best opportunity to be heard. 
This altar type of church began when the early Christians 
adapted basilican forms to the service of the Church, but it 
came to its perfection only with the more fully developed 
service of later centuries, and found its full fruit of archi- 
tectural expression in the magnificent period of church 
building which marked the centuries from the twelfth to 
the fifteenth. The builders of that time were equally in- 
terested in the wonderful problems of the vault and its 
supports, and in the significance and symbolism of the 
structure thus evolved. England had her own special 
architectural expression, less scholastic than that of 
France, but in many ways more sincere and more lovable; 
and when England refused to acknowledge the spiritual 
sovereignty of Rome, her architecture became, in a still 
more vital way, the expression of the English branch of 
the Catholic Church, and it was in a fair way to develop 
a very beautiful and very distinctive structure when the 



5Q 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




INTERIOR, THE OLD NORTH CHURCH, BOSTON, MASS., 
LOOKING WEST. 

spirit of the Reformation for a while stopped all progress 
in this direction, and turned the thoughts of the Church 
towards a very vital aspect of truth which had been in 
danger of being lost sight of in the elaborate forms and 
ceremonies which had grown up around the ritual Church. 
From forms and ceremonies there was an abrupt reaction, 
and a return to the simpler ways of the very early Church, 
more earnest study of the Bible as the sole sure guide to 
truth, and a great emphasis placed on the fact that Christ 
Himself was the mediator, and no man needed any other 
between him and Cod. 

Under this aspect the interpretation of the word of 
God, the teaching from the pulpit, became more impor- 
tant than the sacraments, and it was the prophet rather 
than the priest that men sought, and all this was ex- 
pressed in the church. With this vital change in the 
religious point of view came all the great change in the 
arts which we call the Renaissance. Both movements 
were really endeavors to hark back to earlier and half- 
forgotten days. Both movements were intended to re- 
cover truth from the past, and both, in the endeavor, 
lost some of the truth inherent in what they had dis- 
carded. The art of the mediaeval ages was despised and 
the ritual of the Church became anathema. Now in Eng- 
land they could not well pull down all the old churches 
and cathedrals and rebuild to suit new views. We may- 
be very thankful that they did not, and also very sorry 
for the destruction and havoc they did effect, but the 
new churches, built in the newly revived classic manner, 
were the architectural expression of a faith which put 
more trust in the pulpit than in the altar. In our own 
country, where all was to be from the beginning and 
where our branch of the Anglican Church had been in- 
fluenced by the more thoroughgoing reactionaries who 
disdained even the spiritual heritage of the historic 
church, we developed freely the pulpit type of church. 
The altar, now but a table, is set in a shallow'apse, often 



hardly more than a niche: the choir of men and boys, re- 
placed by unvested mixed choirs, has no need of a spe- 
cially set apart place. The need of a great chancel is 
gone. The pulpit is important, and it is therefore imper- 
ative that as many as possible shall see and hear the 
preacher. Thus has grown a very simple and often a 
very dignified and noble type of church, representing 
truly a phase, an aspect of the Church's teaching. As an 
architectural problem this is a far simpler one than the 
old problem, but some fifteen centuries went to the de- 
velopment of the older type, while but a few have had 
their influence on the other, and those few are centuries 
when architecture and art were not looked upon with 
favor as handmaids of the Church. We do not therefore 
sec any such perfect architectural expression of the pul- 
pit tpye as we do of the altar type. The New England 
meeting-house type and the Virginia churches were 
simple, sober, dignified, but they were not perfect audi- 
toriums, and the attempt to make good auditoriums has 
'resulted in losing all dignity, all sense of a reverent art. 
We have yet to see a really first-rate architectural expres- 
sion of the pulpit tpye of church. 

In the mean while times have changed, are changing 
all the time. The church of thefifteenth century is not the 
church of to-day, and we cannot honestly appropriate the 
architecture of that time. In the average modern church 
we see neither the altar nor pulpit in its extreme type, 
rather it is a modification of each, a right appreciation of 
both that is to-day demanded. While I believe the vital 
Gothic of the fifteenth century in England will always 
remain the best point of departure, there are many cases 
where it will not always be desirable to follow the Gothic 
lead. In a New England village, in any place with the 
stamp of < 1-eorgian architecture strongly marked, a Gothic 
building is apt to look out of place. In the South and 
Southwest, where French and Spanish types have already 
made their mark, Gothic again is apt to look ill at ease. 




INTERIOR, THE OLD NORTH CHURCH, BOSTON, MASS., 
LOOKING EAST. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



5' 




ST. PAULS CHURCH, AUGUSTA, GA. 
Built about 1750. 

But in most cases, and in every place where there is 
enough country for a settling, the simple, unassuming, 
lovable English Gothic is at home. Therefore while not 
denying that there is a logical plan and exterior for the 
modern church along classic lines, I propose to confine 
myself to a Gothic church in attempting to say what a 
modern church should be. This I will reserve for another 
paper. 




M RODIN, the eminent French artist, has contrib- 
uted to the North American Review an interest- 
ing article dealing with "The Gothic in the Cathedrals 
and Churches of France." No architect or sculptor, he 
tells us, has ever been able properly to restore a Gothic 
church or cathedral. The Italians, it is true, continue to 
repair their ancient monuments; but they only touch the 
parts that are falling to ruin ; whereas when we repair we 
insist on restoring, and spoil the old in order to har- 
monize it with the new. . . . 

In one direction the Gothic sculptors surpass the 
Greek. The Greek temple is the same everywhere, and 
similarity, identity, is not a culminating quality of art. 
Life is made up of strength and grace most variously 
mingled, and the Gothic gives us this. ... In order 
to reform our present stereotyped methods of art we 




ST. PETER S P. E. CHURCH, PHILADELPHIA, PA. 
Dedicated 1761. 



OLD CHURCH AT LANCASTER, MASS. 
Charles Bulfinch, Architect. 

want a second Renascence. For a long time I hoped 
that in a near future this might be ; but I have ceased 
hoping to-day. It would require a catastrophe capable of 
overturning and changing everything. Of course I am 
speaking of what is likely to happen in the next twenty- 
five or fifty years. Life is eternal; and, sooner or later, 
things must alter for the better. But, so far, in our 
modern architecture I see nothing that gives encourage- 
ment. We have intelligent men who are sufficiently 
educated. They copy everything; they ferret out the 
style of Nineveh, as well as the styles of Louis XIV. and 
Louis XV. ; but what they produce is without soul, with- 
out art, and is insignificant. They repeat, but only as the 
parrot does. For long years we have done nothing but 
turn out from our colleges young men stuffed with use- 
less scientific lumber; and they very quickly lose it all, 
and there is nothing to take its place. 



52 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



Boston Brickwork. II. 

RECENT RESIDENTIAL WORK. 

ABOUT the middle of the last century the narrow- 
limits of the original peninsula became crowded 
with buildings and the city began to push out along the 
road towards the neighboring town of Roxbury. A 
large expanse of marsh was filled in and raised to the 
general level and a series of avenues and squares was 
laid out which was quickly covered with dwellings of 
brick. These were almost universally crowned with 
•• French " roofs and had formidable "high stoops" or 
long outside flights of brownstone steps leading to the 
front door, which was nearly a full story above the side- 
walk. In plan most of these dwellings contained a 
kitchen at the rear and a dining room at the front of the 
basement, the first floor being given over to a front and 
back parlor. The stories were high studded and deco- 
rated with much plaster cornice and patterns in stencil. 
Marble mantels and thresholds were essential, while 
some had balconies and trellises of cast iron following 
the outlines of the circular bay 
windows or " swell fronts " 
which repeated themselves 
with monotonous iteration. 
It is needless to say that the 
hand of the trained architect 
rarely appeared, and the entire 
South End forms avast archi- 
tectural desert, only relieved 
by the attractive "parks" 
which faintly recall the 
"squares" of Bloomsbury. 
Though now deserted by 
fashion, this region has not 
lacked representation in con- 
temporary literature, and 
Howells's novel, "The Rise 
of Silas Lapham," gives a vivid 
picture of its appearance and 
former social life. 

With the filling in of the 
Back Bay and the movement 

to the "new land" from 1870 to 1890 came the build- 
in- up of the section between Arlington Street and 
Massachusetts Avenue. The houses in that district are 
an open book of the architectural history of that period, 
starting with the pseudo- French classic houses at and 
near the Public Garden (which, as a matter of fact, 
average much the best of the lot) and ranging through 
blocks of Victorian Gothic, Queen Anne and Roman- 
esque to the western layer of 1890 Colonial. Happily 
the most of the poorer Romanesque was confined to 
inferior streets. Except as torn down and rebuilt the 
proportion of work in this district which to-day would 
be called interesting is small. The street arrangement 
is particularly poor compared with that of the old South 
End, and there is no system of emphasizing certain 
points or relieving the rather barren perspectives. 

The work of present day interest lies mostly west of 
Massachusetts Avenue, the three best groups being the 
houses on Bay State Road, Commonwealth Avenue, from 




PORCH OF BRADLEY HOUSE 

Little & Browne, Architects. 



Massachusetts Avenue to Beacon Street and the Fenway. 
Here, although especially on Bay State Road, "conser- 
vatism runs riot," and most of the facades "reek with 
simplicity," there are a good number of thoughtful and 
really well studied designs, showing some attempt to 
combine originality with refinement. On Commonwealth 
Avenue, west of Massachusetts Avenue, there is a col- 
lection of houses of unusual interest. Comparisons of 
the value of designs are difficult and dangerous and 
largely a matter of personal taste, but in the writer's 
opinion the house of Mr. R. S. Bradley, on Common- 
wealth Avenue near Charlesgate East, by Little & 
Browne, stands easily the first among the newer mansions 
of Boston. The design rather suggests the English 
Georgian or high London house of the most aristocratic 
type. The material is mostly brown Roman shape brick, 
with trimmings of Amherst stone and purple marble 
porch columns. The detail throughout, whether of stone 
or wrought iron, is charming. 

The splendid width of the avenue and the excep- 
tionally fine location have inspired the owners of these 
properties to somewhat greater things than elsewhere. 

The best instance of this is 
afforded by the noble facade of 
the Minot house, by Peabody 
& Stearns, with its imposing 
flight of steps and somewhat 
swaggering portico. This 
adjoins the Bradley house, of 
which previous mention was 
made. Less pretentious, but 
still of great interest, are the 
two houses by R. Clipston 
Sturgis, with their very Eng- 
lish windows and dignified en- 
trances. These facades have 
a more studied and refined 
appearance than any other red 
brick fronts that we recall in 
Boston, and the rear facades 
on Beacon Street are not less 
interesting. The material of 
the doorways is gray terra- 
cotta. Near these is the pic- 
turesque " rlatiron " house by C. Howard Walker, re- 
calling, with its tourelles and steep roof, a Normandy 
manoir. The doorway has refined detail. On the same 
side of the avenue, farther east, are two simple and 
delightful fronts by Little & Browne. No. 22 is in lime- 
stone and red brick, with a slender column treatment 
along the lower story. Xo. 23 is in light stone and brown 
brick. The simplicity and beauty of these houses is 
enhanced by the propinquity of a somewhat forced ex- 
hibition of Tiffany glass in a tall house on the one hand 
and a craggy line of promoters' Romanesque on the other. 
The south side of the avenue, between Charlesgate 
West and Kenmore .Street, exhibits a row of good houses 
in widely varying styles. In a nation of our own cos- 
mopolitan make-up anything approaching uniformity of 
architectural style seems far distant, and for the present 
we shall probably have to content ourselves with what 
comes to us. No. 26 shows a simple but interesting 
front in free Colonial, by W. Whitney Lewis. The 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



53 





2 1. HOUSE OF R. S. BRADLEY, ESQ. 
Little & Browne, Architects. 



HOUSE, COMMONWEALTH AVENUE. 
Little & Browne, Architects. 





23. HOUSE, COMMONWEALTH AVENUE. 
Little & Browne, Architects. 



24. MINOT HOUSE, COMMONWEALTH AVENUE. 
Peabody & Stearns, Architects. 



54 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



25. HOUSES, COMMONWEALTH AVENUE. 
K. Clipston Sturgis, Architect. 






26. HOUSE, COMMONWEALTH AVENUE. 
W. Whitney Lewis, Architect. 




27. DOORWAY, HOUSE, COMMONWEALTH AVENUE. 
C. Howard Walker, Architect. 



28. HOUSE, COMMONWEALTH AVENUE. 
C. Howard Walker, Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



55 




30. HOUSE, COMMONWEALTH AVENUE. 
Kilham & Hopkins, Architects. 



«-" mU'_3un*M* 



31. HOUSE, 480 COMMONWEALTH AVENUE. 

Chapman & Frazer, Architects. 





u mi M 





32. HOUSE OF ROBERT S. PEABODY, ESQ. 
Peabody & Stearns, Architects. 



^^. HOUSE OF MOORFIELD STOREY, ESQ. 
Peabody & Stearns, Architects. 



56 



THE BRICKBU ILDER 




29. DETAIL, HOUSE, COMMONWEALTH AVENUE. 
Kilham & Hopkins, Architects. 

materials arc water-struck brick and white marble. Nos. 
29 and 30 show an elevation in quite modern French by 
Kilham & Hopkins. The materials for the walls are 
buff Amherst stone and brown Roman brick, and the 
mansard is of copper, treated in green. No. 31, by 
Chapman & Frazer, is an interesting and homelike 
house, rather Dutch Renaissance in quality, in Amherst 
stone and purplish red brick. The latter two houses, as 
well as the Minot and Bradley houses referred to above, 




have iron fences, showing that the returning vogue of 
the front fence has reached Boston. 

Of the other houses in this block, two are English in 
style, one Colonial and the balance in the commonplace 
Renaissance of the recent promoter. 

Near by, in the Fenway, is found another good row of 
houses in the most delightful location in the city. These 
houses face west, looking across the wide expanse of the 
Fens with their streams and bridges. The first dwelling 
house, going from Boylston Street, is that of Mr. Robert 
S. Peabody (Peabody & Stearns, architects). Though 
less pretentious than one or two of the houses referred 
to above, it ranks in some ways as the most charming 
facade in Boston. The design with the great central 
window distinctly implies the artist 's home, and the entire 




34. ENTRANCE, FENWAY. 



35. HOUSE, WESTLANI) AVENUE. 
H. Langford Warren, Architect. 

conception is worthy in every way of its gifted owner. 
The material is light stone and brown Roman brick 
which, by a series of happy selections, is here continued 
for some distance along the street in either direction and 
forms a group of rather notable buildings. These build- 
ings, the Hotel Carleton, the Massachusetts Historical 
Society's building, and that of the Medical Library, con- 
tinue the color scheme of Mr. Peabody 's house and that 
of Mr. Moorfield Storey, adjoining, which is also by 
Peabody & Stearns (No. 33). 

Farther along the Fenway are some Colonial houses, 
the doorway of one of which we illustrate (No. 34), and 
on Westland Avenue a charming and scholarly little de- 
tached house by H. Langford Warren, in red and brown 
brick with gable roof, a balustrade and garden gate. 
This house is a pleasing surprise in such a place as Bos- 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



57 




36. HOUSE, BEACON STREET. 
R. Clipston Sturgis, Architect. 

ton, and certainly goes to show that in city work "some 
things can be done as well as others " (No. 35). 

On Beacon Street opposite the Common there is a 
quiet house in gray brick by R. Clipston Sturgis, with a 
rather low porch. 

Here and there along the older Back Bay streets new 
and attractive fronts are beginning to appear, in many 
cases replacing houses which are scarcely twenty-five 
years old. Probably it will be only a short time before 
the entire district will have been largely remodelled or 
rebuilt. The following article will illustrate the work 
along Bay State Road and the newer streets in its vi- 
cinity. 

ANCIENT PAINTED TILES. 

THE use of painted tiles for decorative effects dates 
back as far as 3300 b. c, the walls of the palaces of 
ancient Egypt being covered with them. The Persians, 
again, modeled pictures in low relief upon the narrow 
edges of large flat bricks built into the walls of houses in 
their capital of Susa; the Louvre, in Paris, contains the 
original of one such frieze representing a procession of 
black archers, with dresses and armor colored in bril- 
liant enamels. The knowledge of enameled pottery 
lingered on in Persia through all the great changes of 
empire, and Persian workmen, or Arabs trained by 
Persians, carried the art of tile making and painting far 
and wide, until their characteristic effects of blue, green, 
purple and white were familiar in countries as distant as 
Spain and India. As used in Mohammedan mosques, the 
decorations were applied more in the form of tiles than of 
bricks. Large surfaces were covered with the regular 
courses of tiles in repeating patterns, or with ornament 
broken up into panels. 



Modern Brickbuilding in France. 

BY JEAN SCHOPFER. 

THE present French architecture continues to employ 
bricks in a most judicious manner. It is evident 
that the qualities of this material must be positive and 
excellent, since it remains in favor in a country where 
stone for building abounds, where it is of superior qual- 
ity as to duration and facility of cut, and where the archi- 
tectural traditions are founded on stone architecture. 

I will show in this article some modern houses built 
of brick in Paris, besides some factories of the town 
where bricks have been employed architecturally with the 
best effect. The houses shown are mostly apartments. 
One knows how very numerous they are in Paris, where 
the custom of having private houses is much less general 
than in England or America. One knows also in what a 
narrow programme the French architect is confined. He 
is forbidden to build higher than five or six stories; he is 
not allowed on the facades any decoration in high relief 
that exceeds the dimensions permitted by the rules of the 
town ; there are also limited dimensions for the courts, 
large and small, — such are the general restrictions that 
hamper the liberty of action of Parisian architects. How 
can one avoid monotony ? How is it possible to give a 




APARTMENT, RUE MARCADET. 
Leon Dupont, Architect. 



58 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




APARTMENT, RL'E \AMIKARD. 
M. Bertrand, Architect. 

personal and artistic character to facades whose essential 
lines are immutably alike ? It is a difficult problem to 
solve, and the ingeniousness of architects is put to a 
severe test. We shall see how cleverly they arrive at 
varying their effects. 

( >ne other general remark applies to the houses here 
treated. Most of them are situated in the eccentric quar- 
ters of the city; most of them contain apartments of a 
moderate rent : they are all situated in popular quarters, 
inhabited by clerks in the civil services, employees in 
stores or shopkeepers. 

It is necessary to inform my readers of this fact, as 
they might easily mistake these facades so elegantly dec- 
orated for houses of the west end of Paris. The desire 
to give a house situated in a popular quarter an architec- 
tural aspect is a novelty worthy of remark. Formerly 
such houses were left in the hands of builders. Landlords 
did not care to go to the expense of an architect. For 
them the working classes were not in need of comfort, 
much less of art; it was useless to build houses that could 
please them. If the houses brought in a good income 
nothing further was desired. 

At the present time more generous and broader ideas 
have come to light. One is aware of the interesting 
revival in France, within the last twelve years, of the dec- 
orative arts. One of the characteristic tendencies of this 
movement has been to bring back art to simple and usual 
objects and at the same time to place it within reach of 
all. 

Architecture has been very slow in following the 
example that was given by the Artes Minores. It was 
considered an art of luxury, whereas, in reality, archi- 



tecture is of all arts the most necessary ; this has changed 
nevertheless, some young architects have worked vig- 
orously in opposition to the superannuated traditions. 
On the other hand, the city of Paris, in the annual com- 
petition for prizes for facades that it has established, is 
always careful to give one or two prizes to houses built 
in the popular quarters of the capital. 

To-day the result is such that we find five or six houses 
built since a year or eighteen months in the eastern 
quarters of Paris worthy of being published in this 
review. Good architects from the School of Fine Arts 
have designed them, and some of them are worth more, 
architecturally, than certain facades of rich modern 
houses in the west end of Paris. 

These are truly satisfactory facts, and I am certain 
that they will awaken great interest among architects 
and the American public, for to-day the movement that 
tends to better the conditions of existence among the 
working classes has become general. Its object is to bring 
art back to what it ought to be, viz., a beautifying of 
simple life, instead of being a luxury accessible to the 
rich alone. Besides, there exists in the United States a 
numerous and growing class of citizens who desire that 
the city should become more artistic, and that pains 
should be taken to give a pleasing aspect to the simplest 
and most useful buildings. It is certain that in the pres- 
ent time one or two handsome buildings are not sufficient 
to make a fine town ; that was possible in Grecian cities, 
thinly populated, where, owing to the mild climate and 
the constitution of social life, citizens spent their time in 
the open air or in public places, discussing the interests 
of the city. In our modern cities it is not so; miserably 
poor houses flank either side of most of the streets, and 




APARTMENT, AVENUE DE LA REPUBLIQUE. 

M. Lefebure, Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



59 




COURT, APARTMENT, RUE POMERUE. 
Gabriel Morice, Architect. 

only in the rich parts of the town do we find 
handsome facades. It is high time to think 
of embellishing the city itself and of bringing 
some art and beauty into the parts where the 
greater number of the population live. That 
a millionaire should build a palace in town and 
a sumptuous villa in the country, we can but 
congratulate the architect on the opportunity 
offered him to display his talent for luxurious 
buildings on a grand scale; but for one palace 
of that style two hundred simple houses are 
built. It is therefore important for the cause 
of good architecture and for the beauty of the 
streets that these simple houses should not be 
neglected by the architects who are to build 
them. 

Here is a task that is interesting, useful and 
also difficult, I confess; for when one cannot 
dazzle the public gaze by antique colonnades, 
pilasters, frameworks of windows copied from 
those of the Palace of the Cancellaria at Rome, 
or of the Chateau of Blois, it becomes necessary 
to put in their stead simple lines combined with 
taste. Good taste is rare and cannot be bought. 

This embellishment of houses of low rent is 
being attempted in Paris since several years, 
and that is why the illustrations given here 
seem to me to offer special interest. 

I find nothing more typical from this point 
of view than the small house of the rue Mar- 
cadet, built by Leon Dupont. Though it is of 



extreme simplicity, the facade is agreeable. Dark bricks 
are used alternately with light bricks in the framework 
of the windows and form the border on the facade ; the 
windows are designed as windows in brickwork sh mid 
be ; lozenges of brick run along under the cornice, the 
consoles that support the cornice receive sunflowers as 
ornaments, and between the consoles are flowers also. 
One cannot well understand why the architect did not use 
bricks for the frieze; one can but admire the elegant 
arches of the shops on the ground floor. 

But what should be remarked particularly, by the side 
of the modern house, is the ugly little house next to it. 
That is the style in which were built the houses in the 
poor quarters of the town fifty years ago ; miserable 
boxes, with windows without the slightest trace of archi- 
tectural design, or any desire to embellish by the smallest 
ornament the ugly facade. Two distinct epochs are 
there side by side, and I leave it to my readers to appre- 
ciate the new direction architecture has taken towards 
the improvement of inexpensive houses. 

The large house in rue de Vanjirard, M. Bertrand, 
architect, is simple and satisfactory, with some orna- 
ments of brick or enameled brick under the balcony and 
between the windows; the windows are designed with 
taste ; there is a certain freedom in the ensemble that is 
even apparent in the way the two pipes from the roof 
follow the line of the cut angle at the corner of the two 
streets. 

A building that is still more finished and of excellent 




APARTMENT IN WEST END. 
M. Klein, Architect. 



6o 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 




SURGICAL PAVILION, 
M. Peronne 



composition is the 
house built by M. 
Lefebure, on the 
avenue d e la R e" - 
publique. It suffices 
to publish it without 
commentaries. 

\Y e fi n (1 that 
French architects 
have the constant 
and laudable desire 
not to neglect the 
facades on courts. In 
modern apartments 
courts arc spacious 
and elegant. When 
it is possible, by 
reason of the shape 

of the ground, there are two courts, one the cour cFhonneur t 
the other the < -our tic service. On the first are the win- 
dows of the bedrooms, dressing rooms, anterooms, etc. ; 
on the second the kitchens, pantries, the servants' 
staircase. 

In the cour dhonneur is often a handsomely decorated 
fountain, perhaps some trees, and always flowers; the 
facades are elegant. When there is but one court, that 
the con/' tic service, the architect does not forget that it is 
precisely in this court that are placed the windows of the 
rich apartments whose drawing rooms look on the street, 
and that the tenant who pays a high rent has the right 
not to have his sight offended by ugly buildings. So he 
does not hesitate to employ his art so as to give an agree- 
able aspect to this facade which is not on the street. In 
the United States it is not always so. I do not know a 
more unpleasant sight, and one that is less to the honor 
of architects and their clients, than the interior courts of 
their town houses. I have visited at New York the inte- 
rior courts of blocks in the rich quarters, where houses 
have facades of twenty-five feet and are worth $100,000 
or more. The facades, built of the commonest bricks, 
are bare ; the win- 
dows open like holes 
in the wall; not 
the slightest trace of 
ornament, no frieze, 
no effort whatever at 
embellishment. 
They might be the 
homes of working 
peoples, houses of 
the last category, 
were it not that one 
sees handsome cur- 
tains and lace blinds 
at the windows. The 
limits of the lot are 
marked by miserable 
low walls in brick- 
work that stand three 
or four feet away 
only from the dining 
room w i n d w s . electric 

Ropes are drawn M Frieze, 



ST. ANNE HOSPITAI 

Architect. 




from wall to wall, on 
which are drying 
kitchen clothes hung 
out by thrifty 
cooks ( ?). Such is 
the spectacle thai the 
inhabitants of these 
sumptuous houses 
have under their eyes 
when they rise in the 
morning. One will 
only spend money on 
the facade that every 
one sees, to astonish 
"the man in the 
street." No expense 
is to be incurred 
simply to decorate a 
portion of the house that only one's self will see; it is 
of no consequence if it is ugly and vulgar. 

Architects ought to join their efforts to obtain an im- 
provement in the courts of town houses. It would not 
be a difficult undertaking. An understanding between 
landlords of the same block is not impossible; and in any 
case, in the new blocks that are being constructed, 
there ought to be a series of measures adopted to make 
the view of the courts pleasanter. Instead of brick walls 
to mark the divisions and that rise to the first floor, gen- 
erally shutting out all light from the dinin» room, why 
not have slender iron railings that would allow light and 
air to circulate freely? Why not arrange the center of 
the block with a flooring of stone or cement, a fountain 
and, if space permitted, some trees- And, finally, is it 
not easy to build on the court, facades that have an archi- 
tectural aspect instead of being the ugly walls they are? 

It is to draw the attention of my readers that I have 
chosen for illustration the simple but elegant facade that 
is seen in the court of a house containing apartments of 
moderate rents in the rue Pomerue. The architect is 
Gabriel Morice. 

The next illus- 
tration shows a house 
in the west of Paris, 
the work of M. Klein. 
It is built of en- 
ameled bricks, with 
decorative details of 
terra-cotta. I would 
especially praise in 
the facade the 
geometrical deco- 
rative pattern in high 
relief that is repeated 
on the frieze under 
the balcony. The re- 
mainder of the deco- 
ration is borrowed 
from the vegetable 
realm. M. Klein has 
chosen the thistle 
flower and its leaves, 
station. that are repeated in 

Architect. tne tympanums of 



THE BRICKBU I LDER 



61 



the windows and of the dormer windows, on the consoles 
that support the balconies and windows. The decoration 
has much realism and style at the same time, but he 
has used it too abundantly ; besides the thistle is in itself 
very sharp. It would be more in place on the capitals of 
a florid Gothic church of the fifteenth century, where all 
the angles are acute, than on the fagade of a modern 
house. 

Let us now turn from dwelling- houses and see the 
pavilion for surgical operations of the hospital of St. Anne 
in Paris. This is a work in bricks, pure and excellent on 
all points. It is due to M. Peronne, who seems to have 
remembered the Dutch style in the way he has built the 
gables, but interpreted with freedom. It suffices to draw 
the attention of the reader to this simple pavilion, with its 
elegant lines; all who are accustomed to examine archi- 
tectural works will recognize at first sight what it is that 
gives it its value. 

The next illustration will serve as the bridge to lead 
us to a new class of buildings. It represents the factory 
and the offices of one of the electrical stations in Paris 
At the angle of two streets 
a dwelling house with apart- 
ments belongs to the factory. 
It is all built in white stone 
and red brick. One can see 
with what taste and care the 
facade of the factory, where 
the offices are, were designed. 
The architect is M. Frieze". 

It is well known that 
generally factories and work- 
shops are extraordinarily 
ugly, and that no architec- 
tural design has interfered 
with their growth. Unfortu- 
nately our modern towns 
contain a great number of 
factories that display their 
dirt and the ugliness of their 
unfinished walls pierced with 
square holes, without even 
frames for windows. A fac- 
tory that is practical, com- 
fortable for the work people and that would present an 
architectural interest would be an ideal factory that our 
fathers declared impracticable. In the United States, 
however, some factories have been built that come very 
near to that ideal, and here is one built in Paris by M. 
Frieze' which is a very good example of what a modern 
factory, designed by an intelligent architect, can be. 
This building has its value constructively; the masses 
and the voids are in happy symmetry; the strong piles 
mount up to the cornice; the windows are grouped in- 
geniously ; steel supports, where they are necessary, do 
not hide away as if they were ashamed to show them- 
selves ; and this facade, simple as it is, is a work that has 
been studied and conceived by a man who knows his pro- 
fession and who has not disdained to apply his talent to 
a utilitarian factory. 

Such are some of the most interesting buildings in 
brick of the last few years. 

One can say in conclusion that bricks are very gener- 
ally used in the present time. Owing to the combination 



of colors that they allow, it is possible to satisfy the very 
characteristic taste of this period for polychrome decora- 
tion. By the help of bricks, bright colors have again 
appeared on the facades of our houses. They are not 
always of a happy effect, but the tendency is excellent. 
We have henceforward the hope that in time we shall 
emerge from the gray kingdom in which architecture has 
flourished for three centuries. 




A MODERN 
M. Frieze, 



STRUCTURAL DEVELOPMENT BY ENACTMENT. 

OUR building laws are epitomes of past rather than 
current practice and are seldom sufficiently elastic 
to allow for new methods or new constructions. It is 
probably not too much to say that most features of 
modern fireproof and steel frame construction have been 
evolved without the sanction and often in opposition to 
existing laws, and have only been legalized after having 
stood the tests of time. The laws follow the development 
but often operate to thwart or divert the best progress. 
We are all of us prone to travel in ruts. When the 

civic authorities prescribe 
exactly what we shall do in 
a great variety of emergen- 
cies we are very apt to fol- 
low their lead rather than to 
specially study the best solu- 
tion, irrespective of statute, 
for each structural emer- 
gency. There have been re- 
peated illustrations of the 
extent to which well intended 
and carefully considered 
building laws have been the 
means of permitting and ex- 
tending the use of construc- 
tions which would probably 
never have come into vogue 
except for possible interpre- 
tations of the statutes. No 
building law yet devised has 
really encouraged fireproof 
construction. Our laws have 
repeatedly fostered some 
of the most worthless forms of constructions which were 
devised simply to evade the law and to reduce the cost at 
the expense of security. The fact that fireproof con- 
struction has developed in spite of various legislative 
checks and the discouraging competition of worthless 
systems is unquestioned evidence that there is a real 
demand for the best, and that it is valued properly by 
those who are competent to judge thereof. We must 
have building laws, and such laws are necessarily conserv- 
ative, looking to the past rather than to the future; but 
in these days of progress it is not wise for any one to say 
to architect or constructor that there is no room for im- 
provement. We believe that, on the whole, better results 
are accomplished when the care and forethought are de- 
voted to the selection of city officials clothed with proper 
discretionary powers, rather than when such care is ex- 
pended in the elaboration of a building law such as that 
recently adopted by Cleveland, whose only defect is that 
it says too much and leaves nothing for future develop- 
ments. 



FACTORY. 

Architect. 



62 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



Editorial Comment and 
Selected Miscellany 



MR. FRANK MILES DAY of Philadelphia on 
March 10, at the Massachusetts Institute of Tech- 
nology in Boston, gave a public lecture illustrating the 
recent and more prominent examples of municipal im- 
provement projected in the various large cities of this 
country, his lecture covering in substance the same 
ground as the report which was read by him at the re- 
cent Convention of the American Institute of Archi- 
tects at Washington. The large hall at the Institute 
was crowded with an interested and appreciative audi- 
ence. The subject is one which has evoked a rather sur- 
prising interest, not only from the architects and those 
who have a personal interest in matters artistic, but from 
the people generally, who arc supposed to be more or 
less indifferent to aesthetic demands. In fact we believe 
the country is fast becoming awake as a whole to munici- 
pal possibilities. The enormous and most elaborately 
studied railway stations at New York and Washington, 
the development of the block plan at Cleveland which 
has proven a pioneer in this line, are improvements 
which would have been impossible a decade ago, not so 
much on account of financial or artistic ability as be- 
cause the country and the people did not want them, 
while the extraordinary interest displayed by the masses 
in the adornment of the New York Subway, the enthu- 
siasm with which public institutions everywhere are ably 
seconding large schemes for municipal improvement, are 
most encouraging signs of the times which show unques- 
tionably that we have rather passed the initiatory stage 
in our national art, and are really ready to try conclu- 
sions with, and satisfactorily solve large public problems. 




HOUSE AT CHICAGO, ILL., BUILT OF TIFFANY ENAMELED 
BRICK, GRANITE FINISH. 
Ernest N. Mayo, Architect. 




MAIN ENTRANCE, HOTEL, AMSTERDAM AVENUE,' 

NEW YORK CITY. 

Terra-cotta furnished by the New York Architectural Terra-cotta Co. 

H. B. Mulliken, Architect. 



It is essentially the age of big schemes, which are put 
forth not as money makers, but as matters of public 
policy. Where twenty years ago a business of a million a 
year was extraordinary 
for an architect, there 
are now a number in our 
large cities who are find- 
ing their hands more 
than full with prob- 
lems running up into 
the millions in cost and 
not of a private or 
speculative nature at 
all, but concerning 
monuments which are 
intended to be perma- 
nent and to have a last- 
ing value as municipal 
factors. Of all cities, 
however, Boston, which 
was the first to develop 
a comprehensive park 
scheme, is the most 
backward in its munici- 
pal growth. This point 
was particularly 
brought out by Mr. 
Day's lecture. At the 
same time there is 




DETAIL BY PERTH AMBOY 

TKRRA-COTTA CO. 
Clinton & Russell, Architects. 






THE BRICKBUILDER 



63 



hardly any city wherein the possibilities are so great. 
There is no civic center in Boston to-day. The City 
Hall is hidden away on a narrow side street. The State 
House is, to be sure, the most conspicuous object in the 
city simply because it is perched on the highest hill, but 





FAIENCE TILES MADE BY HARTFORD FAIENCE CO. 

its surroundings and emplacement are unworthy in nearly 
every respect, and thus far no intelligent scheme has been 
evolved to better them. Copley Square is the nearest 
approach to an architectural focus, but the streets leading 
to and from it are in a state of transition, the Museum 
is booked to leave it very soon, and the Technology 
buildings are pretty surely to shortly be removed, leav- 
ing only Trinity and the Library as permanent fixtures. 
There is consequently a fruitful field in Boston for muni- 




ST. LAWRENCE CHURCH, WEST HAVEN, CONN. 

Built of Jewettville Red Brick, Fiske & Co., New England agents. 

Joseph A. Jackson, Architect. 

cipal improvement, and it is of interest to know that Mr. 
Day's lecture was in a sense the first step in an organized 
effort which is being made by the Boston Society of 
Architects to thoroughly study the problem of municipal 
improvements for Boston and to bring out the best 
possible solutions. 



A TEST OF GOOD CONSTRUCTION. 

EARLY on the morning of February n fire was dis- 
covered in the upper portion of the Congregational 
Building on Beacon Street, Boston, a first-class fireproofed 




GUASTAVINO TILE CONSTRUCTION EMPLOYED IN MADISON 

SQUARE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH, NEW YORK CITY. 

McKim, Mead & White, Architects. 

structure designed by Shepley, Rutan & Coolidge and 
erected only a few years since. The fire apparently 
started in a telephone conduit, and there is not the slight- 
est doubt that nothing but the excellent construction of 
the building prevented it from being a total loss and also 
from communicating the fire to adjoining structures. 
Immediately on the east is the building of the Boston 
Athenaeum, of second-class construction, containing almost 
priceless literary and artistic treasures. Had the fire 
been allowed to spread at all these would undoubtedly 
have been consumed. The city streets were in a fearful 
condition owing to ice and snow, and the grades leading 
up to Beacon Hill were so difficult that the fire had full 
twenty minutes' headway before the department could 
bring any stream to bear upon it. One office in the eighth 
floor was considerably damaged, a stock room containing 
the telephone cables was destroyed, on the seventh floor 
two rooms were entirely burned out, and of course water 
and smoke created a certain amount of damage, but the 
total loss was surprisingly small notwithstanding the 
headway which the fire acquired and the difficulty under 
which the firemen labored in fighting it. Business has 
not been interrupted in the building for a single day, and, 




CHRISTIAN SCIENCE CHURCH, ST. LOUIS, MO. 

Built of St. Louis Hydraulic Press Brick. 

Mauran, Russell & Garden, Architects. 



6 4 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



barring some broken glass in the lower story, the exter- 
nal appearance is unchanged. Here were certainly all the 
conditions for a conflagration, and the result showed 




BATTLE CREEK SANATORIUM, BATTLE CREEK, MICH. 

Built of Ohio Mining and Manufacturing Co. "Shawnee" Brick, 
Thomas Moulding Co., Western Agents. 

beyond question that properly constructed and applied 
terra-cotta fireproofing and terra-cotta partitions are 
amply sufficient to protect from any extensive spread of 
a fire starting from within. This occurrence also illus- 
trated the folly of permitting inflammable structures to 
be erected in the business portion of the city. 



THE National Board of Fire Underwriters is com- 
posed of one hundred and twenty of the leading fire 
insurance companies doing business in the United States, 
its purpose being to influence the introduction of im- 




MANUFACTURING BUILDING, PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

Roofed with Bennett's L T nglazed Spanish Roofing Tiles. 

D. W. & W. D. Hewett. Architects. 

proved and safe methods of building construction, the 
adoption of fire protective measures, and efficient organi- 
zation and equipment of fire departments. In view of 
the excessive waste by fire in this country the board has 
appointed a committee charged with the duty of organiz- 
ing an engineering department composed of men stand- 
ing high in their professions, and through them it is 
proposed to investigate conditions for improvements that 
would minimize the sweeping fire or conflagration hazard. 
A staff of engineers has been organized and to-day there 
are in the field four parties, each collecting data and mak- 
ing tests in some different city 



Mr. E. H. Hopson has been appointed chief engineer. 
Captain G. S. Curtis, the engineer in charge of the in- 
vestigations of the fire departments and their auxiliaries, 
in addition to a professional education in electrical and 
mechanical engineering, had, until taking up this work, 
been connected with the Boston Fire Department for a 
number of years and has also visited various cities in 
Europe and made a close study of the fire-fighting facili- 
ties of the Continent. The entire work is under the im- 
mediate supervision of Mr. Herbert Wilmerding, the 
secretary, with offices at 135 Williams Street, New York. 
He has made a very careful study of the problems in- 
volved in a number of our large cities, and is abundantly 




TELEPHONE BUILDING, GRAND RAPIDS, MICH. 
Faced with " Ironclay " Brick, F. H. McDonald, Agent. 
Williamson & Crow, Architects. 

able to properly direct the work of the department. The 
federal government has detailed two engineers of the 
United States Army to investigate and review the reports 
of each city. All of the work will be absolutely free 
from any influence except such as would tend to produce 
the most accurate information. The department will 
have no control over rates of insurance, and the reports 
will be criticised by men in no way connected with the 
business of fire insurance, and having no reason for en- 
dorsing a report that stated other than the facts or that 
asks for improvements or changes that are not in the inter- 
ests of the public. 




UPPER STORIES, TRIBUNE BUILDING, CHICAGO, ILL. 

Terra-Cotta by Northwestern Terra-Cotta Co. 

Holabird & Roche, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



65 



The work that this commission can accomplish is the 
kind which is urgently needed. The insurance experi- 
mental station at Boston has done excellent work and will 




DETAIL BY NEW JERSEY TERRA-COTTA CO. 

continue to do so, but the conclusions arrived at by a body 
so closely identified with the National Board will be re- 
ceived more widely and will have more influence than 
the action of any local board. There is every reason to 

believe that 
this commis- 
sion will start 
its work with- 
out any bias, 
without any 
attempt to 
reach any con- 
clusions ex- 
cept such as 
rest upon a 




strongly recommended that 
many numerical problems should 
be solved, and that in so doing 
the actual forces and bodies 
should be always kept in mind 
with the principles that govern 
their relations. Forty lessons 
thoroughly mastered will form 
a solid substructure on which 
applied mechanics may safely 
stand. If this be accomplished 
and an advanced course be later 
pursued it is believed that the 
interests of sound engineering 
education will be materially 
promoted. 



IN GENERAL. 

Harry I. Schenck and Harry 
J. Williams have formed a co- 
partnership for the practice of 
architecture under the firm 
name of Schenck & Williams. 
Offices, 432 Arcade Building, 
Dayton, Ohio. 




TERRA-COTTA FIGURE 
BY WINKLE TERRA- 
COTTA CO. 



DETAIL BY INDIANAPOLIS TERRA-COTTA CO. 
Richards, McCarty & Bulford, Architects. 

basis of unquestioned 'fact, and the re- 
port which they will issue will be antici- 
pated with a great deal of interest. 



NEW BOOKS. 

Elements ok Mechanics. Forty Lessons for Beginners 
in Engineering. By Mansfield Merriman, Professor 
of Civil Engineering in Lehigh University. i2mo, 
172 pages, 142 figures. Cloth, $1.00 net. New York : 
John Wiley & Sons. 

During the past forty years great advances have been 
made in the methods of instruction in all branches of 
applied mechanics, but little or no change has taken place 
in the manner of presenting the subject of rational me- 
chanics. This elementary volume is an attempt to apply 
the best methods of applied mechanics to the development 
of the fundamental principles and methods of rational 
mechanics. To read this volume with interest and profit, 
only a knowledge of plane geometry, elementary algebra 
and plane trigonometry is required. It is intended for 
manual training schools, freshman classes in engineering 
colleges, and for young men in general who have the prep- 
aration just indicated. To all who may use the book it is 



The American Academy of 
Fine Arts in Rome was founded 
in 1894, and was incorporated 
by Act of Congress in February, 
1905. It provides a post-gradu- 
ate course of instruction for 
architects, sculptors, painters 
and musicians. 

The beneficiaries of the 
Academy are selected annually 
by competition from advanced 
students in the different 
branches of the fine arts in the 
United States. 

The course of study during 
the prescribed term of three 
years includes, in addition to 
residence in Rome, travel in Italy, Sicily, Greece and 
other countries. 

The students are required annually to collaborate in 
a problem in which the arts of architecture, sculpture 
and painting are united and also to execute a work, 
which becomes the property of the Academy. 

The work of the students is now being exhibited at 
the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City. 




detail executed by excelsior terra 

COTTA CO. 

Calvin Kiessling, Architect 



1 vp 


T ,^ • "SWt^ Afe) \\ X "S 


P' I 


5^ 
1 i^> 




- I 



DETAIL BY STANDARD TERRA-COTTA WORKS. 

Clinton & Russell, Architects. 



66 



THE BR ICKBU ILDER. 



Architectural Faience. Competition A. 

Subject: A Garden Wall Fountain. 

ONE CASH PRIZE ONLY. FIFTY DOLLARS for BEST DESIGN. 

Also MENTIONS. 

Competition closes May 31, 1905. 



WANTED — At once, a first-class architectural draughtsman. 
Must be capable of designing and detailing. Address Favrot & 
Livaudais, 839 Gravier Street, New Orleans, La. 

WANTED — Two good draughtsmen and designers for general 
office work. Permanent positions. Address Elmer E. Dunlap, Ar- 
chitect, Columbus, Ind. 



PROGRAMME. 

In a brick wall which encloses a small formal garden, at the end 
of a path, it is desired to place a Wall Fountain which is to be exe- 
cuted in Architectural Faience. 

The Fountain, with its embellishments, is to occupy a wall space 
of not more than one hundred square feet. 

The color scheme may be indicated by a key. 

Garden Pots and other appropriate accessories may be shown. 
"~ Drawings required. Plan and Elevation at a scale of one-half 
inch to the foot. 

Drawings may be rendered at will on a sheet of unmounted 
white paper, measuring 16 inches by 20 inches. 

Each drawing is to be signed by a nom de plume or device, and 
accompanying same is to be a sealed envelope with a nom de plume 
on the exterior and containing the true name and address of the 
contestant. 

The drawing is to be delivered at the office of THE BRICK- 
BUILDER, 85 Water Street, Boston, Mass., charges prepaid, on or 
before May 31, 1905. 

The prize drawing is to become the property of THE BRICK- 
BUILDER, and the right is reserved to publish or exhibit any or all 
of the others. Those who wish their drawings returned may have 
them by enclosing in the sealed envelopes containing their names 
five cents in stamps. 

The designs will be judged by a well-known member of the ar- 
chitectural profession. 

Competition open to every one. 





RICHEY 




1 






A Handbook for Superintendents 




a 




of Construction, Architects, 








Builders and Building Inspectors 


W> SI 


RICHEV 


Iiy H. ('•. RICKEY, Superintendent of 
Construction U. S. Public Buildings, 
Author of " Richey's Guide and 
Assistant for Carpenters and Mechan- 
ics." 16mo, v + 742 pages, 357 fig- 
ures. Morocco, $4.00. 


K 


V 




Descriptive circulars upon application. 


IOHN Wll FY A, SOISK 




^^^^^ 43 and 45 East 19th Street. New York City. 



.. Competition for a Fireproof House 

Constructed of Terra-Cotta HollotD Tile Blocks To cost $10,000 

First Prize, $500 Second Prize, $200 Third Prize, $100 





"PROGRA M ME 

HE possibilities in the use of burnt clay in its various forms in our domestic architecture have only begun to be realized. 
That dwellings of moderate cost should be made fireproof is not only recognized as desirable, but practicable. 

The object of this competition is to call out designs for a house, the walls, floors and partitions of which are to be of terra-cotta hollow tile 
blocks. 

The cost of the house, exclusive of the land, is not to exceed $io,ooo. Designs calling for a more expensive house wilt not be considered. 

A detailed statement of costs must accompany each design. This statement is to be typewritten on one side only of a sheet of paper measuring n 
inches x 8 ' 3 inches. 

A further object of this competition is to encourage a study of the use of burnt clay products of the particular class mentioned, in an artistic as well as 
practical manner, and to obtain designs which would be appropriate for such materials. 

In the selection of blocks for exterior walls, terra-cotta hollow tile fireproofing blocks must be employed, and not architectural terra-cotta blocks. 

REQUIREMENTS: The house is supposed to be built in the suburbs of a large city, upon a corner lot, with a frontage of ico feet towards the south 
and 150 feet on the side street towards the east. The grade is practically level throughout. The house is to be two stories high with an attic. This attic may 
be either in the pitch of the roof or a third story may be treated as an attic with a flat roof On the first floor there is to be a reception room, a library, a din- 
ing room, a kitchen and the ordinary allowance for pantries, coat rooms, stairways, etc. The front hall may be treated as desired. In the second story there 
are to be two bathrooms, four chambers, a sewing room, a den, linen closet, etc. The third story should contain at least two servants' rooms, besides a store- 
room. Fireplaces, bay windows, seats, etc., are at the option of the designer. 

The clear height is to be in first story 10 feet, second story 9 feet, third story optional with the designer. The cellar need not be specially planned, but 
will have a clear height of 8 feet. Arrangement of piazzas to be left with the designer. 

CONSTRUCTION : While the method of construction for walls, floors and partitions is to be determined by the designer, the following suggestions are 
offered as being practicable and admissible : 

First. Outside walls may be of hollow tile blocks 8 inches thick, lined on the interior with 4-inch furring tile, the treatment of the faces of the blocks to 
be appropriate for such materials. 

Second. Outside walls may be of hollow tile blocks 8 inches thick, lined on the interior with 4-inch furring tile, the face of the wall to be rough cast 
or plastered. 

Third. The outside walls may be faced with brick, with a backing of 8-inch hollow tile blocks. 

Fourth. The outside wall may be built with an outer and inner wall, with an air space of 4 inches between, using in each wall a 4-inch hollow tile. 
The treatment of the face of such a wall, and the manner of bonding the outer and inner walls, are left to the designer. The plaster finish may be applied 
direct to the interior surface of such a wall. 

If hollow tile blocks are used for facings, any special features in the finish or treatment of their exposed surfaces should be given in a footnote on sheet 
showing elevations. 

For the interior partitions terra-coita blocks are to be used. 

For the floors one of the long span : terra-cotta hollow tile block systems now on the market, which are adapted up to spans of 20 feet without the use 
of steel beams, or a system which employs terra-cotta hollow tile blocks in connection with light steel construction. 

DRAWINGS REQUIRED : On one sheet the front and a side elevation, at a scale of four feet to the inch ; also plans of first and second floor, at a scale 
of eight feet to the inch, and on another sheet details showing clearly the scheme of construction for the exterior walls, th.. floors and the partitions, together 
with other details drawn at a scale sufficiently large to show them clearly. Graphic scales to be on all drawings. 

The size of each sheet is to be exactly 24 inches by 36 inches. The sheets are not to be mounted. 

All drawings are to be made in black line without wash or color. All sections shown are to be crosshatched in such manner as to clearly indicate the 
material, and the floor plans are to be blocked in solid. 

Each set of drawings is to be signed by a nom de plume or device, and accompanying same is to be a sealed envelope with the nom dc plume on the exterior 
and containing the true name and address of the contestant. 

The drawingsare to be delivered flat at the office of THE BRICKBUILDER, 85 Water Street, Boston, Mass., on or before May 15, 1905. 

The designs will be judged by well-known members of the architectural profession. 

In making the award the jury will take into account, first, the fitness of the design in an artistic sense to the materials employed; second, the 
adaptability of the design as shown by details to the practical constructive requirements of burnt clay ; third, the relative excellence of the design. 

Carefully made estimates giving relative costs of fireproof and ordinary wood construction for houses built from the designs awarded the three cash 
prizes will be obtained by the publishers of THE BRICKBUILDER. and given at the time the designs are published. 

The prize drawings are to become the property of THE BRICKBUILDER, and the right is reserved to publish or exhibit any or all of the others. 
Those who wish their drawings returned, except the prize drawings, may have them by enclosing in the sealed envelopes containing their names ten cents in 
stamps 

For the design placed first in this competition there will be given a prize of $500.00. 

For the design placed second a prize of $200.00. 

For the design placed third a prize of $100.00. 

In the study of this problem, competitors are invited to consult freely with the manufacturers of burnt clay fireproofing or their agents. This competi- 
tion is open to every one. 






Mt^uRvRyr*^^ 




Nw Fi^emhe^S Hoa>PinrAJL Symu 

WASiM^0ir€^i B.C. 



ACCEPTED DESIGN FOB FB 
Bruce Price & de Sib 



LDER. 

PLATES 17 and 18. 




3 ITAL, WASHINGTON, D. C. 
-L Pope, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 14. NO. 3. PLATE 23. 



- 



J J J J J 1 1 J I 1 I 1 I I I 1 1 i J I 1 



fl 





LONGITUDINAL SECTION THROUGH NAVE 



TRANSVERSE SECTION. 





SIOE ELEVATION 



MORTUARY CHAPEL, NORWOOD, MASS. Cram, Goodhue & Ferguson, Architects. 



THE B R I 

VOL. 14. NO. 3. 




_ J—fry- — — 




)ER 



PLATES 21 and 22. 



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THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 14. NO. 3. PLATE 24. 




GROUND AND FIRST FLOOR PLAN, HOUSE AT BUFFALO, N. Y. 
Grosvenor Atterbury, Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 14. NO. 3. PLATE 19. 




THIRD FLOOR PLAN. 








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ADMINISTRATION BUILDING. 



FREEDMEN'S HOSPITAL. WASHINGTON, D. C. 
Bruce Price & de Sbour and John Russell Pope, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 14. NO. 3. p LATE 2 0. 




FIRST FLOOR PLAN. 




BASEMENT PLAN. 



PLANS, FREEDMEN'S HOSPITAL, WASHINGTON, D. C. 
Bruce Price & de Sibour and John Russell Pope, Architects. 



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Grosvenor Atterbury, Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDCR, 

MARCH, 

1906. 




THE BROADWAY TABERNACLE, BROADWAY AND 56TH STREET, NEW YORK CITY. 

Barney & Chapman, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

MARCH, 

1906. 



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DETAIL OF MAIN ENTRANCE. 

PUBLIC LIBRARY, COLORADO SPRINGS, COLO. 

Calvin Kiessling, Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER, 
APRIL, 

1906. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 14. NO. 4. PLATE 31. 










FRONT ELEVATION. 




TTMMr ^ 



FIRST FLOOR PLAN. 

BEDFORD BRANCH, CARNEGIE LIBRARY, NEW YORK CITY. 
Lord & Hewlett, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 14. NO. 4. PLATE 29. 




PUBLIC LIBRARY, MONTGOMERY, ALA. 
York & Sawyer, architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 14. NO. 4. PLATE 27. 





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FRONT ELEVATION. 





SIDE ELEVATION. 

CARNEGIE LIBRARY, COLORADO SPRINGS, COL. 
Calvin Kiessling, Architect. 






THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 14. NO. 4. PLATE 28. 







THE BRICKBU I LDER. 

VOL. 14. NO. 4. PLATE 30. 




SECOND FLOOR PLAN. 




FIRST FLOOR PLAN. 

FLOOR PLANS, PUBLIC LIBRARY, MONTGOMERY, ALA. 
York & Sawyer, Architects. 









■ **- 



THE BRICKBU I LDER. 

VOL. 14. NO. 4. PLATE 32. 




FRONT ELEVATION. 




FRONT FLOOR PLAN. 

FAR ROCKAWAY BRANCH, CARNEGIE LIBRARY, NEW YORK CITY. 

Lord & Hewlett, Architects. 





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BEDFORD BRANCH. CARNEGIE LIBRARY, NEW YORK CITY. 

Lord & Hewlett, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDCR, 

APRIL, 

1906. 




CARNEGIE LIBRARY, MONTGOMERY, ALABAMA. 
York & Sawyer, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILOCR, 

APRIL, 

1806. 



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ADMINISTRATION BUILDING. 





NURSES' HOME. 

MUHLENBERG HOSPITAL, PLAINFIELD, N.J. 
Tracy & Swartwout, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDCR, 

JANUARY, 

1908. 



r. 




CHURCH OF THE HOLY ROOD. WATFORD, ENGLAND. 
J. F. Bentley, Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

JANUARY, 

1806. 



a. 










V *»j 



f iffiij|ifl 






THE TAVERN CLUB, CLEVELAND, OHIO. 
J. Milton Dyer, architect. 



THE BRICKBUILOCR, 

JANUARY, 

1900. 




THE CHPIST CHURCH AND BABCCCK MEMORIAL HOUSE, WEST THIRTY-SIXTH STREET, THE BRlCKBU1LDtR , 

NEW YORK CITY. January. 

Parish & Schroeder, Architects. ,90S - 





HOUSE OF THE GOOD SAMARITAN, BOSTON, MASS. 
Andrews, Jaques & Rantoul, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 
MAY, 
1905. 






THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 14. NO. 5. PLATE 39. 




LZC 






a 




LONGI T UDINAL SECTION. 

9- 







FRONT ELEVATION. 

CARROLL PARK BRANCH, CARNEGIE LIBRARY, NEW YORK CITY. 
William B. Tubby & Bro., Architects. 



1 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 14. NO. 5. PLATE 40. 





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THE BRICKBUILDER. 



Vol. 14 



APRIL 1905 



No. 4 



CONTENTS — PLATES 

From Work of EAMES & YOUNG, HALE & MORSE, CALVIN KIESSLING, 
LORD & HEWLETT, YORK & SAWYER. 



CONTENTS — LETTER PRESS 

UNFINISHED CHAPEL, CHURCH OF NUESTRA SENHORA DA VITTORIA, BATALHA, 

PORTUGAL Frontispiece 

EDITORIALS 67 

ECCLESIASTICAL ARCHITECTURE. PAPER II R Clifston Sturgis 68 

THE "VILLAGE BLOCK " SERIES. ARTICLE III Hu^h M. G. Garden 76 

DESIGN FOR A VILLAGE BLOCK Harry S. Water bury 79 

BOSTON BRICKWORK. Ill 80 

REVISION OF THE BUILDING LAWS OF PHILADELPHIA 84 

EDITORIAL COMMENT AND SELECTED MISCELLANY 86 




UNFINISHED CHAPEL, CHURCH OF NUESTRA SENHORA DA VITTORIA, 

BATALHA, PORTUGAL. 



Zftt 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



VOL. 14 No. 4 



DEVOTED TO THE • INTERESTS OF 
iARCHITECTVRE- IN • MATEPU ALS • OF CLAY 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY 

ROGERS & MANSON, 
85 Water Street, Boston, Mass. . . P. O. Box 3282. 

Entered at the Boston, Mass., Post Office as Second Class Mail Matter, March 12, 1892. 

COPYRIGHT, 1893, BY THE BRICKBUILDER PUBLISHING COMPANY. 

Subscription price, mailed flat to subscribers in the United States and 

Canada . . . . . . . . . $5'°° per year 

Single numbers ......... 50 cents 

To countries in the Postal Union ...... $6.00 per year 

Subscriptions payable in advance. 

For sale by all newsdealers in the United States and Canada. Trade supplied by 
Hie American News Company and its branches. 

THEATER CONSTRUCTION. 

ONE of the Boston dailies, in an editorial under the 
above title, alludes to a scheme which seems to it 
to be novel for doing away with staircases in theaters, 
and substituting therefor inclines or ramps leading 
from the lower to the upper levels. The editorial goes 
on to state that the English government is intending to 
build a temporary structure to test the feasibility of the 
incline for playhouses. The proposition is to have 
such a structure set on fire with a hundred men in- 
side of it, and to produce as nearly as possible the con- 
ditions of a panic in a theater. 

This is a very good illustration of the way in which 
daily papers will sometimes try to deal with a practical 
subject. Quite aside from the question as to whether or 
not a hundred men could be found who would be willing 
to be panic-stricken to order in a blazing shed, it is 
quite certain that such an experiment would have no 
bearing on any real solution of the problem, nor is it 
at all necessary to make such childish attempts. 

The ramp is as old as the staircase. Furthermore, it 
has been used with marked success for many years in a 
number of theaters. The Nixon Theater at Pittsburg, 
one of the finest in the country, has a double set of 
ramps leading from the main floor to the balcony. A 
theater in Los Angeles takes advantage of the hillside 
situation and has ramps leading from the front to the 
balcony, and from the higher level in the rear to the 
gallery, so that staircases are entirely dispensed with. 

With a rise of not over one in twelve, and better, 
of one in twenty, such ramps are as safe for a crowd as 
a level passage and are incomparably better than any 
stairs being devised. The practical difficulty is that 
they take up so much space it is seldom that property 



owners will consent to their use. But there is not the 
slightest question about their practical utility nor about 
their being the safest means of communication which 
could be devised. 

No arrangement, however, of either staircases or 
inclines can avert a panic. There have been repeated 
instances, like the occasion of the coronation of the 
Czar at Moscow, when a panic in a crowd on a perfectly 
level unlimited plain has resulted in large loss of life. 
The most that can be done is to eliminate as far as 
possible obscure corners, sharp turns or places of stum- 
bling. All of this is admirably accomplished by the use 
of inclined planes. 



BUILDING PROSPECTS FOR 1905. 

BRADSTREET'S makes some very interesting and 
hopeful predictions for building operations during 
the current year based upon reports received from one 
hundred and eight cities and towns of varying size in the 
United States. These point to an expenditure for new 
building amounting to four hundred and fifty-five million 
dollars, a gain of fifteen and seven-tenths per cent over 
corresponding work in 1904. The percentage of gain is 
not uniform throughout the country. The West gains 
twenty-four per cent as against seventeen per cent in the 
South and ten per cent in the middle Atlantic states; 
while New England shows a gain of only nine per cent. 

Taking these figures and extending them to the entire 
country a grand aggregate of about six hundred million 
dollars for building is foreshadowed, of which amount at 
least three hundred million will go into material. And 
as the burnt clay products form the basis of nearly all 
structural work, at least one hundred and fifty million 
will very likely be expended in these directions. 

These figures are certainly very hopeful, but their full 
import to the architect or builder will be more fully ap- 
preciated when we consider the class of structures which 
go to make up the bulk of the increase. 

Six hundred millions expended in cheap flats or specu- 
lative residences does not mean a very substantial 
growth; but the most encouraging feature of the building 
outlook is the large number of important monumental 
structures which are being considered. There seems to 
be far less speculative work than ever before. The jerry 
builder will always be with us, and his fragments will 
have to be gathered up as they were in New York the past 
month. But the list of important, dignified, permanent 
structures which are planned for the immediate future is 
most encouraging to all who are interested in good archi- 
tecture and thorough construction. 



68 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



Ecclesiastical Architecture. 



PAPER II. 



BY R. CLTPSTON STURGIS; 



IN a previous paper I reviewed very briefly the two as- 
pects of the teaching of the Church which gave us 
successively the altar type of church, brought to its most 
perfect architectural expression before the sixteenth cen- 
tury, and the pulpit type, which, developing later and 
under less favorable architectural circumstances, never 
reached so full and perfect a development. 




HOI.V TRINITY, SLOANE SQUARE, LONDON. 
A City Church in a Block. 
John D. Sedding, Architect. 

In the present paper I propose to attempt to show 
how the modern demand has been for a building which 
combines many of the essentials of both these ideals ; and 
how far this has been realized in execution. And, because 
English Gothic has so much association with the church 
of which the Protestant Episcopal Church in America is a 
branch, and because this type, pliable as it is, lends 
itself readily to the majority of situations and surround- 
ings in this country, I propose to confine myself largely 
to the considerations of the problem as it has been solved 
on the lines of English Gothic architectural precedents. 

This I do, partly because the field would be too large 
to cover if I attempted to consider the various aspects of 
Renaissance church work, and partly because I hope that 
what I have to say may approve itself as true, whether 
expressed in the language of the fifteenth, the eighteenth 
or the twentieth century. 

I will take first the needs of a parish church, both in 
a city and in the country, then of a cathedral church, 
and then of a college chapel type, and see how the re- 
quirements of each, modern as they are, have been met 



without losing what was beautiful and essential in the 
architecture and symbolism of the earlier standards. 

Taking first then a city church and presupposing the 
most difficult conditions that may exist in a city lot, such 
as would restrict an ordinary house lot, not on a corner, 
one must, within those limits, give dignity to the altar, 
some elevation, that it may be readily seen, and good 
light, which yet shall not be in the eyes of the congrega- 
tion. There must be ample space for a choir who are to 
lead the service of a large number of people, perhaps six 
or eight hundred or more, and dignified space for the 
clergy, often three or more, and for the bishop when on 
visitation. This much is the expression of the require- 
ments of the altar type. It must be modified, however, 
by a distinctly modern requirement ; a large proportion 
of the congregation, especially at the high festivals, re- 
ceive the sacrament, and it is imperative that there should 
be not only accommodation for a good number, say 
twenty to thirty, at the altar rail, but also convenient 
means of approaching and leaving the chancel with due 
order and reverence. This means space at the rail, a 
good central aisle in the choir and opportunity, perhaps 
in side choir aisles, for those who have received to return 
without interfering with those coming up. 




INTERIOR, HOLY TRINITY. 
A Church Seating about 1,000. 



The number of the clergy and the number of the choir 
are both factors in this problem. A number of clergy, 
often four in the larger London parish churches, simpli- 
fies the administration, but makes such frequent changes 
at the rail that communicants form a continuous line 
going up and coming down. In such cases it is especially 
desirable that separate aisles should be available for 
approaching and leaving the altar. The choir influences 
the problem in that it is generally (owing largely to the 



THE BRIC KBU ILDER 



69 




broidered hangings to serve as reredos, the proper 
care of these, which must not be folded, requires 
special consideration. 

There are various ways of bringing the choir 
into church. The simplest and most direct seems 
to me the best. Many think that a procession is a 
ceremony by itself, reserved for important occasions, 
for high festivals; others consider it a part of every 
service in which the choir joins. The entry into 
the chancel and the arrangement of the choir stalls 
will to a certain extent depend on the point of view. 
There is, however, in each case a special need to be 
met. 

The people now demand an intimate share in 
the services of the Church which was not considered 
in the middle ages. This has already been touched 
upon, speaking of the congregation communicating. 
For the same reason a structural rood in a parish 
church is not only unnecessary, for the division 
between clergy and people is not now so strongly 
emphasized, but is actually objectionable as cutting 
off the choir and more especially the altar from 
view. The significance of the rood however re- 
mains, and the rood beam meets modern require- 
ments and at the same time preserves the symbolic 
significance of the cross as the means of access to 
the altar. With the rood beam one often finds a 
low solid barrier which serves to mark in dignified 
manner the separation between nave and choir and, 



THE CHURCH AT HOAR CROSS, WI III CENTRAL TOWER 

Bodley & Garner, Architects. 



fact that trained boys are not always available) 
much larger than would be at all necessary if the 
voices were all first rate and reliable. The large 
number in the choir necessitates enlarging the 
chancel or cramping the space which should be re- 
served for free passage. This often means that 
the architect is forced to cramp the aisles, owing to 
the requirements of space for choristers, out of all 
proportion to the size of the church. In one of the 
smaller English cathedrals the full choir consists of 
but fourteen trebles, three altos, four tenors, four 
basses, the daily services having generally a con- 
siderably smaller number. 

Before considering the pulpit and nave it will be 
well to consider the service, so to speak, of the 
chancel and sanctuary. The choir form in their 
vestry and lead into the church, followed by the 
clergy. The vestry for the choir should be there- 
fore so located as to make it convenient for clergy 
to join the choir, and at the same time the clergy 
vestry should be so convenient to the chancel as to 
make a direct entry possible when the choir is not 
used. This secondary entrance would serve also 
when the celebrant goes direct to the altar and does 
not follow the choir on their entry. Beside choir 
and clergy vestry there should be also the sacristy 
for vestments, altar hangings, etc. In many 
churches these would be of simple description and 
would require little space, but where colored vest- 
ments are used by the clergy, and where the altar 
has frontals and superfrontals and perhaps em- 




1 



- 






INTERIOR, THE CHURCH AT HOAR CROSS. 



7° 



THE BRICKBUILDER 





ST. AUGUSTINK's, PENDLEBURY. Bodlcy & Garner. Architects. 

A Church in a Manufacturing Town, but standing free. 



in part, helps to screen the boys who, one regrets to 
say, are not always the edifying sight they should be. 
The pulpit, through its over-emphasis in Puritan 
days, has remained a very important factor in the church, 
and it is imperative that in a good modern church every 
one should be able to see or at the very least to hear 
the preacher. However poorly the clergy preach, it 




seems to be an accepted fact to-day that preaching has 
cotie to stay and must be recognized as an essential 
part of the service. With this in view much of the study 
of architects has been put on the question of how to 
retain the symbolic nave ?nd aisles and yet make a fair 
auditorium within which all the seats are good. The 
most practical and most modern solution is to reduce the 
aisles to a dimension where they serve practically noth- 
ing except passageways. Mr. Bodley's St. Augustine's 
and Mr. Cram's All Saints', Dorchester, are such plans, 
although Mr. Bodley's church in its proportion follows 
more nearly the college chapel type. 

To obtain the plan outlined above on a city lot means 
a building largely dependent on clerestory light. Mr. 
Sedding's church, Holy Trinity, Sloan Square, London, 
is a good example of a modern city church on such lines, 
but the sanctuary depends largely for light on its great 




,- "■ r r J*;' ■ ' 



CHRIST CHURCH, NEW HAVEN, CONN. 
Henry Vauglian, Architect. 



PLAN, CHRIST CHURCH, NEW HAVEN, CONN. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



7i 





THE CMAPKL, GKOTON SCHOOL, GKOTON, MASS. Henry Vaughan, Architect. 

Seating 150 boys, pew-wise. 





PLAN, ST PAULS SCHOOL CHAPK.L. 



PLAN, GROTON SCHOOL CHAPEL. 





THE CHAPEL AT ST PAUL'S SCHOOL, CONCORD, N. H. Henry Vaughan, Architect. 
Seating some 300 boys, choir-wise. 



7 2 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



east window, which is trying for the congregation. Few- 
would consider the church very close to the lines of Eng- 
lish Gothic work. Sedding himself I believe described its 



with ten-story buildings, in the country they seem entirely 
in place. In the city then the lofty nave is the one great 
note of dignity of the church which speaks to its own 




ALL SAINTS CHURCH, ASHMONT, MASS. 
A Church in a Suburb, Standing in its own Grounds 
Cram, Goodhue & Ferguson. Architects. 



style as "Sedding debased " ; none the less it is a line 
logical expression of modern church needs. 

With the country parish church it is in many respects 
a simpler question, as one has the freedom that comes 
from more space and less restriction in light, otherwise 
the lines for the development of the plan remain the 
same; the chief difference being that whereas the type 
dependent on the clerestory for light presupposes height 
of nave, this is neither required nor advisable in the coun- 
try; and where city surroundings make tower and spires 
out of place, for they may weakly challenge comparison 




congregation, to those within : in the country the tower 
or spire soaring above the low lying nave carries a wider 
message to all who have eyes to see, or ears to hear, 



CHAPEL Of THE UNIVERSITY OF THE SOUTH. SEWANEE, TENN. 
A College Chapel with detached Tower. 
Cram, Goodhue & Ferguson, Architects. 







INTERIOR, CHAPEL AT SEWANEE, TENN. 



THE BRICKBU ILDER. 



73 





EMANUEL CHURCH, NEWPORT, R. I. 

A Church in a small City but having the freedom or the Country. 
Cram, Goodhue & Ferguson, Architects. 





INTERIOR, EMANUEL CHURCH, NEWPORT R. I. INTERIOR, ALL SAINTS' CHURCH, ASHMONT, MASS. 

Cram, Goodhue & Ferguson, Architects. 



74 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




CATHEDRAL AT DENVER, COLO. 



one may add, for the bells which are so beautiful in the 
open country may prove rather a nuisance than a pleasure 
in a place where every added sound is an added burden. 

In the churches illustrated here we have reasonable 
modern developments from the older types, not copies, 
but practical solutions of present-day problems done in 
the light of older knowledge. 

Somewhat different from this is the problem of the 
cathedral. This, as a modern problem, is still in its 
infancy. Here, in this country, we do not feel altogether 
sure that we want cathedrals, we do not feel quite sure 
what to do with them when we have them. Personally 
I believe most strongly that we do need them and that 
they have a great work to perform. 

As compared with the parish church the cathedral is a 
building designed for 
many services, attend- 
ed generally by few 
worshipers. Here 
daily and oftentimes a 
day is the sacrifice of 
prayer and thanksgiv- 
ing offered for the 
people. It matters 
little whether few or 
many are present at 
the services, it matters 
much that the service 
should be rendered. 
This, then, is the chief 
office of the cathedral, 
— to make a continu- 
ous daily offering for 
the people. The 
scoffer says, "hiring 



some one to pray for 
you." That is. in 
truth, the danger, and 
the condition to which 
at times such service 
has degenerated; but, 
nevertheless, there is 
an uplifting thought 
that underlies the act 
and makes it reverent 
and beautiful, and 
there are few who 
would not be helped 
by the knowledge that 
at SUCh a time < rod is 
being served in the 
appointed way in His 
church. 

To meet this espe- 
cial need the cathedral 
of modern times is 
built. If it were only 
this, a mere choir 
would serve the pur- 
pose; but it must at 
t i mes accommodate 
great crowds, and 
thus the great size 
is justified. The con- 
sequent impressiveness tells not merely when a great 
congregation throngs the nave, but also when through 
the empty nave and the dim mystery of vast spaces the 
voices of the choir are heard. The cathedral at Albany 
is one of the early attempts and is hardly more than an 
effort to reproduce the past. The Cathedral of St. John 
the Divine in New York is hardly far enough anvanced 
as yet to judge ; but as with the parish church, so with the 
cathedral, the solution will surely come. The cathe- 
dral at Denver is practically a very large modern par- 
ish church, thoroughly planned and equipped for a 
service with a fine ritual; but it is not along the lines 
which seem to me to make the demarcation between 
the parish church and the cathedral. It is evident that 
the chief difference in the requirements would he a 



Cram, Goodhue & Ferguson. Architects. 



^#» 




« m 

J 






PLAN OK THE CATHEDRAL AT DENVER, COLO. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



75 




I pisi ci|>-,il Cathedral 
Manila P.l. 

Serial tox> Job 11/ Drawing £0 



SOUTH ELEVATION OF THE CATHEDRAL AT MANILA, 
Following the lines of the Spanish Mission Churches. 
Sturgis & Barton, Architects. 

more complete separation of choir and nave and a freer 
use of heavy piers and columns, which in a building- too 
big to be filled anyway by a single voice need not be de- 
signed as an auditorium. As, however, a very large 
number should be within hear- 
ing of the preacher, the en- 
largement of the crossing, giv- 
ing such space for example as 
under the dome in St Paul's 
in London, may appear to be 
the right direction in which to 
develop. Some suggestion of 
this is given in the little cathe- 
dral for Manila, hardly more 
than parish church in size, but 
planned in part on the cathedral 
idea. 

The last type to be consid- 
ered is that of the college 
chapel, which, as I have already 
said, is but a large choir. 
Planned originally for orders 
or for colleges, it is primarily 
intended for and built to ac- 
commodate those who are with- 
in the screen. A community, 
whether of church or lay stu- 
dents or fellows, would form 

this congregation, beyond the screen there is no need 
except for the occasional outsider. Many beautiful old 
examples exist, and the type has been used almost with- 
out modification for college chapels, for which purpose it 
is as fitted now as it ever was. Henry Vaughan's beauti- 
ful chapel at St. Paul's is an example of this, as is also the 
chapel at Groton, which, however, has the seats arranged 
pew-wise instead of choir-wise. This, while a great loss 
to the beauty of the interior, has the advantage of facing 
all the seats toward the altar and is suggestive of what 
might be done with this type for ordinary parish pur- 
poses. The college chapel at Sewanee has a tower, well 
removed, which not only avoids conflict with the lines of 
the chapel, but actually helps them. 

Such is the motive of the church by Bodley at Pendle- 
bury, which is a great choir, with the proportions and 
character of a choir. Although the exterior gives no 



suggestion of aisles, on the interior, it 
is practically a series of internal but- 
tresses pierced to form an aisle, and to 
a certain extent suggestive of the triple 
nave and aisles. One loses somewhat 
of the symbolism and much of the 
mystery of the interior, but the type 
has the advantage of great simplicity. 
The tower never seems to be a com- 
ponent part of the college chapel type as 
it does of the parish church. Even when 
treated as at Pendlebury as an entirely 
independent feature, it is obliged to as- 
sert its height as against the high ridge 
line of the chapel. At St. Paul's it is 
quite overpowered by the chapel, and 
even at Groton, where the tower is 
freer and higher in proportion, it 
fails of the full effect which such a noble tower should 
have, because it has not the contrast with a long and low 
church to enhance the value of its rising lines. 

With church architecture, given a clear knowledge of 



p. i. 




PLAN OF THE CATHEDRAL AT MANILA, I'. 
With large seating Capacity in the Crossing. 



the problem, what the structure is intended for, and what 
purpose it is to serve, and an humble and reverent knowl- 
edge of the great work that has been done in the past, the 
outcome must be good. But without this knowledge it is 
useless to think that a few photographs and a talk with the 
rector will enable any architect to build a church. No 
period of architectural activity is more difficult to under- 
stand and assimilate than the closing century of Gothic 
work. It is impossible to reproduce it, for it was the 
product of conditions which no longer exist, and one 
would not want to reproduce it if one could. But that one 
can absorb the spirit which produced it and work in that 
spirit to meet modern requirements is amply proved by 
the work of a very small group of men. If these men 
have done it, others can also, and I believe we shall see in 
the future a standard of church architecture that may 
honorably hold its own with the best mediaeval work. 



76 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



The "Village Block" Series. 

ARTICLE III. 

BY HUGH M. G. HARDEN. 

IT is to be remembered that a village block of six 
stores with a second story of offices is not the most 
important building in the village. It must be conceded 
that the proposition to house six stores and some offices 
in a building two stories high cannot logically be worked 
out to a conclusion that will in any way compete, for 
architectural prominence, with the theater (or, as it is 
usually called, the "opera house"), the town hall, the 
county courthouse or the various churches of our imagi- 
nary village. Whatever our aspirations for picturesque- 
ness and for architectural display, we cannot, out of these 
simple requirements, construct anything very mag- 
nificent or imposing without adding some of the func- 
tions of the more imposing structures of the community. 
We can, however, if we are willing to defer the gratifi- 
cation of our aspirations, without loss of interest indulge 
in the highly fascinating study of what can be made out 
of these simple requirements. 

It is evident that besides the important structures, the 
accents in the completed picture of our village, there 
must be many less imposing, less important buildings. 
These form the half-tones of the picture against which the 
accents stand out as high lights. They form the back- 
ground and the connecting links which complete the 
pictures of the streets and lead the eye from one accent 
to the next. They comprise the smaller business blocks, 
the houses, the smaller hotels, the livery stables, the 
warehouses and the host of other minor buildings of 
private and domestic function, and in their quieter, 
simpler way each has its own interest and meaning. It 
is in this way that I have chosen to consider my village 
block. I have placed it as the connecting link between 
the town hall and the opera house, facing the courthouse 
square, from the steps of which building I have taken 
my view in making the perspective. 

The problem given was a block to contain six stores 
on a lot 200 feet in width, with living apartments for the 
shopkeepers and their families in connection ; these to be 
located either on the first or second stories. To locate 
them on the second story would be inconvenient for the 
shopkeeper, the members of whose family frequently 
assist as clerks, and in combining their domestic and busi- 
ness duties would find the stairs a hardship. It would 
also be a sacrifice of valuable renting space to a low rental 
purpose. The second story on the courthouse square is 
always in demand for the offices of lawyers, doctors, real 
estate men, and such. On the other hand the center of the 
block back from the streets is, in the average small town 
or village, never so precious but that it may be given up 
to tumble-down shanties, barns and vacant yards. Why 
not then devote it to residence purposes if it can be made 
fit for the shopkeepers to live upon and can at the same 
time give them the desired direct connection with their 
stores? It is safe to assume that in a county seat or in- 
deed in any fair sized village the street surrounding the 
courthouse square or park, as well as the streets on the 
square itself, will be devoted to business. I have there- 
fore assumed as a site for my building an inside lot 200 
feet in width running through from the square to the 



next parallel street, a distance of 350 feet. I have placed 
a store building on each street with six stores in each 
building. Four of the stores in each block are 
provided with living apartments, since not every man 
who wishes to rent a store will also wish a house in 
connection, and four Out of six seems a generous propor- 
tion. The center of the block is designed as a small park 
or court with grass and trees, and the dwellings are 
arranged as small two-story houses facing upon this 
park. The entrances to the court for pedestrians are by 
passageways at each end of the store building, and for 
vehicles through the public alleys. Each has its separate 
porch, entrance hall, living and dining rooms, kitchen 
and pantry on the first floor, and on the second floor 
three bedrooms and a bath. In addition each has a ser- 
vice yard enclosed in a brick wall and backdoor and base- 
ment entrance in the yard. 

The stores measure 26 x 60 feet, and are provided with 
basement stairs and back doors opening on to shipping 
platforms from which the delivery wagons can be loaded. 
These platforms are in paved courts between the houses 
and are reached from the alley, which arrangement elimi- 
nates the nuisance of delivery wagons on the main 
streets. 

The entrance to the offices is located in the center of 
each block, and a sufficient variety is shown in the ar- 
rangement of offices to suit almost any need. In addition 
the removal of partitions and rearrangement is of course 
possible. 

In design the building relies for its effect on the expres- 
sion of its functions. In a village something may be and 
should be conceded to picturesqueness. A more rigid 
adherence to the commercial aspect of the problem might 
eliminate the sloping roof and the subdivisions of the 
sash, but even these might be spared without actual dis- 
aster to the design. 

The arched store fronts are another matter; but when 
it is considered that these arches occupy almost the full 
width and height of each store it will, I think, be con- 
ceded that picturesqueness has not claimed too much. 

The scheme of materials is, of course, brick, terra- 
cotta, a roof of tiles and the usual steel beams and terra- 
cotta blocks for floors and partitions. 



PROGRAM. 

The problem is A Village Block which is to comprise 
six shops on first floor front. The building is to 
have two stories and an attic, and the living apartments 
for family of each shopkeeper are to be located in rear 
of first floor and in upper stories. 

The block is supposed to stand on the public square 
of the town and is to have a frontage of 180 feet and a 
depth of 150 feet. 

Separate entrances to upper floors of each apartment 
should be provided for in the front of the building. 

Each design should indicate the arrangement of plan, 
also in point of architectural style the sort of thing that 
would be particularly appropriate for the section of the 
country in which the building is to be located. 

The materials are to be, so far as the exterior is con- 
cerned, burnt clay in some of its forms. 

The problem is presented with the idea of obtaining 
designs of character at a minimum cost. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



77 




7* 



THE BRICKBU ILDER. 



G Office 
H Vault 
1 Public Toilet 



UPPER HALF OF OL/VJ SHOWS 
.SECOND .STORY ARRANGEMENT- 
LOWEE HALF OF PLAN SHOWS 
FIRST STORY APRANCEMENT- 



J Janitocs Closet 
K Bath Room 
L Bed Room 




















CI 

— — o- 




.i, 




HALL E 
VESTIBULE 



- 

1 1 r i-J - 



GEOUND FLOOB ABBANGEMCAIT • 



A- POBCH • 

B • LlVIAIC P.OOM 

C • Hall • 



- A VILLAGE BLOCK - 

HUGH M-G-GARDEM • ARCHITECT- 



D- Dining Boom- 

E- Kitchen- 

F- Shipping Platform- 



THE BRICKBU I LDER. 



79 





•LONGITUDINAL ffi SECTION 



a 





rt: 7f:t 




SILVER MEDAL DESIGN, SUBMITTED BY HARRY S. WATERBURY IN THE COMPETITION HELD BY THE ARCHITECTURAL 

LEAGUE OF NEW YORK, FOR A VILLAGE BLOCK. 



8o 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



Boston Brickwork. III. 

RECENT RESIDENTIAL WORK. — Continued. 

THE closing- decade of the last century was marked by 
the great development of the tracts beyond West 
Chester Park, as Massachusetts Avenue was formerly 
called. The Back Bay, overcrowded, had to expand be- 
yond the limits of the original plots. Society, always 
conservative, refused to venture into the "Fens." The 
tradition of the delights of a residence "on the water 
side of Beacon Street," immortalized by Oliver Wendell 




37- 



DETAIL, HOUSE, HAY STATE KOAD. 

Little & Browne, Architects. 



Holmes, was strong in the minds of the prospective home- 
builders of Boston. A street was laid out following the 
shore along the upper waters of the Charles River basin 
which, under the name of Bay State Road, met with imme- 
diate popularity. No dreams of the noble water fronts 
of Hamburg or Paris clouded the brains of the hard-headed 
designers of the newer Back Bay. To match exactly the 
conditions of old Beacon Street, even with its sea wall and 
squalid rear alley, was their highest ambition. And so 
the houses stand with facades fronting on a street sixty 
feet in width, while their unsightly backs are visible 
across the wide river from a long stretch of what will 
soon become a noble parkway. 

With old Beacon Street conditions existing in advance 
it is not surprising that old Boston architecture, or lack 
of architecture, should be the keynote of the general de- 
sign, and that the so-called " Colonial" expression should 
be regarded as of paramount importance ; but consider- 
ing the era and the general condition of architectural 
affairs, the architecture of Bay State Road, as a whole, 
cannot be considered eminently successful. The city 
atlas of 1890 shows, beside the original block of speckled 
brick houses built by Chadwick & Stillings, only one 
house, that of Mr. Arthur Little, on the entire street. 
The work on Bay State Road was, therefore, entirely con- 



structed during a period of high architectural develop- 
ment. And yet it must be conceded that no actual fault 
can be found with the designs; with a few exceptions they 
are correct, dignified and restrained; Bostonese from 
grass course to cornice, but lacking the aspiration, spirit 
and verve which are needed to make architecture a living 
art. 

The first dwelling on Bay State Road, beyond Raleigh 
Street, was the red brick, very Colonial house built by 
Arthur Little, the architect, for his own occupancy, and 
it has not been exceeded in interest by any subsequent 
structure. The window treatment, with small panes and 
green blinds, is charming and the entire conception is a 
delightful version of the artist's house (Nos. 37, 38 and 
43). The city is indebted to Little & Browne for the 
tall house in buff brick and white marble on the easterly 
corner, opposite (Nos. 39 and 40), which recalls some of 
the old London work of the (ieorgian era. The details 
of this house, both in marble and wrought iron, are 
exquisite and the blinds are an effective feature. Next 
to Mr. Little's house are the two houses built by E. M. 
Wheelwright (Wheelwright & Haven), the one at the 
left, we believe, for his own occupancy (shown in No. 
43). These have very pleasing fronts in water-struck 
brick and white marble. Next beyond is a very attract- 
ive three-storied house by F. Manton Wakefield, with 



l/?\± 




-""""""5 

n 



!i '_ HI £ 

t Til r t 
s ■ 




}S. DETAIL, HOUSE, BAY STATE ROAD. 
Little & Browne, Architects. 

good detail and pleasant proportion and not Colonial 
(No. 41). This is followed by two more, the first tall 
and rather French in feeling, the next lower and Colonial 
(No. 42). Xos. 47 and 48 are by Chapman & Frazer, and 
possess in full the homelike quality for which the work 
of this firm is always noted, while at the same time the 
details are full of delicacy and refinement. 

Beyond these two houses, Boston Colonial holds 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



81 





39. HOUSE, BAY STATE ROAD AND RALEIGH ST. 

Little & Browne, Architects. 



40. DETAIL, HOUSE, BAY STATE ROAD AND RALEIGH ST. 

Little & Browne, Architects. 





41. HOUSE, BAY STATE ROAD. 

F. Manton, Wakefield, Architect. 



42. HOUSE, BAY STATE ROAD. 



82 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



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THE BRICKBU I LDER. 




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47. HOUSE, BAY STATE ROAD. 
Chapman & Frazer, Architects. 



48. HOUSES, BAY STATE ROAD. 
One at left by Chapman & Frazer. 





49. HOUSES, BAY STATE ROAD. 



50. HOUSES, BAY STATE ROAD. 



8 4 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



almost undisputed sway for the entire length of the 
street. No. 4+ shows five houses, all by Winslow & 
Bigelow, except the central one, which is by Little & 
Browne, and is slightly higher than the others. The 
house to the right of this was built by Mr. Winslow for 
his own occupancy, and, taken in connection with Mr. 
Little's and Mr. Wheelwright's houses on the same street, 
appears to indicate a decided personal preference for 
houses of this type among Boston architects. No. 45 
shows three more good Colonial houses, some having 
details of Salem origin, and all cheerful and homelike. 
No. 49 shows French influence and has an iron fence and 
marquise. Nos. 50 and 51 have central bay windows 
and rather low stoops. The former adjoins the Weld 
house, by Peters <S: Rice, already illustrated in The 
Brickbuilder. The latter is by James Mulcahey. The 
block shown in No. 46 was built for the market from 




BAY STATE ROAD. 



designs by E. M. A. Machado, and is a very attractive 
row, in brown Roman brick and light sandstone. 

While the present and the preceding articles do not 
entirely cover the scope of residential work in the city 
proper, they probably give a fair impression of the field, 
and show tolerably well the general trend of architec- 
tural thought during the last decade. At the present 
time a rather slight French influence is being felt, but 
it is scarcely marked enough to be taken as an indication 
of what the future will produce. 



THE idea that the necessity for fireproof construction 
can be measured by the height of the building dies 
very hard. ( )ur wise legislators continue to assume they 
have prescribed the full duty of man when he is allowed 
to build almost anything he pleases up to a certain height. 
As a matter of fact, all the great conflagrations, 
without exception, have started among or been spread 
by low buildings, not even as high as 50 feet. 



Revision of the Building Laws of 
Philadelphia. 

A LITTLE over a year ago a revision of the building 
laws of the city of Philadelphia was brought about 
by the action of the insurance companies in adding what 
they termed a "Pink slip" to all the policies on properties 
within certain prescribed limits called the " conflagration 
district," and in other parts of the city exposed to great 
fire hazard. The property holders through their trade 
organizations were instantly up in arms against the al- 
leged injustice of the increase. In reply the insurance 
companies pointed out that owing to the absence in the 
building laws of provision against certain forms of con- 
struction, notably wooden interior construction of large 
buildings such as stores, hotels and apartment houses, 
that these forms of buildings had increased to such an 
extent as to so greatly increase the fire hazard in certain 
sections, that it was necessary to increase the premiums 
to cover the risk. After ample discussion of the subject, 
a committee was appointed to prepare an amendment 
to the building laws which would provide against 
the evils of which the insurance companies had com- 
plained. 

The revision of the laws of a large city to meet the 
"conflagration hazard " is probably the first that was ever 
undertaken with this end solely in view, and it has been 
the means of directing attention to the building laws of 
other cities which are also faulty, and one other large city 
is now engaged in bringing its laws up to modern require- 
ments. 

The principal subjects covered by the revision of the 
laws were: 

A classification of the different kinds of building con- 
struction into the first, second, third and fourth classes, 
and the restriction of areas and enclosing of hatchways 
and stairways and the limitation of the height of com- 
bustible buildings. 

Buildings of the first class were to include all build- 
ings which are of what is generally known as " fireproof 
or non-combustible construction." 

Buildings of the second class were to include all 
buildings of the type known as "slow-burning con- 
struction," with heavy girders and beams spaced far apart 
and floored with planks not less than three inches in 
thickness. 

Buildings of the third class were to include all build- 
ings of joist construction. 

Buildings of the fourth class were to include all other 
buildings not included in the first, second and third 
class. 

The growth of large hotels and apartment houses in 
certain residence districts having joist construction led 
the committee to provide that apartment houses, hotels 
and tenement houses, schools, etc., which exceeded four 
stories in height, should be of fireproof construction. All 
hospitals and sanitariums exceeding two stories in height 
should also be of fireproof construction. 

In the buildings of the second class or slow-burning 
construction, to be used for stores or factory purposes, 
the limit of height was placed at eighty-five feet. 

The committee had in subcommittee fixed this height 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



85 



at sixty-five feet, but the textile manufacturers argued 
that they would be driven outside of the city limits if 
this height was adopted, and the provision was therefore 
made for six stories, or eighty-five feet in height. 

The height of the non-fireproof buildings having been 
fixed, attention was next directed to areas of all 
buildings. 

The restriction of areas was made to apply to fire- 
proof as well as slow-burning construction. In fireproof 
construction, the limit was made twenty-five thousand 
square feet on any floor, with provision for increasing 
this area on the ground floor, if an approved system 
of automatic sprinklers was installed in the entire 
building. 

The specification for buildings of the first class was 
made rigid and requires that all ironwork shall be fully 
protected against fire and external changes of the atmos- 
phere by a covering of brick, terra-cotta, tile or other 
approved fireproofing, completely enveloping the struc- 
tural members. Around external columns the fireproof- 
ing, if of brick shall not be less than eight inches, and if 
of hollow tile not less than six inches, with two sets of 
air spaces. 

Interior columns and girders shall have not less than 
three inches of fire-resisting covering, with two inches 
covering for the webs of girders and for the floor 
beams. 

It will be noticed that the new law provided for a 
greatly increased thickness of covering for the fireproof- 
ing on the structural members, and also that the law 
was enacted before the occurrence of the Baltimore fire, 
where the ordinary covering of one inch and one and a 
half inches was pi oven to be so inadequate. 

Rust proofing was provided for in the requirement 
that all built sections of girders or columns inacessible 
after erection should be filled with Portland cement con- 
crete. 

All floor systems of filling are required to have stood 
actual tests of three times their allowed loading, with 
a maximum span of eight (8) feet for arches of brick, terra- 
cotta, concrete or any patent floor, excepting reinforced 
concrete or heterogeneous systems if their depth is three- 
fifths of an inch per foot of span, with a further provi- 
sion that no arch should have a rise less than one and one- 
fourth inches per foot of span. 

In the revised law the placing of pipes, conduits, 
mains for heat, light and water, inside the covering of 
columns, was expressly forbidden, and the experience 
of the Baltimore fire proved that this was a wise re- 
striction. 

In buildings of the second class the undivided area 
was restricted to fifteen thousand (15,000) square feet, and 
in buildings of the third class or joist construction to 
five thousand (5,000) square feet, with the privilege of 
increasing this area to seventy-five hundred (7,500) square 
feet, if the floor planks are not less than two inches 
thick. It will lie noticed that the "slow-burning construc- 
tion " building permits twice or three times the floor areas 
of the joist construction, depending upon the thickness 
of the plank flooring in the third-class building. 

One of the greatest gains made in this law was the posi- 
tive restriction placed upon open stairways, elevators and 
hatchway, chute or vent openings in all buildings other 



than fireproof structures for office purposes only, except 
those under five thousand (5,000) square feet in area. 

The insurance engineers have been advocating for 
years the enclosing of the necessary openings in floors by 
fireproof partitions, and this law is the first one to pro- 
vide for it. It will be noticed that even in fireproof build- 
ings, with the single exception of office buildings, that this 
provision applies. 

Another provision of this law was the prohibiting of 
wooden ceilings and wooden studs for furring and parti- 
tions and wooden lath. The elimination of wooden lath, 
studs and ceiling was a great step away from tinder-box 
construction. 

The Philadelphia law contains an admirable provision 
for what are known as " tower fire escapes," which are 
required of all buildings of the first, second or third 
classes which are used for schoolhouses, tenement houses, 
flat houses, stores, offices, factories, etc., and the number 
varies with the class of buildings. 

The tower fire escapes do not communicate with the 
building, but are only reached by means of a balcony on 
the outer wall. They are required to have large open- 
ings on each floor, to prevent the accumulation of smoke. 

In the framing of this law the committee was com- 
pelled to adopt a very conservative course. The provi- 
sions and restrictions are not by any means ideal, but 
had they been very radical, the large property interests 
might have caused the defeat of the whole revision in the 
State Legislature. The restriction in the matter of areas 
is not as great as it should have been, and had joist con- 
struction for all but dwelling houses been eliminated it 
would have been a great gain. 

The possibility of the revision of existing laws so 
easily proved in Philadelphia, encouraged the national 
fire insurance associations to begin a work of education 
in other cities, and its good efforts are beginning to bear 
fruit. 

There is really no reason why the building laws of 
large cities should differ to any marked extent, as was 
pointed out in the article on the " Structural Design of 
Buildings" in the December issue; and if out of Mr. 
Schneider's efforts, and the efforts of the Philadelphia 
revision committee, and the national insurance societies 
a uniform building code can be written, a higher standard 
of construction will follow, which will cause us to wonder 
why it required so much effort to bring about what was 
so obviously necessary. 

One immediate effect of the Baltimore fire was the 
prompt .recognition of the "conflagration hazard" in 
cities, which had not been fully appreciated before, and 
also, in the case of Baltimore at least, of the necessity of 
building a city according to some sensible system, which 
it is to be hoped will be heeded by other cities. Narrow 
and crooked streets lined with high combustible buildings 
furnish the conditions requisite for great conllagrations. 

The Baltimore fire furnished another lesson in the 
matter of fireproof coverings. The often inadequate and 
careless work shown at critical points in the fireproof 
coverings of important buildings, which failed and ex- 
posed the ironwork, proved that Philadelphia has been 
none too exacting in requiring that thicker and better 
covering be provided for protecting the ironwork of 
fireproof buildings. 



86 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



Editorial Comment and 
Selected Miscellany 



flooring in the seventh story gave way while a workman 
was standing upon it, and crashed down through all of 
the stories to the third. 



BUILDING COLLAPSE IN NEW YORK. 

ANOTHER building col- 
lapse was added to the 
season's record for such casu- 
alties on April 5, when about 
five hundred pounds of con- 
crete fireproofing crashed 
through the five floors of a 
thirteen-story apartment hotel 
in course of construction in 
New York. 

The floors of the building 
had been laid with concrete. 
It was claimed that recent rains 
had softened the concrete to an 
unusual extent, causing it to be 
"soggy," to quote the news- 
paper expression. As cement 
is a product which is supposed to 
harden under water, the only 
inference is that the quality of 

detail by a. a. ritcher, the mixture was decidedly poor, 
architect. or else, which was quite as 

Excelsior Terra-Cotta Co., likely, that it had been frozen 

Makers. 





DETAIL BY CONKLING-ARMSTRONG TERRA-COTTA CO. 
D. H. Burnham & Co., Architects. 

Much more serious than the foregoing, however, was 
the recent collapse of twenty-three apartment buildings 
in the upper part of New York. These were not all in 
one group, but were scattered around various portions 
of the new district which has sprung up with the exten- 
sion of rapid transit towards the north of Manhattan. 

The fact that, as reported by the commission of 
experts who investigated, these buildings were erected 
without proper supervision, under inefficient inspection, 
and by incompetent contractors suggests a familiar tale. 




FRIEZE FOR A BATHROOM, HOUSE, NEW YORK CITY. 
Painted in Colored Mat Glaze. Executed in Faience by the Rookwood Pottery Co. 




before being set 
and the rain had 
simply washed out 
the ice. 

A section of the 



In only one case 
was the architect 
whose name is on 
the plans put in 
charge of the con- 





DETAIL EXECUTED BY NEW YORK AR- 
CHITECTURAL TERRA-COTTA CO. 



DETAIL BY AMERICAN TERRA-COTTA AND 
CERAMIC CO. 

Jarvis Hunt, Architect. 



DETAIL FOR NEW HIPPODROME, NEW 

YORK CITY. 

Atlantic Terra-Cotta Co., Makers. 

Frederick Thompson, Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



87 




HOSPITAL 

struction In the application 
for the permit the builder was 
ignored entirely. Both the 
workmanship and the material 
appear to have been about on a 
par with the efforts of the 
notorious Buddensick, who a 
number of years ago paid in 
state's prison the penalty of the 
collapse of some of his wretched 
constructions, a fate which 
ought to be meted out to the 
owners of these collapsed 
structures, though we are very 
skeptical of anything being 
done whatever to secure ad- 
equate punishments. 

The recommendations of the 
experts are none of them new. 
All have a familiar sound, and 
they are such as are promptly 
put in evidence after every dis- 
aster of this sort. Of course, 
an architect should be required 
by law to supervise the con- 
struction of his buildings, and, 



FOR THE INSANE, MASSILLON, OHIO. Yost & Packard, Architects. 
Roots covered with Celadon " Conosera " Tile. 




DETAIL EXECUTED KY PERTH AMBOY TERI5A-COTTA CO. 
George B. Post & Sons, Architects. 



before being allowed to practise 
should be required to show 
some evidence of his ability. 

The features in the recom- 
mendations, however, which are 
not so often brought to the 
front are that the bureau of 
buildings should grant permits 
only upon plans prepared by 
registered architects, and that 
contractors for mason work or 
structural steel should likewise 
be licensed, though the full 
value of such recommendations 
is considerably nullified by the 
further suggestion that the 
cooperation of the recognized 
organizations in the trades 
would be of value. 

The laws of France hold an 
architect personally and pecun- 
iarily liable for all structural 
damages occurring within ten 
years from date of completion 



of course, an architect 





DETAILS BY ST. LOUIS TERRA-COTTA CO. 
Weber & Groves, Architects. 



GATE LODGE, FARM, LEXINGTON, KY. 

Roofed with American "S" Tile. 

Copeland & Dole, Architects. 



ss 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 




DETAIL BY BRICK, TERRA-COTTA AND TILE CO. 

Wood, Donn & Deming, Architects. 

of any building designed by him. This makes a very 
severe load and imposes an actual burden on the property, 
for it of necessity implies that the architect shall be con- 
tinuously employed long after the time when in this 
country his connection with the work would cease. But we 

believe some 
such arrange- 
ment of this 
sort is bound to 
come with us. 



****** m 




■ 



-■!:■::■'■ 

iiiiiiiiLffl 

jlijiri Hi 1SI 



IN 
GENERA L. 
R. Guasta- 

vino Company 
have removed 
their New 
York offices to 
the Fuller 
(Flatiron) 
B n i 1 d i n g , 
Madison Sq. 

Frederick 
Junius Sterner 
and George 1 1. 

i Williamson . 
a rch i t ec t s , 
have become 
associated for 
the practice of 
architecture ; 
offices Jackson 
Building, Den- 
ver, Colo. 
The firm of Cowell & Love, architects, having dis- 
solved, the business will be continued by Edgar L. Love; 
office Huntsville, Ala. Manufacturers' samples and 
catalogues desired. 

The plant of the Jewettville Pressed and Paving Prick 
Company, makers of a stiff mud red front brick, which is 
perhaps as well and favorably known as any brick of its 
kind on the market, has been enlarged to meet an in- 
creased demand for its product. 




GRAPHIC ARTS BUILDINO, CHICAGO. 

Enameled Terra-Cotta used for entire front 

Northwestern Terra-Cotta Co., Makers. 

E. R. Krause, Architect. 




DETAIL BY NEW JERSEY TERRA-COTTA CO. 

Robert C. Martin cV Son, New York agents for the 
Blue Ridge Enameled Brick Company, have closed the fol- 
lowing new contracts: Fordham Hospital, Raymond F. 
Almirall, architect; power houses for New York Central 
Railroad at Yonkersand Port Morris, N Y., Reed & Stem. 



architects. They will also supply their vitrified buff brick 
for the exterior of these power houses and fourteen new 
apartment houses for which J. Scharsmith is architect. 




TRACTION TERMINAL BUILDING, INDIANAPOLIS, 1ND. 

Built of " Ironclay " Briek 

l>. H. Burnham ..V Co., Architects. 



WANTED — In an architect's office, New York City, a man of 
experi;nce and excellent references, capable of superintending con- 
struction, figuring and checking, drawing and corresponding. Write 
stating experience, references and salary required to Tee Square, 
care " The Brickbuilder." 



The Fireproof House Competition 

CLOSES MAY 15, 1905. 

The Programme for this competition was published in THE 
BRICKBUILDER for January, February and March, 1905. 



Architectural Faience. Competition A. 

Subject: A Garden Wall Fountain. 

ONE CASH PRIZE ONLY. FIFTY DOLLARS for 'BEST 
DESIGN. Also MENTIONS. 

Competition closes May 31, 1905. 



PROGRAMME. 

In a brick wall which incloses a small formal garden, at the 
end of a path, it is desired to place a Wall Fountain which is to be 

ited in Architectural Faience. 

The Fountain, with its emblishments, is to occupy a wall space 
of not more than one hundred gqua'e feet. 

The color scheme may be indicated by a key. 

Garden Pots and other accessories may be shown. 

Drawings required. Plan and Elevation at a scale of one-half 
i::> li to the foot. 

Drawings may be rendered at will on a sheet of unmounted 
white paper, measuring 16 inches bv •_'() inches. 

1 ai h drawing is to be signed by a >iom Je /■/time or device, and 
accompanying same is to be a sealed envelope with a torn ,/e flume 
on the exterior and containing the true name and address of the 
ei mi tc stant. 

The drawing is to be delivered at the office of THE BRICK- 
BUILDER, 85 Water Street, Boston, Mass., charges prepaid, on or 
I May 31, 1905. 

The prize drawing is to become the property of THE BRICK 
BUILDER, and the right is reserved to publish or exhibit any or 
all of the others. Those who wish their drawings returned may 
have them by enclosing in the sealed envelopes containing their 
names live cents in stamps. 

The designs will be judged by a well-known member of thear- 
chitectural profession. 

Competition open to every one. 






THE BRICKBUILDER. 



Vol. 14 



MAY 1905 



No. 5 



CONTENTS — PLATES 

From Work of ANDREWvS, JAQUES & RANTOUL, GEORGE R. DEAN, 
HALE & MORSE, W. B. TUBBY & BRO., WILLIAM L. WOOLLETT. 



CONTENTS — LETTER PRESS 

TOWER OF ST. VINCENT, BELEM, NEAR LISBON, PORTUGAL Frontispiece 

EDITORIALS 89 

ECCLESIASTICAL ARCHITECTURE. PAPER III M. B. Medary, Jr. <,o 

BOSTON BRICKWORK. IV 95 

CONVENTION OF THE ARCHITECTURAL LEAGUE OF AMERICA. REPORT 102 

EDITORIAL COMMENT AND SELECTED MISCELLANY 102 




TOWER OF ST. VINCENT, BELEM, NEAR LISBON, PORTUGAL. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



w&as&Rs 



VOL 14 No. 5 



DEVOTED -TOTHE • INTERESTSOFj 
(ARCHITECTVRE- INMATERIALS OF CLAY/ 



MAY 1905 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY 

ROGERS & MANSON, 
85 Water Street, Boston, Mass. . . P. O. Box 3282. 

Entered at the Boston, Mass., Post Office as Second Class Mail Matter, March 12, 1892. 

COPYRIOHT, 1893, BY THE BRICKBUILDER PUBLISHING COMPANY. 

Subscription price, mailed flat to subscribers in the United States and 

Canada . . . . . . . . $5.00 per year 

Single numbers ......... 50 cents 

To countries in the Postal Union ...... $6.00 per year 

Subscriptions payable in advance. 

For sale by all newsdealers in the United States and Canada. Trade supplied by 
fhe American News Company and its branches. 



FIREPROOF HOUSE COMPETITION. 

ARRANGEMENTS are now being made to have the 
Fireproof House Competition judged in New York 
City by three well-known architects and a prominent 
builder of that city. It is hoped that the awards of the 
jury may be made in season for announcement in The 
Brickbuilder for June. The Prize and Mention drawings 
will be published in The Brickbuilder for either June 
or July. 



BUILDING FOR TIME. 

THE paper by Mr. Medary in this issue of The Brick- 
builder presents an idea in regard to church build- 
ing which should certainly receive the most careful con- 
sideration of all who are interested in that subject. Most 
of our churches are built either hurriedly, and hence 
usually imperfectly, or are planned only for the day and 
take no thought at all for future conditions. It is the 
usual experience of the architect to be told by his church 
committee that the church must be so big and must cost 
no more than so many dollars, quite aside from any ques- 
tion of any possible relation there might be between the 
two quantities. A church committee is usually so reluc- 
tant to leave a structure half completed that it will very 
often deliberately sacrifice its ideals and consent to an 
arrangement or plan which it knows is imperfect rather 
than to maturely consider and adopt the plan or design 
which it knows is absolutely the best, and then build as 
much of that as circumstances will to-day allow. The 
architect is sometimes quite as much to blame for this 
state of affairs as the church committee, indeed possibly 



even more so, for the architect should know better than 
to induct any committee into a design or plan which 
he knows is not the ideal. Surely if any problem calls 
for the very best solution it is that of a church, and 
yet there is hardly any problem which is more slighted 
as a rule. Our commercial buildings, which may not 
survive a generation, can stand haste, and for that mat- 
ter our churches, if they are poorly built or inefficiently 
planned, had better be built hastily than wrongly, for 
that would advance the day when they could be torn 
down. But such is not the right theory nor the one 
commonly accepted, and a single, thoroughly well-planned 
church half completed is of far more value to a commu- 
nity than half a dozen ill-assorted, poorly contrived struc- 
tures which will have to be torn down in time. The 
mediaeval spirit was the right one. To use a modern 
phrase, the church architect should hitch his wagon to 
the stars. It is not his function to give a church what 
they say they want, so much as to tell them what is 
really needed, to show them what can be, and to finally 
give them the thing they really want even though it 
takes years for them to grow up to it. There are some 
notable instances scattered throughout the country of 
religious edifices which have been built just this way, 
a few of which are cited by Mr. Medary, structures 
whose whole aspect seems to say we are going to do 
what we do right, and we will fight it out on this line 
if it takes a century. It does not follow of course that 
tnis is the only way to design a good church building. 
There come the rare opportunities when a structure 
can by a master hand be beaten out in one fabric, of 
which perhaps our best example in this country is Trinity 
Church, Boston. There is a splendid opportunity in 
church building if it is treated properly, but it always 
has taken time, and the worst mistakes have been made 
by sacrificing to the necessities of the hour and ignor- ' 
ing the great needs of the future. Church architecture 
is only beginning to be appreciated in this country. The 
great opportunities have not been in the past, but are 
coming to us in the future. From all the wealth which 
is piling up so tremendously in this land of ours the 
church will surely have its full share. The opportunities 
will come to the architect for better, for worse. It will be 
for better if the opportunity is looked at in a large way, if 
the foundation plans are broad and deep and church build- 
ing treated as an art rather than the means of gaining a 
living. It will be for worse if the cost is to be counted 
at a sacrifice of the ideal, if the business man is to 
dominate the reverential artist. 



90 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



Ecclesiastical Architecture. 



PAPER III. 



r;V M. B. MKDARV, JR. 



THAT a large amount of money and energy is an- 
nually expended in the erection of ecclesiastical 
buildings which are distinctly bad must be regretfully 
admitted, but I feel strongly that much of the time and 
energy which is spent in lamenting this fact could be 
much more profitably employed in cordially endorsing 
the good work which has been done. We undoubtedly 
have some good church buildings, but as a rule they are 
almost unknown. How much is done by our architec- 
tural societies or publications to endorse this good work 
compared with the volume of criticism heaped upon the 
bad? Is it any wonder that the laity look upon us as a 
collection of hypercritical experts, trained in technical- 
ities which cannot interest them at all, when we rarely 
have anything to say except in finding fault? It is our 
duty to commend that which is good, and doubly so be- 
cause one of the common qualities of purity, dignity and 
fineness of feeling is conservative unpretentiousness, al- 
most exclusiveness, and perhaps the most prominent 
characteristic of vulgarity is its desire to be seen. 

The galleries, the studios, the libraries of the world 
hold up before us the masterpieces of painting, sculpture, 
music and literature, and that which is bad is soon for- 




CHRIST CHURCH, PHILADELPHIA. 

gotten. Let us apply the same principle to our own 
American architecture. It is perhaps too much to ask 
that some of the finer work which is being done to-day be 
given the hearty enthusiastic endorsement which it de- 
serves, but we can at least be generous enough to turn to 
the work of a generation ago and stamp with the ap- 



proval of our profession that work which is a worthy 
example for future church building committees. 

The better examples of our ecclesiastical architecture 
of the colonial period have often been published and 
heartily commended, with the result that the public gen- 
erally knows that certain colonial churches are good, 




SI'. MARK S CHURCH, PHILADELPHIA. 

perhaps only because they have heard so ; but after all 
that is the way we get our education, and education leads 
to good work. 

In the accompanying illustrations (Christ Church, 
St. Mark's, Holy Trinity and St. James the Less, all of 
Philadelphia) I feel the architecture is sound and digni- 
fied, and that we as a profession might well encourage 
the builders of churches by our approval of such existing 
examples. We hear too much talk of original work ; this, 
combined with constant destructive criticism, produces 
many of the lamentable failures of to-day ; there is time 
enough for original work and it will come in its time. 

The great changes in the styles of Old World archi- 
tecture came gradually and almost imperceptibly as 
hundreds of men worked their buildings in the same 
style, introducing their personality unconsciously, and it 
was the cumulative effect of their personalities which 
gave the style its life and gradually changed it. 

The fault with most of our work of to-day is the lack 
of that simple honesty and truth which characterized the 
work of the middle ages in Europe, due to a desire to 
build more pretentiously than we can afford; and so long 
as we deliberately design in a way to make cheap imita- 
tions of splendor and richness, when the money available, 
if honestly and frankly used, would easily build solidly 
and well without attempting anything more, so long as we 
try to make others believe we have done something which 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



9t 



we have not truly done and which we could not possibly 
afford to do, just so long we will meet with failure and 
worse, for we have built unworthily and have been guilty 
of the most inexcusable of deceptions, a counterfeit of 
something we need not have attempted until we could 
afford to do it honestly and well, something we could 




HOLY TRINITY CHURCH, PHILADELPHIA. 

have left for our children to do on a foundation prepared 
by us. How can the church preach honesty, purity and 
dignity in counterfeits of good workmanship and mate- 
rial, with cheap and garish decorations, hopelessly lacking 
in the dignity necessary for our majestic ritual? 

The church building which has grown up through a 
number of generations, whose several parts represent the 
separate efforts of different groups of men, working at 
different times, but all alike in purpose, whose walls and 
windows are silent records of local human history, cannot 
helpbut have a more powerful influence upon a community 
than any other type of building. If, then, a plan is con- 
ceived in this spirit and developed along the lines of those 
churches of the middle ages which tell their story 
from afar, which in their plan and mass and lines alone, 
empty, without priest or choir, pronounce a benediction 
on every passer-by whether he cares for it or not, it can- 
not fail of success. 

This has been accomplished in the past and with as 
great success in the smallest parish church as in the great 
cathedrals, and it can be so again, and only needs the 
same honesty of purpose and absolute truth in expression 
as characterized the church and the craftsmen of the 
middle ages when bishops were architects and sculptors 
and painters were builders. We need not copy the 
work of these men, but let us copy the spirit in which 
they worked. Unfortunately the average church build- 



ing committee selects its architect seemingly uncon- 
scious of its responsibility for the result, and the com- 
mittee is rare indeed which is willing to consider the 
future as well as the present, proportion the actual 
amount of work to the funds available and be content to 
let others do their share later. 

The illustrations of St. John's, Lower Merion, Pa., 
show a partially completed group of church buildings 
begun in 1896 on this theory. 

The original church had been closed for a year and 
was only reopened on the personal guarantee of one 
member, who agreed to assume responsibility for all 
expenses for one year. In the face of so evidently uncer- 
tain a future the question of new buildings was raised 
within the year, and a sketch of the group shown was 
adopted by the vestry with the intention of building, part 
by part, until the group should be complete. The scheme 
was considered impossible by almost all who knew the 
slender resources of the parish; but notwithstanding this 
the group, with the exception of the nave, was built 
within five years, and at present a lady chapel is under 
consideration. The tower is now used as the church, 
but the building programme contemplates a nave extend- 
ing forward from the tower, forming, with the othe r 




INTERIOR, ST, 



AMES THE LESS CHURCH. 



buildings, three sides of a quadrangle. The stone arch 
built in the front wall of the tower indicates the position 
of opening into nave, the wall below being a curtain wall 
and the porch being temporary. 

It is a noteworthy fact that all of the funds for this 
work came from sources which were not considered in 
any way when the plan was adopted ; and although the 
several sources were entirely independent of each other, 
each was largely influenced by a desire to carry out the 
original scheme. 

The nave, the enrichment of the interior, the hang- 



92 



THE BRICKBUILDER 





ST. JAMES THE LESS CHURCH, PHILADELPHIA. 



ings, the vessels of gold and 
of silver can all wait for the 
future and help keep alive 
that human interest with- 
out which a church is dead. 
To stand still is to die, and 
to be complete is to die. 
This is as true of a church 
as of a flower or a human 
life; and if we are to keep 
our churches alive we must 
build in such a way that 
their interest is ever grow- 
ing, that each generation 
leaves its history carved 
upon the structure and at 
the same time leaves some- 
thing for the next to do. 

The Washington Me- 
morial Chapel at Valley 
Forge, Penn., is being built 
on this same principle. The 
Rev. W. II. Burk, who 
started this work and now 
lias it in charge, has had 
the courage and faith to put 
the result of a year's work 
into the foundations of a 

great memorial rather than into a complete small chapel, 
well knowing that it may take years to complete it. 




ENTRANCE. 



If this policy, which is 
governing the erection of 
these buildings, could be 
applied more generally I 
believe there would be 
less temptation to erect 
imitations of what we can- 
not afford, together with 
more honesty and frank- 
ness in church building as 
a consecpience and a more 
general interest in building 
up noble structures by 
those who now lack the 
courage to commit them- 
selves to a large under- 
taking. 

To be started in the 
right direction means every- 
thing and must eventually 
lead to good and original 
work. 

Until we plan our 
churches so that all may 
do their share, no matter 
how small, providing it is 
always done well, and 
until we give up the idea 

of doing too much at once, we can scarcely expect a 

greater proportion of good work. 















THE BRICKBU ILDER. 



93 




ST. JOHN S CHURCH, LOWER MERION, PA. 

Field & Medary, Architects. 



94 



THE BRICKBUILDER 







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CHRIST CHURCH, WINNETKA, ILL 
William A. Otis, Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



95 



Boston Brickwork. IV. 

SUBURBAN RESIDENTIAL WORK. 

TURNING from urban to suburban work we shall 
find a recurrence of practically the same character- 
istics that distinguish the city fronts. The desire for 
sobriety and dignity is almost everywhere expressed, 
together with the very decided preference for the Colo- 
nial motif. Viewed historically, the only difference is 
the appearance about 1845 to x8 5°> or possibly later, of a 
distinct English Gothic type of house, built of brick, often 
with much wooden decoration and with the exterior walls 
painted. To our mind many of these buildings are dis- 
tinctly attractive. Those in the Longwood district of 
Brookline were, we believe, mostly designed by George 
Dexter, architect, and many of them stand to this day 
examples of sensible planning and pleasing, simple de- 
sign. These were followed by the Mansards of the old 
regime which need no comment. The Victorian Gothic 
or second Gothic period produced another type, which 
frequently retained the Mansard roof and usually insisted 
on red pressed brick, dark mortar, limestone trimmings 
and slated roofs. 

While the conditions which attend the designing of a 
suburban house, standing free in the midst of trees and 
shrubbery, make the planning of such a building a much 
different matter from that of a city house, it is not to be 
expected that the general character of the designs will 
vary much from that which prevails in the neighboring 
city. This character is determined by the settled prefer- 
ences and habits of the population rather than by the 
notions of the architects or their desire to " try on " new 
or adopted motifs or ideas. It is, therefore, entirely the 
expected thing to find Colonial and Georgian work reap- 
pearing in the shady streets of Brookline and Newton and 
with the same practical unanimity in favor of the water- 
struck brick. The latter preference indeed has its almost 
amusing side, — as when lately, in the writer's experience, 
alight colored brick was "turned down " by the committee 
on a building for semi-religious purposes as actually hav- 
ing a harmful if not immoral influence on the habitues of 
the structure. Fortunately not all house builders have 
such notions, or there would be no relief whatever from 
the uniform red of Boston's street fronts. 

A good example of the use of gray brick is found on 
the way to Brookline in Mrs. Gardner's new Fenway 
Court, the "Venetian Palace " of the yellow press. The 
building is certainly original and has many features over 
which architects would do well to ponder. The exterior 
walls are absolutely plain, almost destitute even of win- 
dow caps, but instead of string courses and cornices with 
" festoons and egg and dart " painfully copied by jaded 
draughtsmen from " Buhlmann and Ragnenasy," there 
appear, browned and beautiful with age, the charming 
sculptures of Genoa and Venice and balconies of wonder- 
ful wrought iron from the old palaces and chateaux of 
France. These fragments, set here and there into the 
walls, give an exceeding interest to the facades, while the 
entire mass is held together by a sloping Italian roof of 
red tiles with wide projecting eaves. The illustration 
(No. 52) shows the south side with its loggia and garden 
wall and curious lattices. 



Comparisons of the value of designs have already 
occurred so frequently in these articles that the author 
will merely put forward the residence of Mr. Henry S. 
Howe on Ivy Street in Longwood, by Peabody & Stearns, 
as the first in our list of suburban brick houses. The 
design is dignified, substantial and withal graceful. The 
precedent is quite clearly the "Mayor's House" at 
Chichester, but the effect, with the terrace and high 
steps and gateway, seems as restful and appropriate as 
if it were of local origin. Like most of the following 
examples, it needs more land for the best results. The 
material is dark water-struck brick with black headers, 
pine cornice and light blue slate roof. (Nos. 53, 56, 57 
and 58.) 

Near by is the Fish residence, skillfully remodeled 
from a commonplace Mansard roof brick house into a 
dignified and stately mansion, by Winslow & Bigelow. 
(Nos. 54, 55 and 59.) The rear, with its colonnade and 
lattices, is quite striking, but the design of the glass 
marquise over the main entrance savors a little of 
commercialism. There is a charming little brick 
stable by the same firm on Essex Street in the rear. 
(No. 60.) 

The Wightman residence, not far away, by Shepley, 
Rutan & Coolidge, has already been illustrated in The 
Brickbuilder and we only present two views in detail. 
(Nos. 64 and 65.) This design is by far the most 
striking in Brookline, recalling in some ways the 
feeling of the Petit Trianon. Although wellnigh per- 
fect in detail and general composition, it lacks domes- 
ticity. Opposite is a very agreeable brick Colonial 
house, prettily shaded by great elms, by Thomas M. 
James. (No. 66.) 

On Carleton Street, near the Howe and Fish resi- 
dences, there is a large brick house by George F. New- 
ton, still more clearly recalling the Chichester house. 
(No. 61.) 

No. 67 is a large brick house by Winslow & Bigelow at 
Chestnut Hill, in a style of which probably twenty ex- 
amples can be found near Boston. The style is ample 
and dignified, but implies a somewhat unnecessary fru- 
gality of effort on the part of the designer. Judging by 
its frequent repetition, the motif is a popular one with 
the laity. On the other hand the little square house on 
Suffolk Road near by, by H. F. Bigelow, is full of sug- 
gestion and not only shows study but refinement and 
enthusiasm. (No. 62.) 

Farther out, on Fisher Hill, some brick houses with 
Dutch feeling have been built, one of which we illus- 
trate. (No. 63.) 

The remaining four views illustrate the tendency of 
dwelling house work built in blocks for the market by 
speculators. No. 68 is a portion of a block on Beacon 
Street, near St. Mary's. The material is smooth red 
Roman brick with white joints and limestone trimmings. 
The block on Monmouth Street (No. 69), built some time 
ago by Ball & Dabney, has always been satisfactory, 
while No. 70 on Beacon Street, by A. H. Bowditch, in 
Perth Amboy brick and brownstone and with green 
shingle roofs, possesses considerable interest. No. 71 is 
also on Beacon Street, and is a pleasant and simple row 
of facades in the usual water-struck brick and black 
headers. 



9 6 



THE BRICKBU ILDER. 




52. FENWAY COURT, HOUSE OF MRS. JOHN L. GARDNER. 
Willarcl T. Sears, Architect. 




53. HOUSE ROR HENRY S. HOWE, ESQ., BROOKLINE, MASS. 
Peabody & Stearns, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



97 




54. FROM THE GARDEN. 




55. FROM THE ROAD. 

HOUSE FOR F. P. FISH, ESQ., RROOKLINE. 

Winslow & Bigelow, Architects. 



9 8 



THE BRICKBU ILDER 




#JW?^ 







56. FRONT ENTRANCE. 57. REAR. 

HOUSE FOR HENRY S. HOWE, ESQ., HROOKLINE. Peabody & Stearns, Architects. 




5S. ENTRANCE TO LIBRARY, HOWE HOUSE. 




59. I'ORCH OF FISH HOUSE. 






THE BRICKBUILDER 



99 




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THE BRICKBU ILDER 





n | DETAILS OF WIGHTMAN HOUSK, BROOKI.INE, MASS. Shepk-y, kutan & Coolidge, Architects. 65. 





66. HOUSE, HA WES STREET, BROOK LINE. 
Thomas M. James, Architect. 



67. HOUSE, CHESTNUT HILL. 
Winslow & Bigelow, Architects. 



THE BRICKBU ILDER. 



101 







70. ROW OF HOUSES, BEACON STREET, BROOKLINE. 





68. DETAIL, HOUSES ON BEACON STREET. 



69. HOUSES, BROOKLINE. Ball & Dabney, Architects. 





71. ROW OF HOUSES, BEACON STREET, BROOKLINE. 



102 



THE BRICKBU ILDER 



Editorial Comment and 
Selected Miscellany 



CONVENTION OF THE ARCHITECTURAL 
LEAGUE OF AMERICA. REPORT. 

THE Architectural League of America held its Sixth 
Annual Convention at the Hotel Schenley in Pitts- 
burg, April 17 and iIS. John T. Comes, president of 
the Pittsburg Architectural Club, made an address of 
welcome on behalf of his society to the delegates of the 
following twelve bodies: Architectural League of New 
York, T-Square Club, Philadelphia, Cleveland Archi- 
tectural Club, Pittsburg Architectural Club, Chicago 
Architectural Club, Detroit Architectural Club, St. Louis 
Architectural Club, Washington Architectural Club, 
Toronto Architectural Eighteen Club, University of 
Illinois, National Society of Sculptors, Society of Mural 
Painters. 

To this address President Ittner made reply, closing 
with these words: "This convention of the League, I 
feel, must mark a turning point in its career. Local 
conditions have changed in large measure the original 
purposes of the League. Its energies shovdd now be 
directed to the more serious problems confronting it. 
Work clearly within its province is the education of the 
draughtsman, as the club must take the place of the 
school in the case of those men who are not afforded 
the opportunity of obtaining an academic education. 
The movement for civic improvement is steadily grow- 
ing. The work of the League, through its club compe- 
titions and exhibitions, is creating a strong public 
sentiment : and as our friend from Pittsburg states, 
• It is no far distant day when each city of any impor- 
tance in our country will have its municipal group, its 
plaza, flower beds and its band.' " 

N. Max Dunning was chosen speaker of the conven- 
tion and Percy Ash, secretary. 

Various communications were read, and then the 
reports of the Executive Board, and the standing com- 
mittees for the past year, — those devoted to Publicity 
and Promotion, Code of Ethics and Competitions, the 
Circuit Exhibition, Education and Records. These were 
placed in the hands of a special committee, with instruc- 
tions to analyze and condense them, and on the basis so 
formed to offer suggestions for the activity of the League 
during the coming year. 

The individual clubs gave, through their representa- 
tives, short resit mi's of their past year's work. 

A public meeting was held on Monday evening in the 
Pittsburg Conservatory of Music, at which Charles Mul- 
ford Robinson presented a paper (read by Herbert C. 
Wise) on "The Comprehensive Planning of Cities." 
William B. Ittner gave a talk, illustrated with lantern 
slides, upon the public schools of St. Louis from the 
point of view of their architectural design, construction 
and equipment. This was followed by an address enti- 
tled " The Grouping of Municipal Buildings, " delivered 
by Frederick S. Lamb. 

On Tuesday morning the report of the special com- 



mittee upon all reports of the year was read, and the 
following recommendations adopted by the convention: 

That a committee to work in cooperation with 
the American Institute of Architects be appointed, 
and to report at the next convention. 

That the printing of the reports of this con- 
vention in the form used in the past be discon- 
tinued, but that a limited number of copies be 
prepared at small expense for the use of the 
various clubs and committees. 

That the members of the League consider 
means of establishing fellowships in the archi- 
tectural schools of America. 

That the Architectural League of America 
establish and maintain an Annual Traveling 
Scholarship, to be competed for by the repre- 
sentatives of each constituent organization in the 
League. Representatives to be selected by pre- 
liminary competition in each club. This to be 
designated as " The Traveling Scholarship of the 
Architectural League of America," and the ne- 
cessary funds to finance same to be raised by 
popular subscription in the various cities repre- 
sented by the constituents of the League. 

That the League cooperate with the Alliance 
of Civic < Irganizations in such manner as the 
Executive Board may see fit. 

That a Committee on Municipal Improvements 
be appointed to compile and publish a review of 
this work at the expense of the League, the ex- 
pense not to exceed $200. 

That the Committee on Education be requested 
to prepare a syllabus for the use of the individual 
clubs and to supply a copy of the same to each. 

That the policy of the Architectural League 
of America henceforth be that the personnel of 
each committee be composed of members residing 
in the same city; that the chairman of each com- 
mittee be appointed by the speaker of the con- 
vention; and that each chairman recommend to 
the Executive Hoard, for ratification, the names 
of the other members of this committee. 

That the Circuit Exhibition be discontinued, 
but that constituent members of the League 
desiring exhibitions from other cities may obtain 
them upon application to the Executive Board. 

That at each convention of the League each club 
send with its delegation a limited number of works 
of architecture and the allied arts representative of 
their community, for exhibition at the sessions. 

That the League establish and publish annually 
an architectural review consisting of illustrations 
and essays or addresses selected from the subjects 
published by the various clubs in their exhibition 
catalogues and from the addresses prepared and 
read to the various clubs of the League, and that 
in order to facilitate this work the clubs be re- 
quested to adopt a uniform size of page for all 
illustrated catalogues and to preserve all plates 
and etchings for use in this work. Any profits 
derived from the sale of these books are to be 
devoted to the maintenance of The Traveling 
Scholarship of the League. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



103 



The luncheon which followed this session was one of 
the most pleasurable occasions of the entire two days, 
and quite unexpected. Messrs. Rutan and Russell had 
invited all the delegates to the Duquesne Club, where 
they had provided nothing short of a mid-day banquet. 
The cordial gathering called forth several excellent 
toasts of the fervent and enthusiastic sort which long 
remain in the memory of hearers. Particularly so was 
Mr. Bitter's plea for originality, truth and modern con- 
ception in design. Mr. Lamb declared with earnestness 
the advantages of the broad foundations of the Archi- 
tectural League of America, and the great public ser- 
vice it could therefore accomplish. Messrs. Russell and 
Rutan responded to the cheers of hospitality appreciated, 
and were followed by Messrs. Eames, Lauber and 
Ittner, before the room was reluctantly left for the 
concluding business sessions of the convention at the 
Schenley. 

The following chairman of committees for the com- 
ing year were named: Publicity and Promotion, Herbert 
C. Wise; Current Club Work, Charles S. Schneider; 
Education, Newton A. Wells; Cooperation with the 
American Institute of Architects, Ernest J. Russell; 
Municipal Improvements, Frederick S. Lamb. 

In the face of sincere modesty on the part of the 
two candidates nominated, N. Max Dunning was unani- 
mously elected president, "simply because," he de- 
clared in a speech of hesitating acceptance, " Mr. Ittner 
was more successful that I in conducting his campaign of 
withdrawal." The convention showed its disagreement, 
with this remark by gayly shouldering its new head and 
bearing him aloft at the close of the sessions. 

It was decided to hold the next convention in New 
York. 

After a vote of thanks to the outgoing officers of the 
League, to the Pittsburg Club, and to Messrs. Rutan and 
Russell for their hospitality, the session was brought to 
a close by a paper entitled " American Style," prepared 
and read by Titus de Bobula. 

The convention was ended by a banquet at which 
C. G. MacChire was an able toastmaster, bringing to 
the floor Messrs. Ittner, Dunning, Eames, Lauber, 
Hynes, Comes, Dr. John S. Brashear, E. Z. Smith of the 
Art Society of Pittsburg and Director Arthur Hamer- 
schlag of the Carnegie Technical Schools. 

The cleverly designed menus reiterated the plea for 
the preservation of the Courthouse, and that subject of 
local and national moment was several times referred 
to in the speeches; the declaration that Richardson's 
masterpiece would not, in the end, be altered, calling 
forth loud applause. 



RESULTS IN THE LADIES' HOME JOURNAL 
COMPETITION. 

IN the Ladies' Home Journal Competition for a three 
thousand dollar house, the first prize ($1,000) was 
awarded to William G. Rantoul, Boston ; second prize 
($500) to James H. Clapp, Boston; third prize 
($200) to William G. Crowell and James H. Buttimer, 
Boston. 



ROTCH TRAVELING SCHOLARSHIP. 

THE Rotch Traveling Scholarship has this year been 
awarded to W. D. Crowell of the office of Parker 
& Thomas. The competition in design was judged by a 




PORCH, SAMUEL READY PUBLIC LIBRARY, BALTIMORE, MD. 

Wyatt & Nolting, Architects. 
Terra-cotta columns made by New York Arch. Terra-Cotta Co. 

jury consisting of Joseph E. Sperry of Baltimore, Philip 
Sawyer of New York, and W. E. Chamberlin of Cam- 
bridge. There were seven competitors, three of whom 
dropped out in the preliminary examination, leaving 
four in the competition in design, of whom three had re- 
turned from Paris especially to take the examination, 
Mr. Crowell was born in Hyannis, Mass., and received 
his architectural schooling at the Institute of Technology. 
He was placed second in the Rotch competition of last 






MANTEL EXECUTED IN COLORED MATT GLAZE FAIENCE BY 
THE ROOKWOOD POTTERY CO. 

year and was placed first in the twelve-hour sketch and 
first in the twenty-four-hour sketch for the Beaux Arts 
Society prize last year, receiving second place in the. 
finals. He has also won special prizes at the Institute, 
and his name appears as a winner in several of The 



104 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




HOUSE, FROM BELOW. 




FROM LIBRARY WINDOW. 
CHAPTER HOUSE, CORNELL UNIVERSITY, ITHACA, N. Y. 
George R. Dean, Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



105 




ELLIPTICAL ROTUNDA DOME, NEW YORK CUSTOM HOUSE. Cass Gilbert, Architect. 
(Span 75 feet by 130 feet. Guastavino construction.) 



Brickbuilder and other similar competitions. The prob- 
lem this year called for a building to be used for exhibi- 
tions of painting, sculpture, architecture and the allied 
arts. 

COSTLY SERVICE. 

THE cost of laying brick has been increasing for sev- 
eral years, and the cause of this increase is not far 
to seek. While the working hours of the bricklayer are 
less, the wages have advanced far more in proportion, 
with the result that the bricklayer, who in 1898 was paid 
$21.50 for fifty hours per week, received $26.12 for forty- 





HOUSE AT NEWTON, MASS. 
Built of " Shawnee " Brick, made by Ohio Mining & Manufacturing Co. 



seven and a half hours' work five years later. The 
bricklayers are organized in their unions to a higher de- 
gree than any other trade. Their work is absolutely 
essential to nine-tenths of our building operations, and 
in a great many of our largest build- 
ings they are paid whatever price 
they demand, almost without reser- 
vation. We have known of brick- 
layers demanding and receiving as 
high as $14 per day, and $5 or $6 per 
day for a good face bricklayer is 
quite common pay. Besides this 
every bricklayer must have a tender, 
and the more tenders on a job often 
the less willing are the masons to 
economize time and labor, with the 
result that even with wages at the 
same price as in past years the cost 
of work to-day is much increased. 
Comparing the wages of bricklayers 
in the various countries we find that 
the average in the United States for 
1903 was fifty-five cents per hour, in 
England twenty cents, Germany and 
France about thirteen cents, and 
Belgium about eleven cents. We ex- 
pect to pay more for everything in 
this country than is paid abroad, but 
we flatter ourselves that we get more 
for our money, and the experience 
of the Westinghouse Company in 
England, who were able to lay fifteen 




DETAIL BY 

CONKLING-ARM- 

STRONG TERRA*- 

COTTA CO. 

D. H. Burnham 
& Co., Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




tice of architecture in Chicago, Mr. W. L. B. Jenney has 
retired from active practice. Owing to poor health he 
has spent the past winter in California, and has con- 
cluded to make his permanent residence in Los Angeles. 




HOUSE AT NEEDHA.M, MASS. 

Philip B. Howard, Architect. 
Brickwork waterproofed by Cabot's Brick Preservative. 



and eighteen hundred bricks a day 
with imported American workmen as 
against five or six hundred with 
natives, is often cited as a justifi- 
cation of the high prices which are 
paid the American mason. We are 
not able to quote exact figures, but 
we believe that while the bricklayers 
in this country are paid more per 
hour, the average per year is not so 
very much more than it is in Eng- 
land, and if the labor unions were not 
so disposed to limit production by 
frequent strikes, by reducing the 
workman to the average of the poor- 
est rather than raising to the level 




A ROOK OF LUDOWICI TILE. 




of the best, we be- 
lieve that the rate 
per hour might be 
reduced very con- 
siderably without 
reducing the annual 
income, and by such 
reduction material 
saving could be 
effected in the cost 
of brickwork. It 
certainly is time to 
consider whether it 
is not possible to re- 
duce the present ex- 
tremely high price 
of building. 



DETAIL BY EXCELSIOR TERRA-COTTA CO. 
Maginnis, Walsh St Sullivan, Architects. 



YV. L. B. JENNEY. 

AFTER a long 
and honorable 
career in the prac- 



DETAIL BY ATLANTIC TERRA-COTTA CO. 

Hubbell & Benes, Architects. 

Mr. Jenney was educated in Paris in architecture and 
engineering, and returned to this country prior to the 
breaking out of the Civil War. Upon enlistment he was 
assigned to the engineer corps under General Grant, and 
was mustered out as Brevet Major Chief of Engineers on 
the staff of General Sherman. He 
located in Chicago, and began the 
practice of architecture in 1887. 
From the start his work was recog- 
nized, and it has left its impress 
upon the rapid growth of the 
city. 

Mr. Jenney's training as an engi- 
neer turned his mind towards the 
growing use of iron and steel in con- 
struction. His war experience urged 
him to do and dare, so that in the 
spring of [884 the architectural world 
saw the first start of what has revolu- 
tionized building construction, which 
was when the Home Insurance 
Building at La vSalle and Adams 
streets, Chicago, reared its skeleton iron and steel 
frame above its cohesive covering of brick and 
stone masonry, and it stands 
to-day in basic principle the 
first building of skeleton con- 
struction. 

Many of the leading archi- 
tects of Chicago were at one 
time in Mr. Jenney's office, 
notably I). H. Burnham, Louis 
II. Sullivan, I. K. Pond. 
Howard V. D. Shaw, William 
Ilolabird, Martin Roche, Jas. 
G. Rogers, N. S. Patton, A. 
H. Granger and others. 

The business will be carried 
on under the firm name of 
Jenney, Mundie & Jensen, by 
Mr. Mundie and Mr. Jensen, 
who have been with Mr. 
Jenney for the past twenty 
years. 




DETAIL BY INDIANAPOLIS 
TERRA-COTTA CO. 

Peters, Burns & Pretzinger, 

Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



107 




DF.TAIL OF CONSTRUCTION, NEW HAMBURG AMERICAN PIER, HOBOKEN, N. J. 



THE NEW HAMBURG AMERICAN PIER. 

WE give herewith an illustration showing the main 
entrance to the passenger department in the bulk- 
head building for the Hamburg 
American Pier, located at Hobo- 
ken, N. J., in which constructive 
terra-cotta has been used with 
very marked success to produce 
an architectural effect. The 
columns and pilasters are built 
out of four-inch porous tile, the 
hollow spaces about the column 
being filled in solid with crushed 
stone concrete. The wall 
dividing the freight and pas- 
senger departments is thirty-six 
feet high in the center and is 
built of eight-inch porous tile without any metal rein- 
forcement. The arches shown in the illustration have a 
clear span of twenty-five feet and a rise of one inch per 




DETAIL BY STANDARD 
E. C. & G. C. Gar 



lineal foot of span. They are constructed entirely of 
eight by twelve by twelve inch porous partition blocks, 
with no metal reinforcing whatever, the blocks being laid 

up with a sixteen-inch soffit. 
The floor construction which 
forms the ceiling of first story is 
of six-inch terra-cotta segmen- 
tal arches. This is a perfectly 
legitimate architectural treat- 
ment of the material and for 
purposes of this description 
affords a chance for some very 
interesting constructive study. 
Considering the excessive heat 
which would result from a con- 
flagration in a building filled as 
this is likely to be at times with 
highly combustible material, there is no other construc- 
tion on the market which could possibly give as much 
security with as large an opportunity for an architectural 
treatment. 



TERRA-COTTA WORKS, 
drier, Architects. 




i | ^ ^|^Jl|||A|||^AfcK 




7 

Ell-IIE 



MMm^m* 



■ ■■ 



■— -= 





ENGINE HOUSE NO. 79, NEW YORK CITY. 

Alexander Stevens, Architect. 
Built of Kreischer Brick. 



DETAIL BY NEW JERSEY TERRA-COTTA CO. 

IN GENERAL. 

Dean & Dean, architects, have succeeded George R. 
Dean. Office, 218 La Salle Street, Chicago. 

Hugh Mc- 
L el Ian, archi- 
tect, has opened 
an office at 1 123 
Broadway, New 
York City. 

Davis, Mc- 
Grath & Shep- 

ard, architects, detail by winkle terra-cotta co. 
have removed Barnett, Haynes & Barnett, Architects. 




io8 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 




their offices from 203 
Broadway to the Metro- 
politan Building, 1 
Madison Avenue, New- 
York City. 

Daniel Rigg's Hunt- 
ington, formerly of the 
firm of Fisher & Hunt- 
ington, Denver, Colo., 
has opened an office for 
the practice of archi- 
tecture at 419 Coleman 
Building, Seattle, Wash. 
Mr. Huntington would 
be glad to receive cata- 
logues and samples of 
builders' supplies. 

James S. Arnot, architect, has formed a copartnership 
with H. F. Lilley, — firm name Arnot & Lilley. Offices, 
5 1 9 Fernwell, Spokane, Wash. Samples and catalogues 
desired. 



DETAIL BY PERTH AMBOY 

TERRA-COTTA CO. 

Fontaine & Kinnicutt, Architects. 




DETAIL BY NORTHWESTERN TERRA-COTTA CO. 
Holmboe & Lafferty, Architects. 

We are informed by one of the leading architects of 
Norfolk, Va., that there is great need in that city of live 
contractors in every branch of the building trade and a 
splendid opening for the manufacture of bricks and 
other building material. 

The white matt glaze terra-cotta for the Public Li- 
brary at Colorado Springs, Colo., Calvin Kiessling, 
architect, illustrated in The Brickbuilder for April, was 
furnished by the Excelsior Terra-Cotta Company. 

Robert C. Martin & Son's rough Dutch red brick 




has been selected for Engineers Club, New York City. 
Andrew Carnegie, donor; Whitefield & King, architects. 

Thirty thousand barrels of Akron Star-Brand Cement 
will be used in paving the streets of Detroit. 

The new bank building at Baltimore, from designs of 
T. Henry Randall, will be of white glaze terra-cotta 
made by Atlantic Terra-Cotta Company. 

The American Enameled Brick and Tile Company, of 
New York, has closed within a short period orders for 
about 700,000 enameled brick which are to be used in bank 
buildings, railway stations, schoolhouses, fire engine 
houses, hospitals, residences, pumping stations, power 
stations, etc., now in course of erection in different parts 
of the country. Not many years ago a million enameled 
brick represented the entire output of American manu- 
facturers. 

WANTED — A good general draughtsman who can understand 
and layout working drawings and has ability in designing. Write, 
stating age, experience, references and salary desired, to Designer, 
care "The Brickbuilder." 

WANTED — Chief Draughtsman who is competent and thor- 
oughly familiar with the different styles of architecture and con- 
struction of high grade ornamental iron and bronze. State 
experience and salary expected. 

Flour City Ornamental Iron works, Minneapolis, Minn. 

;the school of architecture 

University of Pennsylvania. 



THE FOUR YEAR COURSE offers full professional training, with an 
option in Architectural Engineering, leading to the degree of B. S. in Architecture. 

THE GRADUATE YEAR affords opportunity for advanced work in design 
and other subjects, leading to the degree of M. S. in Architecture. 

THE TWO YEAR SPECIAL COURSE for qualified draughtsmen 
offers advanced technical training, yielding a Certificate of Proficiency. 

THE UNIVERSITY also gTants advanced standing to College graduates; 
offers a combination of liberal and technical courses whereby the degrees of A. H. 
and B. S. in Architecture can betaken in six years, and conducts a Summer School in which 

architectural studies may be taken. 

For full information address 

DP I H PFNMIMANI dean, college hall, 

l\. J. II. r C V\ Hi I ITI rt«, UNIVERSITY of PENNSYLVANIA , 

PHILADELPHIA, P -4 . 



A HOUSE BUILT OF TIFFANY ENAMELED BRICK. 



Architectural Faience. Competition A. 

Subject: A Garden Wall Fountain. 

OSE CASH PRIZE ONLY. FIFTY DOLLARS for VEST 
DESIGN. Also MENTIONS. 

Competition closes Mop 31, 1905. 



PROGRAMME. 

In a brick wall which encloses a small formal garden, at the 
end of a path, it is desired to place a Wall Fountain which is to be 
executed in Architectural Faience. 

The Fountain, with its emblishments, is to occupy a wall space 
of not more than one hundred square feet. 

The color scheme may be indicated by a key. 

Garden Pots and other accessories may be shown. 

Drawings required. Plan and Elevation ac a scale of one-half 
inch to the foot. 

Drawings may be rendered at will on a sheet of unmounted 
white paper, measuring 16 inches by 20 inches. 

Each drawing is to be signed by a nom de plume or device, and 
accompanying same is to be a sealed envelope with a nom de plume 
on the exterior and containing the true name and address of the 
contestant. 

The drawing is to be delivered at the office of THE BRICK- 
BUILDER, 85 Water Street, Koston, Mass., charges prepaid, on or 
before May 31, 1905. 

The prize drawing is to become the property of THE BRICK 
BUILDER, and the right is reserved to publish or exhibit any or 
all of the others. Those who wish their drawings returned may 
have them by enclosing in the sealed envelopes containing their 
names five cents in stamps. 

The designs will be judged by a well-known member of the ar- 
chitectural profession. 

Competition open to every one. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



109 



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PLANNING, FURNISHING AND DECORATING OF THE HOME. 

Landscape Architecture and Gardencraft. 

Civic Art in every phase. 

Regions of the beautiful and picturesque in the old world and the new. 

The fine and applied arts. 

The betterment of modern life by improving its environment. 

The part of beauty in the progress of to-day and to-morrow. 

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Competition for a Cover Design 

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in a competition, which shall be open to all, and governed as follows: 

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It shall be on white paper or cardboard measuring exactly 21 x 28 inches. It shall be suitable for 
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no THE BRICKBU ILDER. 

$1,800.00 in Prizes 

To Architects and Designers 

We want plans for an attractive and practical kitchen — for a kitchen in a residence or 
flat for people of ordinary means. 

This kitchen must be a model of excellence in every way and must contain a kitchen cabinet 
embodying the full working surface of the ordinary kitchen table, utilizing the space above and 
below the table to make convenient receptacles for food supplies and cooking utensils used in the 
everyday work in the kitchen. 

This model kitchen should be designed particularly for the housewife who does her own work, 
and every possible effort should be made to carry out the principles outlined in the following 
paragraph. 

THE McDOUGALL IDEA is to lighten the labor of the housewife, to make life easier and 
pleasanter for her, to save her innumerable steps and unnecessary work. 

$1,800.00 in Prizes for an Ideally Complete Kitchen 

First Prize, % I, 000.00 
Second Prize, $500.00 
Third Prize, $300.00 

Judges : Joseph Freedlander, Architect, New York City 
Jules Guerin, Artist, New York City 
W. J. Beauley, Architect, Chicago, 111. 

All designs submitted in this contest are to become the property of the donors of the prizes. 
Transportation charges must be prepaid on all designs. Drawings must be on the scale of three- 
quarters of an inch to the foot. They may be in line, in wash, in black and white or in color, 
according to the preference of the designers. 

The standing of the judges insures absolute impartiality in making of the awards. The com- 
petition will remain open until August 1st, 1905. 

Requirements of the Competition 

Each competitor must submit : 

(1) Carefully drawn floor plan, showing location of doors to rear, to pantry, to dining room ; placing of windows ; 
arrangement of range, sink, ice box, kitchen cabinet, etc. If any necessary convenience is placed outside kitchen its 
position must be indicated on plan. 

(2) Carefully drawn elevations of four sides of kitchen. 

(3) Carefully drawn perspective and elevation of side containing the cabinet. The shape and proportions of the cabinet 
should accord with his kitchen scheme. All necessary sections should be indicated. 

(4) A clear description of the kitchen and cabinet, not exceeding seven hundred words. 

Points to Consider 

Kitchens and kitchen furnishings are usually ugly. In the revival of domestic art this part of the house has as yet 
been overlooked. The chief aim in offering these prizes is: First, to draw out the best thought of the best designers on 
kitchen conveniences; and, second, to give the whole country the benefit of their thought. The prizes have been made 
exceptionally generous in order to induce the busiest and most skilful architects to take part in this competition. 

In the model kitchen the useful need not exclude the agreeable. Ventilation must be borne in mind ; the building in 
of the range ; placing of windows, both for light and decorative effect ; treatment of woodwork ; the use of such material 
for floor, walls or table tops as has some special recommendation for sanitation, cleanliness, durability or other practical 
purpose. Suggestions for furniture and color scheme are in order. 

ABOVE ALL, there should be borne in mind the possibility of IMPROVEMENT IN THE KITCHEN CABINET, 
that indispensable adjunct of the average kitchen. The ideal cabinet should present all the housewife's requirements 
within easy reach of her hand and should have a full working table surface. To save space, to save steps, to save trouble 
is its threefold object. It should not be cramped or crowded; all its parts should work freely; its proportions and lines 
should be artistic. 

Special Note 

To assist competitors a booklet showing the best kitchen cabinets now being put out by the factory will be mailed on 
request. 

The competition is open to all architects, draughtsmen, furniture designers, etc., residing in the United States, Canada 
or Europe. 

The competition will remain open until August I, 1905. 

[&j aii designs must be addressed to G. P. McDOUGALL & SON, Indianapolis, Ind., U. S. A. 




THE BR 

VOL. 14. NO. 5. 




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THE BRICKBUILDER, 
MAY, 
1906. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



Vol. 14 



JUNE 1905 



No. 6 



CONTENTS — PLATES 

From Work of A. W. LONGFELLOW, GUY LOWELL, WILLIAM L. 
PRICE, JAMES PURDON, EDGAR V. SEELER, HENRY VAUGHAN. 



CONTENTS — LETTER PRESS 

CLOISTER, CONVENT OF CHRIST, THOMAR, PORTUGAL Frontispiece 

EDITORIALS m 

ECCLESIASTICAL ARCHITECTURE. PAPER IV Ralph Adams dam 112 

BOSTON BRICKWORK. V 119 

THE NEW POST OFFICE AT STOCKHOLM, SWEDEN O. /,. Cervin 124 

EDITORIAL COMMENT AND SELECTED MISCELLANY 127 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



DEVOTED -TO -THE • INTERESTS OF 
ARCHITECTVRE- IN- MATERIALS • OF- CLAY 





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PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY 

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Entered at the Boston, Mass., Post Office as Second Class Mail Matter, March 12, 1892. 

COPYRIGHT, 1893, BY THE BRICKBUILDER PUBLISHING COMPANY. 

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MUNICIPAL IMPROVEMENTS AND 
COMPETITIONS. 

IN all the great municipal improvements which have 
been projected throughout the country, architects and 
architecture necessarily play a great part, and the devel- 
oping effect upon the profession of the inception and 
carrying out of these great schemes is becoming every 
day more apparent. We have not yet by any means 
reached the point in our municipal architecture which 
was passed long ago by such cities as Vienna, Buda-Pesth 
and Paris. It is evident, however, that we are on the eve 
of a tremendous architectural development, a develop- 
ment in which there will be room for every architect of 
marked ability. One of the few uncertain problems in 
connection with this development is how to call out most 
surely the best architectural talent. The plan which has 
been followed in Paris and to a very considerable extent 
on the Continent of Europe is to throw nearly everything 
open to public competition. This is a method of selec- 
tion which naturally finds favor with those who are young 
in the profession. At the same time it is not viewed with 
full approval by architects of established reputation who 
are familiar with the various direct and indirect channels 
through which the architect is able to make his influence 



felt. The other method of selection has been followed 
perhaps quite as much in this country as the competitive 
one, namely, the deliberate choice of an architect based 
upon his reputation and the work he has done. We should 
be sorry to have either method entirely prevail. The 
results so far have not been altogether such as would in- 
dicate that competitions invariably or even in the major- 
ity of cases imply wise selection. Of the notably great 
public improvements a surprisingly small percentage have 
been planned or designed as a result of competition. The 
same is true of a great preponderance of the government 
buildings aside from those erected by the United States. 
Reputation, proven ability, the record of a long and 
honorable practice, surely should count for something as 
against the fortuitous results of a competition in which 
the authors are unknown and in which the youngest be- 
ginner may have just as much chance of hitting the mark 
as the most available talent in this country; and yet to 
deny the great educational value of competitions is to be 
indifferent to a very marked feature of our national 
growth. The profession constantly needs new blood. 
Although architecture is essentially a retrospective art 
and is governed largely by precedent, we yet need the 
influence of what we might almost term the untrained 
ideas in order that the conservatism shall not be hide- 
bound, that the retrospection shall not produce a blind- 
ness to the needs of to-day. The keen, sharp competition 
of wits, the emulation of youthful enthusiasm are what 
will keep our profession in the line of growth, and both 
the young and the older members need just such stimulus 
if they are to accomplish the best results. The large pub- 
lic improvements which are surely coming will undoubt- 
edly continue to be awarded very generally to those who 
have won .distinction and reputation in the legitimate 
work of the profession, but at the same time the compe- 
titions will draw into the ranks the younger and the un- 
tried men who will bring to the problems all the indom- 
itable buoyancy of youth and keep us from becoming 
in any sense moss-grown We do not believe it will ever 
be a healthy condition for the profession to feel that it 
can obtain its opportunities only through competition. 
No more do we feel that it woidd be for any one's interest 
that experience and reputation should count for nothing. 
And if we can rightly appreciate the present conditions 
in this country, the balance is pretty evenly held between 
enlarged opportunities for the young men and distinct 
recognition of achieved success, so that, as nowhere else 
in this world, the conditions are fair and stimulating to 
both. 






I 12 



THE BRICK BUILDER 



Ecclesiastical Architecture. 

PAPER IV. 

RY KAM'Il ADAMS CRAM. 

ENGLAND. 

EVERY day ami increasingly it is being borne in 
upon us that we are even now in the midst of a 
great spiritual awakening, the fruition of which no man 
may foretell; that when the nineteenth century closed 
something more came to an end than an arbitrary epoch of 
time; that the new century is destined to be utterly and 
fundamentally different to the last, an era of spiritual 
expansion as that was an era of material achievement. 
Even the absurd and ephemeral follies of the time, the 
wild seeking fur, and acceptance of, exaggerated types of 
personal leadership so long as they are at the same time 



For almost half a century, however, the religious revival 
was confined almost wholly within the limits of the 
Established Church in England and the Episcopal 
Church in the United States. It worked slowly and 
quietly, never taking on the aspect of a great popular 
movement, for it was coeval with the highest popularity 
of the ultra-scientific-agnostic phase of fashion. The 
earlier revival of the Wesleys, which was indeed a popu- 
lar movement, had apparently reached the limit of its 
possibilities, and for fifty years little was done beyond 
the slow, internal reformation of the Anglican branch of 
the Catholic Church, — the English "counter-reforma- 
mation " it might well be called, since it was aimed so 
largely towards undoing the evil half of the notable 
achievements of the "Reformation." In no respect a 
widespread uprising of the race, it was a movement the 
vast potency of which we are beginning now to under- 




THE TREATMENT ENGLAND HAS ACCORDED HER OREATEST MONUMENTS. 



obscure, dogmatic and emotional, testify to the indestruc- 
tible hunger in the human soul for religion. This hunger 
is now, after several centuries of doubt, denial and vain 
agnosticism, bursting all bonds and clamoring for the 
long denied spiritual food, seizing greedily upon the nox- 
ious as upon the wholesome, so only that it is food, and 
of the kind, apparently, so long discredited and refused 
by a world unbalanced by the destruction of the sane 
principles of law, order and obedience. 

Another evidence of this remarkable movement lies 
in the altogether extraordinary recrudescence of interest 
in ecclesiastical architecture as exemplified, for instance, 
in the notable series of papers now being published in 
this magazine. Seventy-five years ago this movement 
began in England, accompanying the great spiritual 
awakening that was signalized by the Oxford Movement. 



stand as, the old superstitions of the last century sloughed 
off, we find a strengthened and revivified Church ready 
to lead in the truly popular awakening that is now in 
progress. 

The architectural revival incited by the immortal 
I'ugin was instantly and astoundingly victorious in Eng- 
land. Ten years sufficed to see the last shards of the 
classical fashion relegated to the dust heap, and for almost 
seventy-five years England has been steadily at work 
laboring in very varied ways to make Gothic or Chris- 
tian architecture a living thing again. At one time it 
seemed as if America were to follow suit, but though Up- 
john and Renwick did their best and it was quite as 
good as the then contemporary work in England — the 
products of their disciples were pretty bad, the seed fell 
on stony ground, the progress lapsed, and when Richard- 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



IT 3 



son injected his new and powerful vitality into the fer- 
ment the cause was lost, and after his death chaos, utter 
and complete, supervened. 

So thorough had been the failure of the Church to 
demand and to develop a consistent style, so utterly had 
she failed to impress on the people her claims to con- 
sideration and the opportunities afforded by her necessi- 
ties, she was practically disregarded by the great schools 
of architecture growing up all over the country; no 
thought was given to her needs, or even to the fact that 
religion was to be reckoned with either historically or 
practically; the entire mediaeval period was ignored as of 
no architectural account ; the style then evolved, the one 
and only consistent and complete mode of building 
developed by Christianity, was rejected as barbarous 



tian architecture from any recognition. In spite of its 
efforts, Gothic — if we must call it by so meaningless a 
name — has come again to the front, and its appearance 
alone is enough to win the victory. So long as it was 
laughed or scorned into the dark, all was well, but pub- 
licity settles the question. The first school that establishes 
a chair of "Christian Architecture " is the one that will 
leap to the front beyond all rivals and will become the 
great agency in developing a logical and living architec- 
tural style for America. 

Precisely this, though the concrete school was lack- 
ing, is what happened in England, and in this paper I 
desire to note most briefly the course of events in that 
country which is so absolutely ours that Englishmen and 
Americans are simply like two brothers, sojourning in 




WHEN ARCHITECTURE WAS AN INSTINCT, NOT AN ARTIFICE. 



and dead, and the only style held up for admiration was 
one which did violence to every Christian principle and 
impulse. Even now, apart from a slight historical pat- 
ronage and a certain whimsical playing with Gothic forms 
in the development of empirical architectural problems, 
— as one might amuse one's self in the effort to recreate 
on paper an Egyptian, or Hindoo, or Buddhist temple, — 
the Christian style of architecture is practically ignored, 
and if a man would learn to serve the Church in stone 
he must learn elsewhere than in a school of architecture. 
But the conditions that made this sort of thing possi- 
ble no longer exist : the world is getting away from the 
schools, men have learned something of the wonder and 
the perfection and the persistent vitality of the style the 
Church developed, and now demands again, and it is im- 
possible for neo-paganism longer to exclude good Chris- 



different -lands but tied together by all the heritage of 
family, the indestructible chain of an infinite sequence of 
common ancestors. We sometimes fail to realize ade- 
quately that American history goes back without a break 
to the Revolution, Plymouth Rock, the Elizabethan age, 
the Reign of Terror under Henry VIII, the Wars of the 
Roses, Magna Charta, the Conquest, the Heptarchy, St. 
Augustine and Julius Csesar. We are not the Topsy of 
nations, but the heirs of English history. 

English civilization was from the time of St. Augustine, 
St. Patrick and St. Columba, the child of the Christian 
Church, and in a most extraordinary degree was it the re- 
sult of the activity of the monastic orders. The Benedic- 
tines of the south, the monks of lona, St. Cuthbert and 
later the Cistercians of the north were the chief agents in 
civilizing the barbarous races, knitting them together, pre- 



£ 



ii4 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




CHRISTIAN ARCH1TF.CTUKE AS IT ONCE 
WAS IN ENGLAND. 

paring them to support such defenders of human rights 
and absolute justice as the great prelates St. Anselm, 
Stephen Langton, Theobald of Canterbury and St. 
Thomas a Becket. Therefore from the earliest times 
the architecture of England was monastic in its inception 
as distinguished from the essentially episcopal archi- 
tecture of the Continent. Until the Black Death, and 
after in a lesser degree, the monastic orders in England 
were the civilizing, educating and charitable powers in 
the land. There were many orders, severally independ- 
ent, and in most instances independent amongst them- 
selves; that is, each house was a sovereign power in 
itself. Racially, geologically and climatically the many 
subdivisions of England were widely different. There- 
fore English architecture became infinitely varied in its 
detail, and through the virtual independence of the hun- 
dreds of abbots almost completely personal. As the 
monks gradually took to themselves per /ore, vast num- 
bers of the duties we now postulate of the civil state, 
they became responsible for thousands of buildings of 
most varied types, not abbeys, priories and cells alone, 
but parish churches, chapels, chantries, hospitals, asv- 
lums, almshouses, schools, colleges, castles, manors, 
farmsteads and barns. The styles developed by mitered 
abbots and their subordinate priors, through the great 
guilds of masons and craftsmen, thus percolated down 
through every class of society, and the result was perfect 
unity of impulse expressed through infinite variety of 
personal genius and inspiration. Life in England from 
the Conquest to the Suppression was crescent and as 
well turbulent in its strenuous onrushing from one van- 
tage point to the next. From all over the Continent 
impulses of every kind rained down on the little island: 
now the Benedictines were the leaders, now the Cister- 
cians, now the friars; again, the throne was supreme, 
then the barons, then the knighthood and gentry. There 
never was time to work out any style or even any new 
motive to absolute finality; Glastonbury gave place to 



Rievaulx and Whitby, these to York Abbey, this to Gis- 
burgh ; Gisburgh yielded to William of Wykeham and 
his amazing new style, and before this had expressed 
itself in any complete and consistent abbey or cathedral, 
Henry, the scourge of England, hurled the whole fabric 
of splendid civilization crashing to the ground, and 
brought in the awful anarchy of the reigns of Edward VI 
and Mary I. 

From this two things follow that must always be con- 
sidered in studying English Gothic: first, the incom- 
plete nature of each epoch of the style; second, the 
lamentable fact that through the destruction of the mon- 
asteries by Henry's cutthroats, Cromwell, Layton, Lon- 
don and the rest of the " visitors, " and his new made 
and most evil "nobles," to whom the fabulous spoil was 
granted, most of the very noblest examples of Gothic in 
England have utterly perished from the earth. 

Bearing this first fact in mind we can understand 
why there never was any one final and finished "Gothic 
style " in England, i. e., any point of time at which it 
might be said, "this marks the culmination of an epoch," 
but rather a swift sequence of brilliant and bewildering 
episodes wherein were commingled masterpieces and 
failures, perfect Gothic and sadly imperfect. In this 
respect France and England stand at opposite poles, and 
to my mind the Gothic of England was greater and 




AN EXAMPLE OF VICTORIAN GOTHIC. 

more Gothic, even if far less final in its logical perfection. 
Gothic as a style maintained, or rather rediscovered, all 
the subtleties of proportion and composition inherent 
in Hellenic architecture. It added to these a pure 
logic of construction and design Rome never grasped, 
and as well the passion for beauty in an infinity of 
varied forms hitherto undreamed of by any peoples of 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



IT 5 



any race or clime; finally, as the culmination of all, it 
exalted to the summit of its wonderful fabric, person- 
ality, demanding of every man the supreme best he 
individually could give, and opening to him every con- 
ceivable source of inspiration that might operate to this 
end. France stopped short at logic of design and con- 
struction, and her Gothic is a wonder of consummate con- 
sistency; England grasped at personality as the perfect 
ideal, and achieved it, becoming so the truest exponent 
of the great mediaeval period in building, but failing 
always to bring any one phase of her art to finality, and 
so falling under the ban of those the logic of whose 
minds runs with the logic of the great builders of the 
lie de France. 

Bearing the second fact in mind, we can see why Eng- 



that followed, brought art to an end in England. When 
that monumental statesman, Elizabeth Boleyn, finally 
succeeded in bringing something of order out of chaos 
and giving civilization another chance, there was no 
longer either a powerful Church, a popular religious 
instinct or an actual material demand that might act as 
an incentive toward a rebirth of religious art. The 
great fire of London under the Stuarts offered a purely 
fictitious impulse, and it was met by a purely fictitious 
style devoid of the slightest Christian spirit, and, as 
well, profoundly artificial through its absolute ignoring 
of the essential connection between construction and 
design. It was a mode of enclosing a certain space from 
the weather and giving the shell a specious grandiosity, 
but it was not a legitimate architectural style. From 







WHAT ENGLAND WAS BUILDING WHEN THE GOTHIC IMPULSE WAS CRUSHED OUT. 



lish architecture is at so terrible a disadvantage when it 
comes to the test of archaeology ; the most noble build- 
ings are gone, utterly, irremediably. The reign of 
terror under " Henry the Demon " wiped out the most 
perfect of the Gothic monuments of England, and by 
some strange fatality these structures, which reached the 
level of Paris, Amiens and Rheims, were the very ones 
to go, while the failures like Salisbury only too often 
remained. We know this from the fragments of Glas- 
tonbury, Rievaulx, Whitby, York and Gisburgh still 
remaining. What must have been in the case of Beau- 
lieu, St. Edmundsbi:ry, Evesham and Osney, not one 
stone of which remains upon another, is only matter for 
sorrowful speculation. 

The Suppression, and the half century of anarchy 
coupled with the swift down-rushing towards barbarism 



then on was merely a sorry tale of the progressive 
degradation of habits in themselves none too exalted, 
and so matters stood when the elder Pugin became the 
discoverer of the interesting fact that England had 
once had a national Christian architecture. The news 
spread like wildfire. It was synchronous with Scott's 
revelation of the old-time glory of British character and 
British history, and the still greater revelation of Pusey, 
Newman and the Tractarians that England once had had 
a national, Catholic and virile Church, the dry bones of 
which still remained, and might perchance be raised up 
into a new life, a fact somewhat forgotten since the 
murder, two centuries before, of Archbishop Laud. 

Reform was in the air, memory was at work again, 
imagination roused itself from its long sleep, and art arid 
poetry came out into a new day. But architecture alone 






n6 



T HE BRICKBUILDER. 



concerns us here, so it is enough to note the fact that the 
"Gothic revival" in England was not a sport of jaded 
fashion, but an intrinsic part of a great movement that is 
even now working steadily towards a destiny, the nature 
of which we can only conjecture. 

The history of the architectural "counter-reforma- 
tion " was about what we should expect. The younger 
Pugin, the first Gilbert Scott, Street, Pearson, saw at 
first only archaeological possibilities; the thirteenth cen- 
tury was the idol of the hour, and duplication of detail, 
copying with scrupulous exactness the ritual of its wor- 
ship. From this grew up 
on the one hand the Mark- 
heim of "Victorian Gothic," 
<ui the other the absurdities 
of " carpenter's Gothic." 
Neither was really Gothic at 
all ; but while the latter was 
the indelible mark of a 
social barbarism and debase- 
ment that would have dis- 
graced the Maories of New 
Zealand and the savages of 
Patagonia, the former was 
not only vastly in advance 
of anything that had pre- 
ceded it for two hundred 
years, it was really good in 
itself; not very good to be 
sure, but earnest, enthusi- 
astic and possessed of no 
small degree of fine propor- 
tion and noble and original 
composition. Of course its 
ornament, particularly its 
carving, was quite impos- 
sible, but only a social revo- 
lution that will bring back 
the guilds, the methods and 
the faith of the middle ages 
will give us back our herit- 
age of "architectural sculp- 
ture. Until that day it is 
better to deal "with chiseled moldings, or even the con- 
temporary jungle of_acanthus. 

When Mr. Bodley entered the fight he brought in a 
new element: not only did he seek his inspiration largely 
from the fourteenth century, he as well began to indicate 
the great, underlying laws of the Christian style that 
run changelessly through all Gothic building from the 
thirteenth century until the end. Others had worked in 
the style, he thought in it, and so did those that came 
after him ; as a result his work had the spirit and the 
life as well as the moldings and the centering of arches. 
By this time, also, a certain section of the people had be- 
gun to think Gothic ; Scott and Wordsworth and Cole- 
ridge, Pusey, Newman and Manning, Ruskin, Turner 
and Tennyson, were making themselves felt. They had 
brought into existence, or the Zeit-geist had done it for 
them, such absolute yet varied types of the true artistic 
doth as William Morris, Dante Rossetti and Henry Ir- 
ving. "Strawberry Hill Gothic" would no longer do, 
for the consciousness had grown up that the new school 




I'HE SEVENTEENTH CENT 
ARCHITECTURE, 



of architecture was supremely foolish if it did not express 
an identical impulse in human life, and this impulse 
proved as soon as it arrived that shams and lies and af- 
fectations and stage scenery were the final negation of 
the spirit of life that had made mediaeval architecture 
possible, and that had come again into the world, not as 
a revenant, but as a resurrection. 

Gradually the consciousness grew up that good archi- 
tecture and sound civilization did not die of inanition 
during the reign of Henry VIII, but that they were done 
to death in most untimely fashion and in the strength of 

their mature manhood, and 
so men said, " Go to, we will 
return to the year 1537, take 
up the story where it was 
then brought to a violent 
end and go on thence, ignor- 
ing for all practical purposes 
the long interregnum be- 
tween then and now." The 
leader in this new crusade 
for the "redemption of the 
holy places" of architecture 
was |ohn Sedding, and, short 
as was his life, he turned the 
whole stream of tendency 
into new channels. Perpen- 
dicular Gothic became the 
enormous quarry from which 
inspiration was to be had for 
the digging, and "develop- 
ment " the slogan of the war. 
The results were brilliant 
and amazing: a score of able 
men allied themselves with 
the cause, and for ten years 
the output of vital, spon- 
taneous, exhilarating, 
exquisite work was almost 
incredible. I shall not at- 
tempt to give a list of the 
names of those associated 
with this splendid outburst 
of genius, for they are legion. 

" Last stage of all" came the inevitable — though I 
believe temporary — breakdown. Sedding died and 
many of his disciples got out of hand. "Development" 
was too fast and too facile, it began to see nothing but 
ingenuity before it, the great principles of Gothic were 
forgotten in the rush, and there came a carnival of riotous 
invention. Bentley, in some ways perhaps the greatest 
of all the new Goths of England, was forced into an alien 
style for his hugest monument, and presently died, cut 
off like Sedding and Gilbert Scott II long before his 
time. Had he lived he might have stemmed the tide. 

What remains:- Is the cause lost? Has English ar- 
chitecture lived through in seventy-five years a life iden- 
tical with that which consumed four centuries in its 
earlier development? Has the Gothic Restoration come 
to an end:- On the contrary, it has only begun. One 
experiment after another has been tried, the re-creation 
of the thirteenth, the fourteenth and the fifteenth centu- 
ries: each has been only partially successful, and for two 






URY SUBSTITUTE FOR 
AT ITS BEST. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



117 



reasons: first, because in each case there was too much 
dependence on archaeology and on the minutiae of art, 
not enough on sound and basic principles; second, be- 
cause the architects were far in advance of society, and 
even in the case of the Church (though here in less 
measure than elsewhere) were trying to drag the world 
up to a level for which it was not prepared. The result 
was a state of things that was bad from an economic 
standpoint: the supply was creating the demand. There 
are signs now, clear and unmistakable, that all is re- 
versed : the demand exists, and it must inevitably create 
the supply. Society, in Eng- 
land at least, will tolerate no 
return to classicism, whether 
Italian, French or English. 
It is now acquiring some- 
thing to express which can 
only be accurately voiced by 
some new mode of its old 
national style. To fill this 
demand architects will re- 
turn, not to one special 
period, but to all: from the 
thirteenth century they will 
learn the laws of proportion, 
relation, composition and re- 
straint; from the fourteenth, 
breadth, largeness, grasp of 
mass, grouping of light and 
shade; from the fifteenth, 
freedom, fearlessness, 
exuberance of imagination 
adaptation to new and 
constantly changing require- 
ments; from the three 
centuries taken together, 
seriousness of purpose, 
healthy joy in creation, the 
passion for pure beauty and a 
sane, manly, religious faith, 
confident and unashamed. 

In Gilbert Scott III and 
his Liverpool Cathedral is 
perhaps an indication of this latest and most lasting phase 
of the new life in English architecture. 




THE SEVENTEENTH CEN 
ARCHITECTURE, 



TWENTY-STORY TENEMENT HOUSE. 

THE fertile imagination of the real estate promoter 
has, from time to time, attempted to expand the 
tenement house in the same degree that the office build- 
ing has developed, by carrying it out in multiple stories 
toward the sky. Quite recently it was seriously an- 
nounced that a twenty-story tenement house was to be 
built in Brooklyn with the backing of some wealthy New 
York philanthropist, and even many details were set 
forth, but we are glad to learn that the report was un- 
founded and there is no immediate likelihood that tene- 
ment-house dwellers will be called upon to expose them- 
selves to the extreme hazards of such a construction. 

The tenement house offers a problem which has not 
yet been solved in a satisfactory manner. The sordid 
financial interests have generally interfered to prevent 



the development of a thoroughly successful treatment 
of the problem from a practical no less than from an 
aesthetic standpoint; but the solution will never be 
reached by attempting to crowd more people into the 
same space. Some years since the real estate editor of a 
well-known Boston paper, acting with a young architect, 
made a careful survey of the most congested district of 
the North End of Boston, attempting to work out some 
sort of a building which would accommodate on the same 
ground area, but in a thoroughly hygienic and sanitary 
manner, all of the inhabitants which are now crowded in 

miserable tenements, on the 
same land. It was ve,ry 
speedily found to involve 
carrying the building so high 
that the scheme becamequite 
impracticable, and was aban- 
doned as hopeless. 

Nearly every architect 
has at times dreamed of con- 
structing a model tenement 
house, which would be dirt 
and vermin proof and almost 
indestructible in its finish, 
with plenty of light and air 
and perfect sanitary appli- 
ances of every sort. We doubt 
very much, however, if it 
would be possible to con- 
struct such a tenement house 
and make it pay even the 
three and a half or four per 
cent which capital requires. 
Certainly this could not be 
done at the present prices of 
labor and materials, but it 
is a problem which every gen- 
eration will have to meet in 
the future, and it would seem 
a proper function of a large 
city to provide accommoda- 
tion for the miserable poor, 
without any hope of ever 
more than barely meeting expenses, or even with the 
probability of an annual outgo, charging up such expense 
to the necessary sanitary supervision of the city. 

I)RESIDENT ELIOT, in his recent Buffalo address, 
urged the necessity of the study of beauty as a factor 
in modern civilization; and however extended may have 
been the developments of painting and sculpture in this 
country, no art has witnessed such extraordinary growth 
as has fallen to architecture. All the more, therefore, 
does it behoove architects who are interested to assist 
the teachers to bring the instruction of architecture as 
close as possible to architecture itself, to make the theory 
and the practice consistent and in accord; and, on the 
other hand, the time has long since passed when archi- 
tecture can be treated by college authorities as an aca- 
demic study. It is too closely woven into the fabric of our 
essentially practical civilization to be studied apart from 
the definite and very exacting requirements of every- 
day life. 



TURY SUBSTITUTE FOR 
AT ITS WORST. 



ttS 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




THE BRICKBUILDER 



119 



Boston Brickwork. V. 

BOSTON "FLATS." 

FROM the fact that Boston, owing to the essential 
character of its inhabitants, has never become an 
apartment house town in the sense that New York has, 
it is not possible to show pictures of any very elaborate 
examples of this class of buildings. It is probably safe 
to say that while on the whole Boston apartment houses 
are as comfortable and as well planned in every way as 
those of similar classes in the metropolis, the various 
little modern inventions which make for convenience are 
more apt to be lacking, as well as the grandiose entrances 
and elaborate facades which are such important features 
of New York apartment houses. The nearness and con- 
venience of attractive suburbs have resulted in scattering 
the population over a wide range of territory outside of 
the city proper, though a strong tendency to house sub- 
urbanites in moderate priced flats is now apparent, the 
architecture of which, however, will not be discussed in 
these articles. 

Nevertheless Boston apartment houses have an archi- 
tectural history of their own, not less interesting than 
that of Boston dwelling houses. Probably the Ken- 
sington (No. 72) may safely be taken as a fair example 
of what happened during the early stages of their devel- 
opment. The wild beasts are a later addition, and their 
presence on the steps and parapets cannot fairly be 
attributed to "Queen Anne." The period elapsing 
between the erection of the Kensington and that of 
the scholarly building built about 1889 by McKim, Mead 
& White, on the corner of Charles and Beacon streets, 
was not long in point of years, but the change in archi- 
tectural expression might well have required half a 
century. The latter building is one of the few modern 
structures which remains an ever increasing solace and 
delight to the eye among the banalities of more recent 
days. (No. 73.) 

The examples of apartment house facades which fol- 
low are selected much at random. It is not possible to 
show all, and some good ones are doubtless overlooked, 
but on the whole the selection is probably fairly typical. 
It will be noted that few are of many stories, and that 
brick as a wall material is still well to the front. 

The Lucerne (No. 74) is a good example of the 
best of the medium sized houses. The facade, though not 
in the least original, is pleasing and attractive. The 
ironwork is not as good as the rest of the front. 

The apartment house on Boylston Street by A. H.* 
Bowditch is a good building, with its detail bold and free 
and well massed and a somewhat swaggering though 
highly interesting entrance, which hardly seems to belong 
to Boston. The brick above the lower stories is laid 
in a strongly marked bond which gives much texture to 
the wall surfaces. (Nos 75 and 76.) 

Hampton Court, Brookline, W. I. Park, architect, is 
one of the most recent buildings on the Beacon Boule- 
vard. The facades have a cheerful and invicing air, but 
one is tempted to revert to the photograph of the Ken- 
sington, with which this article commenced, to try and 
learn what aesthetic progress, if any, had been made 



since its erection. (No. 78. ) The beautiful Richmond 
Court adjoining has already been illustrated in The 
Brickbuilder. 

Brandon Hall, Brookline, Mr. Eastman, architect, is 
a very good building, Georgian in feeling as well as 
striking in ensemble, and well above the ordinary run of 
apartment house work. (No. 79.) 

The Beaconsfield, like the two foregoing examples on 
Beacon Street in Brookline, Fehmer & Page, architects, 
is a most attractive and scholarly building in stucco with 
trimmings of cream-colored terra-cotta. As far as archi- 
tectural dignity is concerned the Beaconsfield is in a 
class by itself among Brookline apartment houses, 
although on account of its lowness it is not particularly 
imposing. (No. 78.) 

The three-apartment house built for Judge Dewey by 
Kilham & Hopkins, on the corner of Beacon Street and 
Audubon Road (No. 80), is a good example of rational 
and well balanced English design adapted to modern 
conditions and well expressing its purpose. The lot is 
of singular shape and the difficulties appear to have been 
cleverly overcome. 

No. 81 is an apartment house doorway on Beacon 
Street, Brookline, by Winslow & Wetherell, in limestone 
and light red pressed Roman brick. Nos. 82, 83^ and 84 
are of small apartment houses on Audubon Road, and 
No. 85 of the entrance to the apartment house at 375 
Harvard Street, Brookline, by Kilham & Hopkins. 

The Cabot, on Mt. Vernon Street, has an extremely 
pleasing facade in the usual limestone and red brick. 
The bay windows are well handled. (No. 86. ) 

No. 87 is of the courtyard entrances of the Tech- 
nology Chambers by Kilham & Hopkins, a large build- 
ing devoted to students' lodgings. The scheme is 
simple but well adapted to its purpose, and the building 
is very effective, especially from the courtyard side. 

At the present time no very important apartment 
house work is being built and no critical discussion of 
architectural tendencies can be entered upon. The flats 
which are being constructed aremearly all in the line of 
small buildings, mostly of three stories, located in the 
outlying parts of the city. When not built of wood these 
structures are commonly built of ordinary red brick, and 
on account of their smallness and the rapidity with which 
they are erected very little architecUiral terra-cotta is 
used in their construction. The larger buildings have, 
however, in the past few years made quite ample use of 
architectural terra-cotta. Besides those illustrated in this 
article, the building known as the Westminster Chambers 
on Copley Square, being probably the most conspicuous 
example, and some of the earlier buildings, such as the 
Victoria on Dartmouth Street, were elaborately orna- 
mented with terra-cotta in Moorish and other ornate 
styles. 

Fancy bonds or special methods of laying front brick 
are not common, due probably to distrust of the value of 
the investment. On the whole, Boston apartment houses 
lack grandeur and impressiveness. The stories are low 
and the interiors simply laid out and fitted up. Undoubt- 
edly a modification in the building laws would result in 
great extension of apartment house work, but the present 
regulations militate strongly against it. 



120 



I II E BRICK BU I L DE R 







72. THE KENSINGTON, AN EARLY APARTMENT HOUSE. 





74. THE LUCERNE. 




73. APARTMENT HOUSE, CHARLES AND BEACON STREETS. 
McKim, Mead & White, Architects. 



75. APARTMENT HOUSE, HOYLSTON STREET. 
A. H. Bowditch, Architect. 



THE BRICK BUILDER 



121 







T 22 



THE BRICKBU I LDER 




So. THREE- APARTMENT HOUSE, BEACON STREET. 
Kilham & Hopkins, Architects. 




Si. ENTRANCE, APARTMENT house, BROOKLINE. 
Winslow & Bigelow, Architects. 





i2. SMALL APARTMENT, AUDUBON ROAD. 



83. SMALL APARTMENT, AUDUBON ROAD. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



123 





ENTRANCE, APARTMENT HOUSE, AUDUBON ROAD. 



86. THE CABOT, MOUNT VERNON STREET. 





85. ENTRANCE, APARTMENT HOUSE, BROOKLINE. 
Kilham & Hopkins, Architects. 



87. ENTRANCE, TECHNOLOGY CHAMBERS. 
Kilham & Hopkins, Architects. 



I2 4 



T UK HRICKBUILDER. 



The New Post Office at Stockholm, 
Sweden. 

BY 0. /. CERVIN. 

A LITTLE more than a year ago, in the fall of 1903, 
a notable structure was finished in the North, — the 
new post office of Stockholm, Sweden, a modern build- 
ing for a modern purpose. It is of brownish yellow 
brick with reddish sandstone trimmings, harmonizing 
very happily. A public building of brick in Sweden is 
quite an exception, especially one as important as this is. 

The architect, Ferdinand Boberg, is one of the group 
of brilliant architects and artists of Sweden, now in the 
very prime of life, no longer young, yet far from old. 
His selection was the result of a competition conducted 
in 1898 in the most approved manner. It was a close 
competition, and in one respect rather peculiar. The 
architects were practically confined to a plan that had 
been worked out by the Post Office Department, after 
most careful study of the local condition and of similar 
buildings abroad, especially in Germany. To what ex- 
tent this added to the difficulties of the solution, or per- 
haps, for that matter, simplified it, is an open question, 
depending much upon the architect's own point of view. 
It is quite certain that Boberg has more than succeeded 
in fitting a front to the plan, he has expressed a plan 
evolved by the mind of another. 

If the architect found an initial difficulty in being 
tied to a preconceived plan, there was perhaps another 





DETAIL OF WINDOW, POST OFFICE. 



THE MOW LOST OFFICE AT STOCKHOLM, SWK.UEN. 
Ferdinand Boberg, Architect. 

and greater in the location. Much of the city of Stock- 
holm is on the checkerboard style of streets. The site 
selected fronts on a moderately wide street and on two 
narrow side streets. To European architects, at least, 
this seems a most unfortunate condition, — no open space 
in front, no line of sight, hardly anything better than 
the street corner diagonally opposite. But he has done 
something to give a little more breathing space and to 
give a semblance of dignity to his structure in its very 

location. The cor- 
ner pavilions are 
on the street line, 
and the wall line 
is set back a few 
feet. In this way 
space is gained for 
the steps which 
emphasize the en- 
trance, and the 
sidewalk broad- 
ened along the 
whole front. This 
might seem a. small 
mattei-, but the 
gain i s r e a 1 1 y 
great. 

Then too it 
must have been 
the narrow street 
that influenced the 
architect to keep 
his tower so low. 
(t is hard to see 
what would have 
been gained by 
making this kind 
of a tower higher. 
As it now stands 
it looks sturdy and 
reliable. 

The plan is 
very successful. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



125 





126 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




DEL1VKKV ROOM, HOST OFFICE. 

There are two courts, at the bottom of which are the 
work spaces. The delivery room is directly opposite the 
tower and the same width. It is two stories in height 
and receives its light through clerestory windows, above 
the roof of the work space on both sides. This arrange- 
ment is shown by the view of the interior. To the visitor 
there is a free view in all directions, the delivery room 
beine; arranged in the open manner of a modern bank, 
with even a minimum of railings. On either side of the 
vestibule are two rooms: in one the ordinary American 
lock box, quite a novelty here, but growing rapidly in 
popularity; in the other room is the telegraph office, this 
as well as the post office being a state institution. Per- 
haps the most striking features of all are the corner 
entrances in the slightly projecting round pavilions. It 
was a bold and clever thing to place the stairways here. 
The public has nothing to do with these, and in spite of 
their prominent position the architect has succeeded in 
subduing them so there is no confusion. It was undoubt- 
edly not the easiest of the problems to " work in " the 
landings so as to lit with the rest of the front, and yet 
not appear to be at loggerbu ads with the other open- 
ings. A closer study will show how skillfully this is 
done, there is no jar whatever. 

The long break in the middle of the roof, with little 
slits of windows admitting light to the attic, is quite 
peculiar. It is the last remnant of the clerestory of the 
mediieval churches. The history of the suppression of 
the clerestory has, to my knowledge, not been written, 
but it can be clearly traced. Reduced from time to 
time, it at last appears as a mere break in the roof, a 



shadow line with- 
out any openings 
in three-aisled 
churches, disap- 
pearing altogether 
at last, and then 
resurrected, it oc- 
curs on single - 
aisled churches as 
a mere decoration. 
From these it has 
been borrowed for 
the country cha- 
teau. The mod- 
ern architects of 
Sweden make con- 
stant use of it, 
sometimes for 
mere looks. It is 
perhaps the most 
distinctive single 
feature in the 
architecture of the 
country- 

The corner pa- 
vilions have also a 
distinct historical 
flavor, suggestions 
from the grand old 
chateau of (i rips- 
holm. But the 
central tower 
could have originated only in Boberg's brains. For that 
matter, it is all his. Whatever suggestions the architect 
may have received, he has so thoroughly transmuted 
them that it is now typically and only Boberg. 




ENTRANCE TO ELECTRIC STATION, STOCKHOLM. 
Ferdinand Boberg, Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



127 



But it is in the decoration that we find him at his 
best. He is, so to speak, the Swedish Louis Sullivan. 
He is no imitator, and furthermore he has himself few if 
any imitators. Perhaps this is because it is more diffi- 
cult to say just what characterizes his work, for he 
has not confined himself to conventionalizing and 
appropriating one particular form of leaf decora- 
tion. He conventionalizes everything that comes his 
way, and fits them all into his own delicate scheme of 
decoration with a rich and ever varying fancy. One 
marvels that the main lines of his buildings are so re- 
strained and kept within architectural limits when com- 
pared with the free play he allows his pencil in the 
ornamental details. And perhaps in this respect the post 




ENTRANCE TO A BANK, STOCKHOLM. 

Ferdinand Boberg, Architect. 

office has been justly criticised, that the ornamental 
parts are too fine, too delicate to be lasting. Time 
will show them no mercy. Fortunately the building has 
other qualifications, and even if the delicate ornament 
will disintegrate as the years wear on there will still 
remain the fine structure, bold and yet reserved, with 
a flavor of royal dignity that fits it well. 

It is a modern building for a modern purpose, from 
foundation to cresting pulsating with the life of to-day, 
and yet delicately linked with the past ; willing to do 
homage to bygone ages, but first and always with the 
avowed purpose of serving the present day and its people. 

Two other illustrations of Boberg's work are added. 
One is the entrance to a new bank. The main motive of 
decoration is the pennies radiating from the arch and 
the money bag on each side into which the pennies are 
lustily dropping. Another is the entrance to the city 
electric office. Here the architect has used the ordi- 
nary glow lamp in a most effective and decorative man- 
ner in three combinations. 



Editorial Comment and 
Selected Miscellany 



THE FIREPROOF HOUSE COMPETITION. 
AWARDS BY THE JURY. 

THE jury for the Fireproof House Competition has 
awarded First Prize ($500) to B. C. Flournay, Super- 
vising Architect's Office, Washington, D. C. ; Second 
Prize ($200) to Henry Brooks Price, 28 East 21st Street, 
New York City; Third Prize ($100) to Joseph W. Wilson, 




WALL FOUNTAIN EXECUTED IN COLORED MATT GLAZE 
FAIENCE BY ROOKWOOD POTTERY CO. 

44 Seeley Avenue, Chicago, 111. Mention was given de- 
signs submitted by Gordon B. Pike and William L. Wel- 
ton (associated), New York City; Walter E. Pinkham, 
Washington, D. C. ; Russell Eason Hart, New York City, 
and W. Pell Pule's, Boston. 

The members of the Jury of Award were William 




DETAIL BY ST. LOUIS TERRA-COTTA CO. 
George R. Mann, Architect. 

Rutherford Mead, William A. Boring, Arnold W. 
Brunner, J. Monroe Hewlett and John Russell Pope, 
all of New York City. 

The Prize Designs with the report of the Jury of 
Award will be published in The Brickbuilder for 
July. 



128 



THE BRICKBUI L D E R 



INTELLIGENT DEVELOPMENT OF 
CONSTRUCTION. 

THIS is an age of specialists. The enormous devel- 
opment of the building- interests, the application of 
business methods to the production of building materials, 

have very nat- 
urally resulted 
in the elimina- 
tion of individ- 
ual incentive 
from many lines 
of work. The 
architect in 
planning a new 
structure now 
finds his steel 
work calculated 
before him in 
advance in the 
pages of the 
handbooks 
issued by the 
great steel com- 
panies. He can 
also have a 
choice of con- 
struction from 
any one of sev- 
eral methods 
fully set forth 
in trade cata- 
logues, and so 
on through the 
whole list he 
may, i f h e 
chooses, draw 
the greater por- 
tion of his so- 
called practical 
details directly 
from informa- 
tion supplied by 
manufacturers. The consequence is that our constructive 
methods are very apt to develop ruts which seriously 
interfere with the best species of growth and develop- 
ment, and the need of the architectural profession to-day 
is individuality, more willingness to attack the problems 

which come to 
us, with an un- 
biased mind and 
a greater free- 
dom from mere 
dependence up- 
on specialists. 
This need is 
made especially 
apparent when 
one studies the 
constructions 
which have de- 
veloped so re- 

detail by excelsioe terra-cotta co. markably of 
Price & de Sibour, Architects. recent years in 




I'OliKkV KoK A FORMAL GARDEN. 
Made by Grueby Faience Co. 





connection with 
modern com- 
mercial build- 
ings, and what- 
ever fault is 
fairly found 
with existing 
materials and 
methods is more 
chargeable to 
the lack of per- 
sonal incentive 
on the part of 
the architect or 
engineer than to 
unwillingness 
or inability on 
the part of manufacturer. The latter have often led 
where they would be glad to follow; and if designers 
should demand better methods and better material the 
results would undoubtedly be vastly more interesting 
than what follows now from our simple acceptance of 
commercial methods. We depend to-day altogether too 
much upon the syndicate and the catalogue. 

There is probably no one material which offers such 
great possibilities as burnt clay in its various modifi- 
cations. An eminent educator recently made the state- 
ment that America would become a burnt clay built 



DETAIL BY CONKLING-ARMSTRONG TERRA- 
COTTA CO. 
Neff & Thompson, Architects. 




HOUSE OF NATHAN MEYERS, ARCHITECT, NEWARK, N. J. 



THE BR I COU I L DER 



129 



:; \, , 




EDISON BUILDING, WEST NEWTON, MASS. Winslow & Bigelow, Architects 




HOUSE AT COHASSET, MASS. 
John Lavalle, Architect. Roofed with Ludowici Tile. 



country; and if we 
study the building situ- 
ation carefully and con- 
sider how fast has been 
the growth of the terra- 
cotta and brick indus- 
tries, it would certainly 
seem that the burnt clay 
period for this country 
is rapidly announcing 
itself. It is pre-emi- 
nently the medium pos- 
sessing great capacities 
for decorative treat- 
ment and, at the same time, lending itself naturally and 
successfully to pure construction. We have the natural 
material in abundance. We have some excellent special- 
ists and manufacturing companies who are putting it on 
the market to the very best of their ability, bring- 
ing to it the best of engineering skill, but working 

after all to a 
certain extent 
in the dark, be- 
cause the shapes 
of the material 
are determined 
in advance, 
without that ref- 
erence to the 
particular 
building which 
would be desir- 
able under the 

DETAIL BY ATLANTIC TERRA-COTTA CO. beS ' Conditions. 
Brainerd, Leeds & Russell, Architects. Consequently 



in our use of terra-cotta fireproof- 
ing we are too prone to accept 
conditions as they are in the com- 
mercial market, and do not give 
the material the individual study 
which alone can insure the best 
kind of success. We look for the 




time close at hand 
when the demand for 
struct ual terra-cotta 
will be as large as that 
which is so rapidly 
growing and has de- 
veloped so extensive- 
ly for exterior work ; 
and with so flexible a 
material, the well-nigh 
universal use of the 
burnt clay products 
will be the logical out- 
come of our improved 
methods and machin- 
ery, if only the same 
care and study are 
given to the details 
that would naturally 
be expended on steel, 
stone or concrete. We 




STORE AND LOFT, WEST 34TH 
STREET, NEW YORK. 

Built of Kreischer Brick. 
Robertf D. Kohn, Architect. 



13° 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



must cut wood out of the list of materials suitable for 
building operations in large cities, and burnt clay is the 
natural successor thereto. 



VALUE OF CLAY PRODUCTS. 

ACCORDING to the statistics Hied by the United 
States Geological Survey, the value of the clay 
products for 1904 amounted to $131)023,248, made up 

as follows: 

Brick, tile and the coarser products. .$105,864,978 

Pottery and the finer products 25, 15^,270 

These figures are practically the same as those of 1903. 





DETAIL BY NEW JERSEY TERRA-COTTA CO. 

Facts which the statistics do not give, however, are 
concerned with the remarkable development in the artistic 
quality in many of the clay 
products. There has been a 
quantity of some very inter- 
esting enameled brick and terra- 
cotta put on the market during 
the past year, and the success 
which has attended these efforts 
has shown how large a demand 
there is for really first-class 
products. The extensive use of 
burnt clay in the New York 
Subway has given a marked 

impetus to the demand, and the enameled tiles and terra- 
cottas now at the disposal of the architects were never so 
varied in possibilities and so sure in treatment as at 




DETAIL BY NORTHWESTERN TERRA-COTTA CO. 

James M. Wood, Archit< 




HOUSE AT WHEELING, W. VA. 

Roofed with American "S" Tile. Made by Cincinnati 
Km. i: and Terra-Cotta Co. 

N. A. Olston, Architect. 

present. As the burnt clay products constitute fully one- 
half of the value of all the products which go into modern 
building, the importance of these industries can hardly 
be overestimated. 

Colored terra-cotta is beginning to make its appear- 
ance in many forms. We have had a great variety of 
enamels which have been used with much success, both 
in the glazed and semi-glazed finish, but quite recently 
there have been some very satisfactory attempts at 
using colored slips over a soft terra-cotta body to produce 

decorative effects for panel 
treatments, friezes, pilasters, 
etc. The possibilities of such 
treatment are large. The choice 
of colors at first seems very 
restricted, and any palette in 
which a good clear yellow and 
a strong red are lacking must 
necessarily be kept very quiet 
in tone, but this fact makes the 
result rather the better and 
precludes some of the glaring 
effects which operated so strongly against the use 
of colored terra-cotta when it first made its appearance 
twenty or thirty years ago. 

The use of sprayed terra-cotta or slip for constructive 
work has not on the whole produced effects desired, but 
for decorative treatments, especially when used in interior 
work, the softest and most harmonious results can be 
obtained at a minimum cost and with a permanence of 
effect which is not equaled by any other material. 



IN GENERAL. 
Brooks Frothingham has been admitted to the firm 
of Fehmer & Page, architects, 87 Milk Street, Boston. 

I) w i g h t 
Heald Perkins 
has been chosen 
as Supervising 
A re hi tec t for 
the Board of 
Education of 
Chicago. 




INTERIOR OF PUMPING STATION, BOSTON. 

Finished in Jewettville Red Pressed Brick. Kiske & Co., 

New England Agents. 



The designs 
for a Masonic 



DETAIL BY KR1CK, TEKRA-COTTA 

t TILE CO. 

Charles & Bailey, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



J3 1 



DETAIL BY AMERICAN TERR 

Julian Barnes, 



Temple to be built in Brook- 
lyn, submitted in competition 
by Lord & Hewlett, have been 
placed first by the Jury of 
Award. 

George B. Post & Son have 
won in the competition for the 
Washington University group 
at Washington, D. C. 

The new engine house of 
the Grand Trunk Railway 
Company at Deering, Me., is 
being treated with Cabot's Red Brick Preservative, for 
waterproofing and coloring. The company used the 
Preservative last year on their new Montreal buildings 
with very satisfactory results. 

Mr. G. P. McDougall, head of the firm of G. P. 
McDougall & Son, Indianapolis, Ind., deserves credit for 
instituting a competition that will unquestionably focus 
attention of architects all over the country on the needs 
of the average kitchen. 

The McDougall Idea is to lighten the labor of the 
housewife, to make life easier for her, to save her innu- 
merable steps and unnecessary work. In calling upon 
the architects to help him to carry out this idea, Mr. 
McDougall has made no mistake, for he is appealing to 




A-COTTA & CERAMIC CO. 

Architect. 



the highest ideals of the profes- 
sion, and at the same time is 
making it worth while for mem- 
bers of the profession to realize 
their ideals. 

The judges for the Com- 
petition are so well known that 
their very names are a guar- 
antee that the awards will be 
made, not only with absolute 
impartiality, but on a basis of 
genuine artistic merit. 





: if 
in 

IE, 

II E! 




BEAVER BUILDING, BEAVER AND WALL STREETS, 
NEW YORK CITY. 
Cass Gilbert, Architect. 
Built of buff brick (with speckled buff for trim). Made by Ohio Mining 
& Manufacturing Co. The upper stories are in colored terra- 
cotta, made by Perth Amboy Terra-Cotta Co. 



Architectural terra-cotta made by the Brick Terra- 
Cotta & Tile Co., Corning, N. Y., will be used on the 
following new buildings: Oneida County Courthouse, 
Utica, N. Y., Cutter, Ward & Turner, architects; State 
College of Agriculture, Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y., 
George L. Heins, architect; Stevenson School Building, 
Pittsburg, Pa., J. B. Elliott, architect; Grammar School 
Building, New Haven, Conn., Brown & Von Beren, 
architects; Public School No. 23, Staten Island, N. Y., 
C. B. J. Snyder, architect; Sailors' Haven, Charlestown, 
Mass., Allen & Collins, architects; National Bank Build- 
ing, Wellsville, N. Y., York & Sawyer, architects; North 
Woodward M. E. Church, Detroit, Mich., Kastler & 
Hunter, architects; addition to Second Presbyterian 
Church, Paterson, N. J., H. T. Stephens, architect; 
Carnegie Library Building, Rockhill, S. C, J. McMichael, 
architect; Kenesaw Apartments, 16th Street and Ken- 
esaw Avenue, Washington, D. C, Stone & Averill, archi- 
tects; apartment, 127th Street and Claremont Avenue, 
New York City, Neville & Bagge, architects; Y. M. C. A. 
Building, Niagara Falls, N. Y., Seymour Davis & Paul 
A. Davis, architects. 



WANTED — Suitable draughting space and a small private office 
in the offices of a New York architect, between Thirtieth and Forty- 
second Street, New York City, by two New York architects of known 
standing. Address " Uptown," care of " The Brickbuilder." 

WANTED — Two good draughtsmen, one a general designer, one 
good at detailing. Good positions for the right men. Those with 
technical training preferred. Address George B. Rogers, Fidelia 
Club Building, Mobile, Ala. 

WANTED — Architect desirous of locating in enterprising south- 
ern town wishes to hear from parties willing to sell out. State 
price, reason for selling and details of business done. Address 
"Adam," care of "The Brickbuilder." 



THE SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE 

University of Pennsylvania. 



THE FOUR YEAR COURSE offers full professional training, with an 
option in Architectural Engineering, leading to the degree of B. S. in Architecture. 

THE GRADUATE YEAR affords opportunity for advanced work in design 
and other subjects, leading to the degree of M. S. in Architecture. 

THE TWO YEAR SPECIAL COURSE for qualified draughtsmen 
offers advanced technical training, yielding a Certificate of Proficiency. 

THE UNIVERSITY also grants advanced standing to College graduates; 
offers a combination of liberal and technical courses whereby the degrees of A.B. 
and P.. S. in Architecture can be taken in six years, and conducts a Summer School in which 
architectural studies may be taken. 

For full inforjnation address 

Dp I h DFNNIMAN dean, college hall, 

K. J. M. r C 1N1N I 1TI AN, UNIVERSITY of PENNSYLVANIA, 

PHILADELPHIA. P JI . 



1^2 



T II E B R I C K BUILD E R. 



wmmwmmBmmmimfmm 



INDOORS AND OUT 



A 



Is the name of a new monthly magazine 

Devoted to Art and Nature 

TREATING OF 

RCHITECTURE as a factor in beantifying the earth, as shown in the best examples of 
every kind of structure for the shelter and comfort of man, especially THE DESIGNING, 
PLANNING, FURNISHING AND DECORATING OF THE HOME. 

Landscape Architecture and Gardencraft. 

Civic Art in every phase. 

Regions of the beautiful and picturesque in the old world and the new. 

The fine and applied arts. 

The betterment of modern life by improving its environment. 

The part of beauty in the progress of to-day and to-morrow. 

The magazine will be published by Arthur D. Rogers and Herbert C. Wise, under the name of 

ROGERS AND WISE 
COMPANY. 

The first number will be issued October i, 1905. 

Price $3. 00 yearly. 25 cents a single copy. 

To those ordering subscriptions for 1906 if order is accompanied by cash and received by 
October 1, 1905 — will be given free the numbers for October, November and December, 1905. 



Competition for a Cover Design 

The publishers offer a cash prize of One Hundred Dollars for the best cover design submitted 
in a competition, which shall be open to all, and governed as follows: 

THE DESIGN. Shall be 15 x 20 inches and rendered suitable for reduction to 9 x 12 inches. 
It shall be on white paper or cardboard measuring exactly 21 x 28 inches. It shall be suitable for 
printing in two colors (which may be suggested by the competitor), and must bear the following let- 
tering only : 

INDOORS AND OUT 



A Monthly Magazine Devoted to Art and Nature. 



This 



SUGGESTION. A space may be provided in the design for inserting an illustration 
feature is not necessary. 

THE DRAWINGS. Must be delivered flat to Rogers and Wise Company, 85 Water Street, 
Boston, on or before July 15, 1905. Each drawing must bear a device, and accompanying it is to be a 
sealed envelope also bearing this device and containing the author's full name and address. 

JUDGMENT. The Competition will be judged by two architects and one illustrator. 

AWARD. The author of the design placed first will receive One Hundred Dollars. 

In addition to this there will be three mentions, as follows : 
First Mention. 
Second Mention. 
Honorable Mention. 

The prize drawing will become the property of Rogers and Wise Company, who reserve the 
right to purchase, at the price of $25.00, any of the other designs submitted, and also to exhibit all 
designs. 

All drawings, except the prize drawing and those purchased, will be returned if a sufficient 
amount is enclosed in the sealed envelope containing the author's name to cover cost of carriage. 

ROGERS AND WISE COMPANY. 
85 Water Street, Boston, Mass. 




" 



DER. 

PLATES 45 and 46. 



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PARISH HOUSE AND CHAPEL OF THE INCARNATION, EAST THIRTY-FIRST STREET. NEW YOR'K CITY. 

Henry Vaughan, Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 
JUNE, 
1906. 




STORE BUILDING, CHESTNUT STREET, PHILADELPHIA, PA. 
William L. Price, Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER, 

JUNE, 

1906. 




ELIZABETH CARY AGASSIZ HOUSE, RADCLIFFE COLLEGE, CAMBRIDGE, MASS. 

A. W. Longfellow, Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER, 
JUNE, 
190S. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



Vol. 14 



JULY 1905 



No. 7 



CONTENTS — PLATES 

From Work of WILLIAM A. BORING, LORD & HEWLETT, McCLURE 
& SPAHR, McKIM, MEAD & WHITE, WILLIAM B. TUBBY & BRO. 



CONTENTS — LETTER PRESS 

CASTLE OF PILATOS, SEVILLE, SPAIN Frontispiece 

PRIZE WINNERS. FIREPROOF HOUSE COMPETITION 133 

ECCLESIASTICAL ARCHITECTURE. PAPER V Ralph Adams Cram 134 

FIREPROOF HOUSE COMPETITION. 

REPORT OF THE JURY OF AWARD 140 

PRIZE DESIGNS 141 

TILE WORK AND FAIENCE IN ENGLAND. I R. Randal Phillip 14* 

BOSTON BRICKWORK. VI 152 

BROOKLYN MASONIC TEMPLE 156 

(DESCRIPTION OF THE PLANS) 

EDITORIAL COMMENT AND SELECTED MISCELLANY i S7 






THE BRICKBVILDER 



VOL. 14 No. 



m 



DEVOTED • TO THE • INTERESTS • OF| 
1ARCHITECTVRE- IN MATERIALS OF CLAY/ 



JULY 1905 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

PUBLISH ED MONTHLY HY 

ROGERvS & MANSON, 
85 Water Street, Boston, Mass. . . P. O. Box 3282. 

Entered at the Boston, Mass., Post Office as Second Class Mail Matter, March 12, 1892. 
COPYRIGHT, 1893, BY THE BRICKBUILDER PUBLISHING COMPANY. 



Subscription price, mailed flat to subscribers in the United States and 

Canada .... 
Single numbers .... 
To countries in the Postal Union 



Subscriptions pay 



;.oo per year 

50 cents 

5. 00 per year 



ABLE IN ADVANCE. 



For sale by all newsdealers in the United Srates and Canada. Trade supplied by 
the American News Company and its branches. 

ADVERTISING. 

Advertisers are classified and arranged in the following order: — 



PAGE 

Agencies. — Clay Products ... II 

Architectural Faience II 

" Terra-Cotta . II and III 

Brick Ill 

" Enameled . . . Ill and IV 



PAGE 

Cements ........ IV 

Clay Chemicals IV 

Fire-proofing , IV 

Machinery IV 

Roofing Tile IV 

Advertisements will be printed on cover pages only. 



THE PRIZE WINNERS IN THE FIREPROOF 

HOUSE COMPETITION. 

Winner ok First Prize. 

BEN CORTLAND FLOURNOY, twenty-nine years 
of age, was graduated in 1897 from Washington and 
Lee University, and in 1901 took a course in Architecture 

at Washington Univer- 
sity, Washington, D. C. 
Some of his engineer- 
ing experience .was ob- 
tained in the offices of 
the Bridge Engineer of 
the N. Y. C. & H. R. 
R. R., while most of his 
architectural experience 
has been obtained in the 
offices of the road's 
Supervising Architect, 
in which he has been 
the last five years. Mr. 
Flournoy recently de- 
signed the new dormi- 
tory at Washington and 
Lee University. He is 
at present connected 
ben coktland flournoy. with the Supervising 




i ■- 

Architect's office at 
Washington. 

Winner of Second 
Prize. 

HENRY BROOKS 
PRICE, thirty-two 
years of age, received 
his early training in 
the offices of Joseph 
Evans Sperry, Balti- 
more, Md. The years 
1895-1898 he devoted 
to study at the Ecole 
des Beaux Arts and 
to European travel. 
Since his return to 
New York City in 
1898 he has been con- 
nected with the firms of Howard, Caldwell & Morgan 
and Warren & Wetmore, besides practising independ- 
ently. At present he is with Hunt & Hunt, New York 
City. 




HENRY BROOKS PRICE. 



Winner of Third Prize. 



JOSEPH W. 
W'l L S O N , 
twenty-seven 
years of age, 
was graduated 
from the School 
of Architecture, 
University of 
Illinois, in 1903, 
and as a fellow 
in architecture 
received his 
M.A. degree the 
following year. 
Ever since 
graduation he 
has been con- 
nected with the 
firm of Nim- 
m o n s & Fel- 
lows, Chicago, 
111. 




JOSEPH W. WILSON. 



'34 



THE HRICKHUILDHR 



Ecclesiastical Architecture. 
paper v. 

THE UNITED STATES. 

BY RALPH ADAMS CRAM, F. A. I. A., I ■'. R. G. S. 

FEW of the joys of the spirit are more thoroughly 
pleasurable than the indulgence in vain imaginings 
as to what might have happened had matters otherwise 
befallen: if Luther had possessed a more perfect control 
of his temper; if Henry YIII had been less expensive in 
his tastes and less expansive in his marital impulses; if 
Oliver Cromwell had been permitted to emigrate to 
America when still a young man; if Bliicher had failed 
to come up in time at Waterloo; if Jackson had not 
fallen at Chancellorsville ; if the "Maine" had sailed 




ST. MICHAKL S, CHARLESTON, S. C. 
A Typical Telescopic Effect. 

scathless from Havana Harbor; if Russia had refrained 
from robbing Japan of Port Arthur ten years ago. 

The vistas opened by each supposition are illimitable, 
and the possible list is practically without bounds. Add 
yet another: suppose the exodus from England "for con- 
science' sake " had been dated just a century before. 
Assume that the revolt had been against the last Henry 
of the house of Tudor instead of against the first James 
of the house of Stuart. There was infinitely greater 
cause, for in the early fifteens a war to the death was 
going on between the true and the false, the sane and 
the mad, exponents of the Renaissance. By 1520 the 
cause of the sound defenders of the " new learning " was 
already lost, and it was quite evident that the victory 
would lie with Henry, Cranmer and Crumwell, not with 



' 

ill 

i !l k 


1 

1 


It 







Archbishop Wareham, 
Bishop Fisher, Sir 
Thomas More and 
Erasmus. 

Now suppose that 
then such pilgrims as 
these had forsaken a 
crumbling civilization 
and come out to pre- 
serve in the new world 
the exalted traditions 
and principles of medi- 
evalism revivified by 
all that was good in the 
Renaissance. W are- 
ham was dead, and 
Erasmus, before the 
great dibacle, but there 
were many indeed who 
would have followed 
More and Fisher, and 
what might they not 
have accomplished ? 
One thing very surely : 
they w o u 1 d h a v e 
brought to the new 
world all the architectu- 
ral force and fire that 
were still extant when the sixteenth century began its 
course, and we should have had here, as our dearest 
artistic treasures, churches built in the great Christian 
style, which might by their beauty have proved a bul- 
wark against the subsequent fashions that were to arise 
in England when the foundations of society had been 
overturned and art, as an instinct, had ceased to be an 
appanage of the race. 

Well, the exodus was delayed another hundred years. 
More went to the block, the Benedictine abbots to the 



CHRIST CHURCH, BOSTON. 
A Note of Thrifty Severity. 



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CHRIST CHURCH, ALEXANDRIA, \ A. 
A Southern Type of the Eighteenth Century. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



*35 



scaffold and their principles with them. When at last 
the transfer from East to West was made there was noth- 
ing left of the architectural tradition, and the fashion of 
building that was transplanted to America was that which 
had been devised by ingenious men as a plausible expo- 
nent of the new reign of classical culture. 

In the recrudescence some years ago of loud admiration 
for " Colonial," or, as it should be called, "Georgian'' 
architecture there was, I think, a failure to sufficiently 
analyze emotions. The building fashion of the seventies 
and early eighties was of course unendurable, and the 
frank simplicity and unquestioned good taste in detail of 
the early eighteenth century work was a welcome relief 
from the riotous reign of the jig saw. A fine pride in 
history was coming into being, and we confused archaeol- 




ST. JOHN S CHAPEL, NEW YORK. 
The Full-blown Georgian Type. 

ogy and the historic sentiment with artistic assent. The 
building that had taken place in what are now the United 
States up to the Revolution was worthy of all respect. It 
possessed certain elements in its domestic and civil as- 
pects that were sound and true ; it was quite as good as, 
if not better than, what was being done at the time in 
England, for it was frank and simple and restrained ; but 
this fact should not blind us to that other of equal im- 
portance, viz., that the good was due to a dying instinct 
for good taste, not to the style itself, which really pos- 
sessed no qualities of sound principle or absolute beauty. 

It was all artifice and imitation; many of its best 
qualities were the result of tricks of memory; sense of 
scale was curiously persistent, but of feeling for propor- 
tion and composition there was little, while the sense of 
organic relationship had utterly disappeared. 

We feel this particularly in the church work of the 
Colonial period. Little from the seventeenth century 



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A SURVIVAL FROM THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY. 

remains, — a crag at Jamestown, one or two " Swedish " 
churches in Delaware, St. Luke's, Smithfield, Va., this 
last dating from 1632, and retaining a pathetic reminis- 
cence of Gothic in its square tower, stepped buttresses and 
pointed windows. The churches and meeting-houses of 
the eighteenth century are legion, but whether they are of 
the rough country type so familiar to us in the villages of 
the East and South, of the cautious and thrifty fashion 
shown in Christ Church, Boston, or whether they approach 
the elaborate and magnificent, as in Christ Church, Phila- 
delphia, they are all singularly artificial and unimagina- 
tive ; a square room with galleries on three sides, with or 
without Corinthian columns of wood, silly entablatures 
and groined vaults of lath and plaster. Sometimes a mas- 
sive classical portico of flimsy construction is backed up 
against one end of the primal cube, and almost invariably 
an imposing tower, of foolishly diminishing stages, tele- 
scopes itself into the upper air. It is the "volapuk " of 
Wren and Inigo Jones and their school retranslated into 
the vernacular, nothing much remaining but a very pretty 
taste in delicate detail and the profound and underlying 
devotion to economical makeshifts. 

With the early nineteenth century came several more 
educated builders and an influx of spirit from France and 
England. Latrobe, Thornton, Bulfinch, McComb, Peter 
Harrison and scores of others did their best to improve 




ST. PAUL S CHAPEL, NEW YORK. 

The Cheerful Artifice of Colonial Times. 



"J6 



THE BRICKBUILD E R . 







5 5 

= -a 










« = 

I - 
U - 






THE BRICKBUILDER 



137 



proportions and develop design, though always on the 
established lines. Jefferson, hot with the new French 
passion for " pure classic, " brought in the most absurd 
fashion of all, that of copying Greek and Roman temples 




ST. THOMAS S, HANOVER, N. H. 
Gothic in Form and Feeling. 

in economical materials and making them do service as 
Christian churches. It would seem that the reign of 
pure pretence could go no further, but there was one 
step, the evidences of which still remain, viz., the build- 
ing of a clapboard shanty and then applying to the front 
a ponderous " Doric" portico with pillars four feet in 
diameter and built up of seven-eighths inch boards nailed 
together, the whole being painted white, green blinds 
shading the lofty windows in the slab sides. 




GRACE CHURCH, NEWTON, MASS. 
A Serious, Thoughtful Effort. 

Here we stood about 1835, or lay, rather, prostrate in 
our total collapse from the days of Ralph of Glastonbury, 
William of Canterbury and William of Wykeham. Thus 
far had we fallen from the fifteenth to the nineteenth 
century; from Gloucester Cathedral to St. Paul's, 
Boston. 

There was no pit of further fall, and radical change 
was inevitable. The Gothic revival had begun in Eng- 
land under the Pugins, and it promptly found its echo 



here. I should like to 
know which was the 
first church that showed 
a dawning conscious- 
ness of Gothic as the 
Christian style. St. 
Stephen's, Philadelphia 
(1822), Christ Church, 
Louisville, Ky. (1823), 
and St. Luke's, Roches- 
ter (1824), were certain- 
ly amongst the pioneers. 
So ingrained had be- 
come the spirit of archi- 
tectural deceit and 
artistic substitution, the 
first "Gothic" work 
was just as specious 
and silly as that which 
it had come to destroy. 
The general forms and 
the materials remained 
the same, the windows 
became pointed and 
took to themselves ri- 
diculous mullions and 
grotesque tracery of 
patched-up wood ; sharp 
spikes took the place of 
balls and urns ; shape- 
less chunks of pine 
were split out and 
nailed on all available 
angles in simulation of 
crocketing; angled 
spires took the place of the honored telescope effects. 
Otherwise there was no change. Honestly, I suppose 
there is no more awful evidence of rampant barbarism 
than that which exists in the architecture of the United 
States between the years 1820 and 1840. 

Then came Upjohn, a great man, a sound architect, a 
leader when the time was clamorous for such an one. 
Trinity Church, New York, marks the end of an era, the 
birth of an epoch. Upjohn knew what Gothic meant, he 




TRINTY CHURCH, NEWPORT, R. I. 

An Early Hint of Gothicism. 




CHRIST CHURCH, PORTSMOUTH, N. H. 
Showing a Fine Feeling for Composition. 



138 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



felt it as an inspiration, he began at the right end and he 
fixed a style for three generations. Of course nothing 
he did can be compared in any way with the product of 
the great thousand years, but the fault was not his. By 
some miracle he got Gothic feeling into his work and 
induced the backward public to accept it. From the 
moment Trinity was built the reign of paganism was at 
an end. 

Also he raised up a line of able disciples that carried 
on his work year after year: Renwick, who loved French 




THE NEW OLD SOUTH CHURCH, BOSTON. 

A Good Type of Devoted Study. 

Gothic as Upjohn loved English; Upjohn the younger, 
Withers, Congdon and many others of the same enthu- 
siasm, though possibly less well known. The greater 
work of these men fails at many points, for it is too stu- 
diously imitative, but in their smaller churches there is 
a frank simplicity, a grave directness, a sincerity and a 
dominant love for all they did that make such churches 
as St. Mary's, Burlington, N. J., St. Mark's, Mauch 
Chunk, Pa., Grace Church, Newton, Mass., St. Thomas's, 
Hanover, N. H., Christ Church, Danville, Pa., and 
Christ Church, Portsmouth, N. H., milestones in the 
progressive development of good architecture in the 
United States. 

So complete had been the downfall of so-called clas- 
sical methods in church design, so strong and permanently 
good had been the style developed in its place, it really 
might have seemed that the day of good building had 
begun. There was one fact, however, that showed how 
unstable was the basis on which architecture was build- 
ing, — -the life did not extend beyond the ecclesiastical 
province. From 1830 to 1880 domestic architecture in 
the United States became, and continued to be, worse 




than at any 
time or in any 
place recorded 
in history, while 
the public archi- 
tecture of the 
time is well 
represented by 
the awfid out- 
put of the gov- 
ernment's pet, 
the late Mr. 
Mullet. There 
was no general 
recognition of 
the depravity of 
the situation ; 
here, as in Eng- 
land, a few 
strong men 
with Upjohn as 
leader, had fur- 
nished a supply 
and so brought 
into existence a fictitious demand. I say " fictitious," for 
the Church was quite as likely to accept a perfectly aw- 
ful piece of work so long as it called itself " Gothic" as 
it was to employ Upjohn or Renwick or Congdon. Now 
the first leaders were getting old; Congdon, Haight 
and others were still operative, but a restlessness de- 
veloped, a demand for something new. Just at this 
crisis came the sudden weakening, both in England and 
America, which may, I think, be traced in a measure to 
the writings of John Ruskin. Here was a man of stupe- 
fying ability, an extraordinary species of artistic Calvin- 
ist, invincibly dogmatic, narrow as Geneva, honest, 
enthusiastic, inspiring, and quite the worst critic and 
exponent of architecture that ever lived, but gifted 
with a facility in the use of perfectly convincing lan- 
guage such as is granted to few men in any given thou- 
sand years. Fired by his inflammatory rhetoric, Blom- 
field, Butterfield and others in England and a particular 
group in America turned to detail and decoration and 
the use of colored bricks and terra cotta, stone inlay, 
naturalistic carving, metal work, as the essentials in con- 



THE WEIRD GOTHIC OF THE 

AMERICAN PRACTITIONERS. 




THE ROMAN CATHOLIC CATHEDRAL, HALTIMORE. 
The Scholarly Classic of M. Latrobe. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



i39 



structive art, abandoning the quest for effective compo- 
sition, thoughtful proportion and established precedents 
that had characterized the work of their immediate pred- 
ecessors. Potter, Eidlitz, Sturgis, Furness and Hunt, all 
began the laudable labor of developing Gothic on new 
lines, and others followed them — at a distance — as has 
always been, and always will be the case. To me it seems 
that of this school John Sturgis alone succeeded to any 
marked degree; his New Old South Church in Boston, 
while poor in mass and proportion, being a very remark- 
able example of the enthusiastic and conscientious study 
of creative design, particularly in detail and decoration. 



he had influenced were weak men, — they are amongst the 
strongest who are practising to-day, — but simply because 
his was an alien style, out of touch with our race and time, 
intrinsically aloof from our blood and impossible of ethnic 
adaptation. The principles he fought for are established, 
for they are the universal laws that underlie all good 
architecture, classic or Gothic. The language in which 
they were clothed was an accident, ephemeral and tran- 
sitory. 

In ten years we had turned in derision from those who 
were making a mock of " Romanesque," and the question 
came, what next ? It was promptly answered. While 




AMERICAN ROMANESQUE." The Beginning. 



The new work did not meet the demand, however; the 
movement was discredited for a while both in England 
and America, and at the psychological moment Richard- 
son burst on the land with his Trinity Church in Boston. 
He had begun his career on established Gothic lines; sud- 
denly Trinity leaped from his amazing brain, and from 
that moment the Gothic structure, already toppling dan- 
gerously, was doomed to complete destruction. 

Richardson was certainly an architect to be ranked 
with the immortals. He grasped his art with both hands ; 
he devoured and assimilated it as Michael Angelo sculp- 
ture, as Leonardo painting, as Wagner music, as Brown- 
ing poetry. He forged his mighty way across his brief 
span of years, drawing the continent after him ; but when 
he died the style he had made his own died also, and in 
ten years it had become a byword, not because the men 



we had been toiling over random ashlar, vast voussoirs 
and cavernous reveals, Bodley and Sedding had been solv- 
ing the final problem in England, and their revelation 
was brought to us by several men, chief of whom is Mr. 
Vaughan. Mr. Haight and Mr. Congdon had held stead- 
fastly to their ideals through the Richardsonian era, as 
had others. Mr. Gibson came forward with his scheme 
for Albany Cathedral, and of a sudden sprung as it were 
out of the ground half a dozen young firms who began to 
work in Gothic, and think in it as well. Simultaneously 
another group began to come back from Paris with the 
new gospel according to the Beaux Arts, but the style 
they brought with them was so manifestly unsuited for 
religious purposes that they took no interest in this field 
of design, which so was handed over in toto to the "Gothic 
crowd." 



140 



THE BRICKBUILI) E R . 




"AMERICAN ROMANESQUE. 
The Beginning of the End. 

And so matters stand to-day, the field of architecture 
unhappily divided into two camps, secular and ecclesias- 
tical, the style of each intolerant of the other and, it 
would appear, impossible of compromise or amalgama- 
tion. Of this " Kulturkampf " and of future possibilities 
I mean to say a word in the next and concluding paper. 




"AMERICAN ROMANESQUE. 
TheZEnd. 



The Fireproof House Competition. 

REPORT OF THE JURY OF AWARD. 

THE undersigned Committee, having carefully ex- 
amined the various designs submitted in competi- 
tion for a fireproof house, of which the programme ap- 
peared in the issue of The Brickbuilder for March, 1905, 
have decided that the First Prize should be awarded to 
the design submitted by " Vassy " ( B. C. Flournoy); the 
Second Prize to the design submitted under the device of 
a hollow fireproof block inclosed in a circle and two squares 
1 Henry Brooks Price); and the Third Prize to the design 
submitted under the symbol of "Tau Beta Pi" (Joseph 
W. Wilson). Mentions have also been awarded to the 
four designs by " Fornax " (Gordon B. Pike and William 
L. Welton), by "Commuter " (Russell Eason Hart), by 
"Humus'' (W. Pell Pulis). and by "Juniperre Sena'' 
1 Walter E. Pinkham). 

The programme calls for a house, the walls, floors and 
partitions of which are to be of terra cotta hollow tile 
blocks, and its expressed object is to encourage ingenuity 
and resource in the employment of structural clay products 
in an artistic, practical and inexpensive manner, and to 
bring out designs expressive of the materials employed. 

The design to which first prize has been awarded, 
while lacking in the interesting study of detail shown in 
the drawing given second prize, represents a well-pro- 
portioned building entirely possible of construction within 
the limits of cost mentioned in the programme and show- 
ing in its detail a logical and pleasing use of the materials 
available. The simple treatment of the terra cota cornice 
and its moderate projection beyond the wall, together 
with the horizontal stringcourse and the treatment of 
the quoins and arches over the doors and windows, stamp 
it unmistakably as a burnt clay construction in which the 
use of stucco has merely been resorted to as a covering 
for certain portions of the wall and not as a concealment 
of the structural facts. 

The design awarded second prize is the only one which 
indicates a thorough appreciation on the part of its author 
of the primary objects of this competition. Both in gen- 
eral design and in detail it shows intelligent study of the 
decorative possibilities of the rough structural materials 
prescribed for the building, and from that standpoint it 
is regarded as the most meritorious of the designs sub- 
mitted, in most of which the actual structural materials 
are concealed for the most part by a covering either of 
stucco or brick. In spite of the fact, however, that it 
stands alone as a successful solution of the primary ob- 
jects of the competition, it is so obviously in excess of 
the cost limitation of the programme, both in size and in 
the scope of its composition, as to be debarred from con- 
sideration for the first prize. 

The drawing to which third prize has been awarded, 
while equally successful as a design for an inexpensive 
building of this character, fails to give any adequate ex- 
terior expression to the materials of its construction. In 
fact, it might be readily constructed of wood and wire 
lath. The prize that has been awarded to it, therefore, 
represents rather an acknowledgment of the general ex- 
cellence of the design than a tribute to its success in 
meeting the particular requirements of this competition. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



141 



The same remark would apply to all those designs to 
which mentions have been given, which, moreover, are 
for the most part obviously in excess of the cost limita- 
tion. 

It may be added that the design submitted by " For- 
nax," to which a mention has been awarded, is architect- 
urally the most interesting of all those submitted. In 
size and general composition it is well within the limits 
of cost established, but its lavish use of highly enriched 
"architectural " terracotta renders it inappropriate under 
the programme for consideration as a prize design in this 
competition. 

In conclusion it should be said that, while this com- 
petition has brought out many designs of considerable 
architectural merit, the result is, in some respects, disap- 
pointing, in that there are but few among them all show- 
ing any decided resource in the titilization of materials 
which are rich in interesting decorative possibilities. 

William Rutherford Mead, 

William A. Boring, 

Arnold W. Brunnkr, 

J. Monroe Hewlett, 

John Russell Pope, 

Jury of . \ward. 

(Publishers' Note : The designs given mentions will 
be illustrated in The Brickbuilder for August.) 



ESTIMATED COST OF HOUSES SHOWN IN 
THE THREE PRIZE DESIGNS. 

[These figures were submitted by the designers.] 

First Prize Design. 

estimated cost of construction. 

Excavation $50. 00 

Concrete footings and cellar floor 150.00 

Structural terra cotta 4,218.00 

Architectural terra cotta 312.00 

Roofing tile 450.00 

Rough cast (outside walls) and plastering 550-0° 

Tile floors in hall, kitchen, pantry and bathrooms 360.00 

Metal work, tin roofing, etc 150.00 

Structural steel 60.00 

Wood framing and sheathing for roofs 350.00 

Finished carpentry : 1,300.00 

Hardware, painting and glazing 250.00 

Plumbing 750.00 

Heating ... 750.00 

Total cost $9, 700.00 

Substituting steel framing for wood in roof, add. . 250.00 

Total cost with steel roof framing $9,950.00 

Second Prize Design, 
estimated cost of construction. 

"The cost to build the design herewith submitted, in 
the vicinity of New York, is estimated to come within 
the proposed limit of $10,000. 

"This estimate is based on information received by me 
to the effect that a house of proposed character can be 
built for from 17 to 18 cts. per cu. ft. 



"Also from figures and price lists received by me from 
manufacturers of proposed material and figures received 
for interior finish, heating, plumbing and lighting, viz. :" 

SHELL : 

Outside Walls: 

8-inch T. C. Bldg. 

Blocks with 4-inch 

furring, 3,792 sq. 

ft. at 30 cts $ 1 , 1 3 7 . 60 

8. inch brick with 

4-inch furring, 714 

sq. ft. at 32 cts. . . 228.48 $1,366.08 

Floors : 

Johnson system long span 
T. C. Arch, 5,916 sq. ft. 
at 30 cts $1,774.80 

Partitions : 

6-inch, 3,705 sq. ft. at 

12^ CtS $463-3 2 

4-inch, 1, 142 sq. ft. at 

1 1 cts 125.62 

3-inch, 355 sq. ft. at 

1014 cts 37-28 $626.22 

Porches : 

9,596 cu. ft. at 15 cts $1,439.40 

Roof: 

10,353 cu. ft. at 15 cts $1,552.95 $6,759.45 

Interior finish 1,425.00 

Heating 425.00 

Plumbing 400.00 

Lighting 225.00 

Incidentals 765.55 

Total cost $10, 000. 00 

Third Prize Design. 

estimated cost of construction. 

Excavating $195.00 

Basement floor '75-5° 

First, second and third floors at 20 cts 883.00 

Outside walls 1,466.00 

Inside walls 622.50 

Terraces 1 50. 00 

Plastering outside 250.00 

Plastering inside 5 53.00 

Mill work 2,240.00 

Painting and glazing 300. 00 

Metal bar glass 175-00 

Plumbing 980. 00 

Hardware 150.00 

Fixtures 150.00 

Electric wiring 1 25.00 

Heating 990.00 

Sheet metal and roofing 44 5. 00 

Roof framing 1 50*00 

Total cost $10, 000.00 



140 



THE BRICKBUILDER 







"AMERICAN ROMANESQUE." 
The Beginning of the End. 

And so matters stand to-day, the field of architecture 
unhappily divided into two camps, secular and ecclesias- 
tical, the style of each intolerant of the other and, it 
would appear, impossible of compromise or amalgama- 
tion. Of this " Kulturkampf " and of future possibilities 
I mean to say a word in the next and concluding paper. 




"AMERICAN ROMANESQUE. 
The^End. 



The Fireproof House Competition. 

REPORT OF THE JURY OF AWARD. 

THE undersigned Committee, having carefully ex- 
amined the various designs submitted in competi- 
tion for a fireproof house, of which the programme ap- 
peared in the issue of The Brickkuilper for March, 1905, 
have decided that the First Prize should be awarded to 
the design submitted by " Vassy " ( B. C. Flournoy) ; the 
Second Prize to the design submitted under the device of 
a hollow fireproof block inclosed in a circle and two squares 
(Henry Brooks Price); and the Third Prize to the design 
submitted under the symbol of "Tau Beta Pi" (Joseph 
W. Wilson). Mentions have also been awarded to the 
four designs by " Fornax " (Gordon B. Pike and William 
L. Welton), by "Commuter" (Russell Eason Hart), by 
"Humus'* (W. Pell Pubs), and by " Juniperre Serra " 
(Walter E. Pinkham). 

The programme calls for a house, the walls, floors and 
partitions of which are to be of terra cotta hollow tile 
blocks, and its expressed object is to encourage ingenuity 
and resource in the employment of structural clay products 
in an artistic, practical and inexpensive manner, and to 
bring out designs expressive of the materials employed. 

The design to which first prize has been awarded, 
while lacking in the interesting study of detail shown in 
the drawing given second prize, represents a well-pro- 
portioned building entirely possible of construction within 
the limits of cost mentioned in the programme and show- 
ing in its detail a logical and pleasing use of the materials 
available. The simple treatment of the terra cota cornice 
and its moderate projection beyond the wall, together 
with the horizontal stringcourse and the treatment of 
the quoins and arches over the doors and windows, stamp 
it unmistakably as a burnt clay construction in which the 
use of stucco has merely been resorted to as a covering 
for certain portions of the wall and not as a concealment 
of the structural facts. 

The design awarded second prize is the only one which 
indicates a thorough appreciation on the part of its author 
of the primary objects of this competition. Both in gen- 
eral design and in detail it shows intelligent study of the 
decorative possibilities of the rough structural materials 
prescribed for the building, and from that standpoint it 
is regarded as the most meritorious of the designs sub- 
mitted, in most of which the actual structural materials 
are concealed for the most part by a covering either of 
stucco or brick. In spite of the fact, however, that it 
stands alone as a successful solution of the primary ob- 
jects of the competition, it is so obviously in excess of 
the cost limitation of the programme, both in size and in 
the scope of its composition, as to be debarred from con- 
sideration for the first prize. 

The drawing to which third prize has been awarded, 
while equally successful as a design for an inexpensive- 
building of this character, fails to give any adequate ex- 
terior expression to the materials of its construction. In 
fact, it might be readily constructed of wood and wire 
lath. The prize that has been awarded to it, therefore, 
represents rather an acknowledgment of the general ex- 
cellence of the design than a tribute to its success in 
meeting the particular requirements of this competition. 






THE BRICKBI/ILDER 



141 



The same remark would apply to all those designs to 
which mentions have been given, which, moreover, are 
for the most part obviously in excess of the cost limita- 
tion. 

It may be added that the design submitted by " For- 
nax," to which a mention has been awarded, is architect- 
urally the most interesting of all those submitted. In 
size and general composition it is well within the limits 
of cost established, but its lavish use of highly enriched 
"architectural " terracotta renders it inappropriate under 
the programme for consideration as a prize design in this 
competition. 

In conclusion it should be said that, while this com- 
petition has brought out many designs of considerable 
architectural merit, the result is, in some respects, disap- 
pointing, in that there are but few among them all show- 
ing any decided resource in the utilization of materials 
which are rich in interesting decorative possibilities. 

William Rutherford Mead, 

William A. Boring, 

Arnold W. Brunner, 

J. Monroe Hewlett, 

John Russell Pope, 

Jury of Award. 

(Publishers' Note : The designs given mentions will 
be illustrated in The Brickbuilder for August.) 



ESTIMATED COST OF HOUSES SHOWN IN 
THE THREE PRIZE DESIGNS. 

[These figures were submitted by the designers.] 

First Prize Design. 

estimated cost of construction. 

Excavation $50.00 

Concrete footings and cellar floor 150.00 

Structural terra cotta 4, 2 1 8. 00 

Architectural terra cotta 312.00 

Roofing tile 450.00 

Rough cast (outside walls) and plastering 550.00 

Tile floors in hall, kitchen, pantry and bathrooms 360.00 

Metal work, tin roofing, etc 150.00 

Structural steel 60.00 

Wood framing and sheathing for roofs 350.00 

Finished carpentry 1,300.00 

Hardware, painting and glazing 250.00 

Plumbing 750.00 

Heating ... 750.00 

Total cost $9, 700.00 

Substituting steel framing for wood in roof, add. . 250.00 

Total cost with steel roof framing $9,950.00 

Second Prize Design, 
estimated cost of construction. 

"The cost to build the design herewith submitted, in 
the vicinity of New York, is estimated to come within 
the proposed limit of $10,000. 

"This estimate is based on information received by me 
to the effect that a house of proposed character can be 
built for from 17 to 18 cts. per cu. ft. 



" Also from figures and price lists received by me from 
manufacturers of proposed material and figures received 
for interior finish, heating, plumbing and lighting, viz. :" 

SHELL : 

Outside Walls : 

8-inch T.C. Bldg. 

Blocks with 4-inch 

furring, 3,792 sq. 

ft. at 30 cts $ 1, 137.60 

8. inch brick with 

4-inch furring, 714 

sq. ft. at 32 cts. . . 228.48 $1,366.08 

Floors : 

Johnson system long span 
T. C. Arch, 5,916 sq. ft. 
at 30 cts $1,774.80 

Partitions : 

6-inch, 3,705 sq. ft. at 

™ l A cts $463.32 

4-inch, 1, 142 sq. ft. at 

1 1 cts 125.62 

3-inch, 355 sq. ft. at 

lo'a cts 37-28 $626.22 

Porches : 

9,596 cu. ft. at 15 cts $1,439.40 

Roof: 

10,353 cu. ft. at 15 cts $i,S5 2 -95 $ 6 .759-45 

Interior finish 1,425.00 

Heating 425.00 

Plumbing 400.00 

Lighting 225.00 

Incidentals 765.55 

Total cost $10, 000. 60 

Third Prize Design. 

estimated cost of construction. 

Excavating $195.00 

Basement floor 1 75. 50 

First, second and third floors at 20 cts 883.00 

Outside walls 1,466.00 

Inside walls 622.50 

Terraces 150.00 

Plastering outside 250.00 

Plastering inside 553.00 

Mill work 2, 240. 00 

Painting and glazing 300.00 

Metal bar glass i75-°o 

Plumbing 980. 00 

Hardware 150.00 

Fixtures 1 50. 00 

Electric wiring 1 25.00 

Heating 990.00 

Sheet metal and roofing 44 5 .00 

Roof framing 1 50.00 

Total cost $10,000.00 



I 4 2 



T HE BRICKBUILDER 








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I 

I 





ft! 










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is 






THE BRICKBUILDER 



*43 




144 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



Brickbyilder Fire Proof Hovse Competition. 




CLEVATIO^S5'/^ = 1-o" 

■■■■' ^ — — '•' ■ ' 



East Elevation 



Device 









SECOND PRIZE DESIGN. SUBMITTED BY HENRY BROOKS PRICE, NEW YORK CITY. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



H5 



Brickbvilder Pire PRoor Hovs^otip£Tition 




♦L 



CfcLLAT? WALL- 12" of- T. C 13LOCKS; Tlf?ST 
STORY- a"TC BLOCKS «m> -4->VRRI.MG TILE 
SEC07^E7 5TORV opB - I3KICK/>,nD4"r-VRRJ^1C; 
TILE;- T3R1CK.-5 to be "DARK KEP WITH the 
black herpers;-5tvcco IN SOfPIT 

OP COtMICEAhD INTERIOR VERAHDA COKMICE 
$iAy-lE COLOR ~^ TEKKA COTTft T3LOCK.S. 



Section op ,,« , „ 

Solid Wall. 5c/=sL.E /4=1-o 

to '..i i t' ■ i' i i° ■ i" ■ 



DETAILS- 






Device. 



v^m, 




<r- '■I J i-, V % 



DETAILS BV HENRY BROOKS PRICE. 



146 



THE B R I C K B U I L D E R 




:J^' 







THE BRICKBUILDER 



i47 




i 4 8 



THE BRICKBU1LDER. 



Tile Work and Faience in England. I. 



!V R. RANDAL PHILLIPS. 



THE finish of walls is a most important consideration 
in studying the internal appearance of a building, 
if for no other reason than that the wall is the most con- 





TII.K WORK IN REFRESHMENT ROOM, 
MUSEUM. 



SOUTH KENSINGTON 



spicuous portion of an interior, 
burlap and other fabric, none 
more durable than another, 
have been ingeniously tried. 
As a class these are unsani- 
tary ; they offer little resist- 
ance to knocks and abrasion, 
the fading power of strong 
light, the settlement of the 
building and other deteriora- 
tion by which silent Time 
besieges the best of struc- 
tures. In public buildings 
especially must these objec- 
tions be overcome. Marble 
has been seized upon as an 
easy way out of the difficulty. 
But it is a very expensive 
way ; and so far has the use 
of large sheets of marble 
been indulged in that there 
is already a reaction of taste 
against it. This reaction can 
be encouraged and is being 
encouraged by the inventive- 
ness of manufacturers of tile, 



Papers of various sorts, 




TILED SHOP COUNTER. 



for in this material alone is there 
unlimited range for variety, in 
color effects, differences of tex- 
ture, of shape ; and therewith 
the joint lines of the tiles them- 
selves go to make a varying but 
simple form of surface decora- 
tion. Indeed we may say, in the 
face even of progress already 
made, that the modern crafts- 
man's imagination has just begun 
to play within the great field of 
encaustic tile and faience. Both 
of these have clay as their base. 
Encaustic tile is made by bring- 
ing a pressure of ten to twelve 
tons upon a mixture of dry clay 
ground as fine as flour. It is 
then baked and usually glazed, 
as otherwise its porous body 
would absorb dirt or display 
stains. Vitreous tile is made of 
feldspar or flint mixed with fire 
clay and then treated to a tem- 
perature of 2,000 or 2,500 degrees 
Fahrenheit, thus making an 
absolutely non-porous material. 
Faience is a term which used 
to signify the best glazed work of 
mediaeval times, so called from 
Faenza, the Italian city, which 
was the home of the craft. The 
body of this material as it is now 
known in the commercial world 
is a fine grade of terra cotta. 

The "glaze," which is really an enamel, because it is not 
transparent, is made to form one body with the base in 
the baking accomplished by a temperature of about 
2,500 degrees. 

Within the last twenty 
years the use of tiles for 
wall surfaces and floors has 
developed enormously in 
England, by reason of the 
merits of cleanliness and 
brightness which tiles pos- 
sess. In city buildings, 
especially, requirements of 
sanitation and light have en- 
forced the employment of 
glazed materials for numer- 
ous purposes ; the growth, 
too, of underground rooms, 
for restaurants, offices, etc., 
has created a large demand 
for tiles of all sorts ; while in 
hotels, municipal buildings, 
baths and hospitals they are 
very generally employed as 
wall coverings. 

It is not the intention of 
the writer to go deeply into 
the history of this develop- 
ment, but he would draw at- 



TILED COLUMN IN CER- 
AMIC GALLERX, SOUTH 
KENSINGTON MUSEUM. 



THE BRICKBU I LDER. 



149 




i 5 o 



THE BR ICKBU I L I)ER. 




STAIRCASE, FINISHED IN TILES, PRUDENTIAL 
ASSURANCE CO. BUILDING. 

Alfred Waterhouse & Son, Architects 

tention to a few facts. First, it should be noted that, 
although in the thirteenth, fourteenth and fifteenth 
centuries in England encaustic tiles were used to a 
considerable extent for ecclesiastical buildings, — as 
may still be seen in numerous cathedrals and ab- 
beys,- — for the succeeding two hundred years the 
manufacture practically ceased, and it was not till 
the seventeenth century that it was revived by the 
advent of some Dutch potters who established them- 
selves in Lambeth, now the home of the great pot- 
tery firm-of Doulton & Co., Ltd. From Lambeth 
it spread to Bristol and Liverpool, the latter being 
the center of tile manufacture during the latter half 
of the eighteenth century, to which period belong 
the first works of Wedgwood. ( )ther famous potters 
arose at the beginning of the nineteenth century, 
such as Minton and Barr, and the industry thus re- 
vived became rapidly extended. Of Minton's early 
work there are some excellent examples at South 
Kensington Museum, where the refreshment room 
is carried out entirely in tiles, as the accompany- 
ing illustration shows; also in the Ceramic Gallery 
of the Museum there are ten columns encased with 
glazed embossed tiles of Minton's manufacture 
(1868), and the staircase leading to this gallery is 
similarly embellished. 

The mid-Victorian exhibitions gave a great im- 
petus to the industry, and the revival of majolica 
glazed wares was a further stimulus, Mr. Maw, in 



1862, being said to have been the first to attempt 
the manufacture of majolica tiles for architectural 
purposes. From that time onwards the use of tiles 
became general, and when, twenty-five years ago, 
the sanitary reform of buildings was inaugurated, 
a new era set in and the advantages of glazed sur- 
faces were specially recognized. 

It needs no lengthy discourse to indicate what 
these advantages arc for the lining of such places as 
restaurants and hotels, where cleanliness is so desir- 
able, and it only requires a glance at the illustra- 
tions in this article to see what treatments are pos- 
sible. In modern hospitals tiles are commonly used 
for dadoes in wards, with a narrow band or bands of 
a darker color at top and bottom, and the walls above 
enamel-painted: while in some of the rooms of such 
institutions the walls are covered with tiles from 
floor to ceiling, as in operating theaters and chil- 
dren's wards; an excellent example of the latter is 
to be seen at the new Belgn>ve Hospital for Children, 
in the south of London, and at the new general hos- 
pital at Tunbridge Wells (illustrated in The Brick- 
builder for August, 1904); and another example, 
here shown, is to be found at St. Thomas's Hos- 
pital, London, executed by Messrs. Doulton. The 
use of picture tiles for such purposes brings in a 
most delightful decorative element which is greatly 
appreciated by the little patients in these wards and 
the nurses who have charge of them there. Walls 




BANKING ROOM, FINISHED IN TILES. PRUDENTIAL 

ASSURANCE CO. BUILDINO. 
Alfred Waterhouse & Son, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



151 



covered with tiles can, of course, be washed down and 
thus kept perfectly clean, and this undoubtedly is one of 
their chief merits. 

In hotels and restaurants, where, for structural rea- 
sons, columns are so frequently unavoidable in the rooms, 
the easy means of encasing and embellishing them with 
decorative tiles is commonly adopted,' as also for the 
soffits of arches. In banks, too, a similar treatment is 
employed in many cases, as at the huge new offices of 
the Prudential Assurance Company, on High Holborn, 
London, where glazed tile work and faience have been 
used throughout by the architects, Messrs. Alfred Water- 
house & Son, the work having been executed by the 
Burmantofts Works of the Leeds Fireclay Company, Ltd. 
The Birkbeck Bank, close by, affords perhaps the most 




TILED COLUMNS AND GLAZED WARE, BIRKBECK BANK. 
T. E. Knightley, Architect. 

extensive example of the use of tiles and faience to be 
found in the Kingdom ; both inside and outside they are 
used, all the corridors and halls being completely lined 
with tiles. The building is a huge example of tile and 
faience work. Another example of a large building tiled 
throughout is the National Liberal Club. 

For all kinds of shops, tiles are extensively employed, 
but more especially for dairy premises, fishmongers' and 
butchers' and other shops where cleanliness is a first re- 
quirement. Two examples are here shown (executed by 
Messrs. Carter & Co., of Poole), as well as an interesting 
detail of tiles used for the facing of a counter. 

These few remarks will suffice to draw attention to 
the variety of purposes to which tiles are applicable in 
public, municipal and business premises, as shown by 




TILE WORK ON SOFFITS IN ARCHES, ROYAL COLLEGE 
OF SCIENCE, SOUTH KENSINGTON MUSEUM. 

the accompanying illustrations. In a second article a 
series of other examples will be given, including some 
in private houses, together with the relative cost of tiles, 
their manufacture, durability and method of laying. 




ROYAL ARCADE, NORWICH, IN CARRARA WARE. 
G. J. Skipper, Architect. 



'5- 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



Boston Brickwork. VI. 

COMMERCIAL AND MISCELLANEOUS. 

THE remarks which have been made in the preceding- 
articles, on the general character of Boston domes- 
tic architecture, apply without great variation to the 
structures which have been designed for commercial pur- 
poses. The only important exception would be that while 
the representative Bostonian has eschewed ostentation 
in his private surroundings, he has not been averse to a 
more lavish display in his places of business, no doubt 
considering, and most properly too, that such display 
represents in a measure the commercial success of his 
concern. As all rules have their exceptions, however, it 
must be noted that the office structures which have been 




88. MERCANTILE BUILDING, BOSTON. 
Rantoul & Lee, Architects. 

fathered by Boston's largest firm of promoters are of a 
simplicity so intense as to give the surprised beholder an 
impression of actual weirdness. 

Following developments of the city's business build- 
ings through the low gable-roofed structures of the for- 
ties and fifties, the red brick and slated Mansards of the 
sixties, which were so quickly swept away in the great fire 
of 1872, the iron fronts of the seventies, and the new life 
and swift growth of the last two decades of the century, 
one notices first the absence of actual sky-scrapers among 
the new skeleton buildings. Wise regulations have taken 
the narrow and winding streets into account and limited 
the height of any building to one hundred and twenty- 
five feet, while perhaps less wise ones have further 
limited heights in certain districts to eighty feet only. 



Consequently monstrosities are lacking, and there is a 
general reasonable feeling of some sort of scale in the 
relations of the buildings and thoroughfares. Our illus- 
trations show a fairly typical selection among the build- 
ings which make pretence to actual design, although the 




89. MILLER PIANO CO. BUILDING. 

Wm. G. Rantoul, Architect. 

class whose elevations betray a primary consideration for 
the nimble dollar at the expense of the city's beauty 
are omitted from consideration. 

The vState Mutual Building, by Andrews, Jaques 
& Rantoul, is one of the best designed of the modern 
office structures of Boston. The sandstone and gray brick 
facades are tasteful and businesslike, and while the detail 
of the first story (No. 90 is) graceful, it is still sufficiently 
sturdy to avoid the eyclopean effect which is sometimes 
supposed to be desirable. 

The Penn Mutual Building (No. 94), by E. V. 
Seeler, has a charmingly designed entrance. The detail 
above the entrance story is slightly bizarre, but of the 
sort that one can probably become accustomed to and 
finally accept. 

After an inspection of the small building in Bedford 
Street, in early Spanish Renaissance (No. 95), built by 
Winslow & Bigelow, in yellow terra cotta, one feels that 
Prentiss's Spanish trip was not in vain, for its facades, 







90. STATE MUTUAL INSURANCE CO. S BUILDING. 
Andrews, Jaques, & Rantoul, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



»53 




gi. MAIN ENTRANCE, TENNIS AND RACQUET CLUB. 
Parker & Thomas, Architects. 





92. DOORWAY, TENNIS AND RACQUET CLUB. 
Parker & Thomas, Architects. 




93. DETAIL, MILLER PIANO CO. BUILDING. 
Wm. G. Rantoul, Architect. 



94. ENTRANCE, PENN MUTUAL BUILDING. 
E. V. Seeler, Architect. 



'54 



T 1 1 E BRICKBUILD E R 





95. BUILDING ON BEDFORD STREET. 
Winslow & Wethert-'H, Architects. 



97. THE LOYAL LEGION BUILDING. 
Rotch & Tilden, Architi 




■ 1 » 



mm^ 





96. WAREHOUSES, SUMMER STREET. 

Winslow & BiKel"\v, Architects. 



98. DELTA BUILDING. 

Dwight & Chandler, Architects. 



THE BRIjCKBUILDER 



55 




I i ' 



1 1 ii III II 

II 111 1! 




TfTiHi flli 



33 m 31 HI 



Ifffl II ....1 gJL 




99. LAUNDRY BUILDING, CAMBRIDGE, MASS. 
Herbert C. McClare, Architect. 



together with those of the Jewelers' Building, by the same 
firm, certainly show a high appreciation of his labors. 
It cannot be the fault of the designer if any detail con- 
tained in his book fails of representation in these two 
structures. 

The Delta Building (No. 98), by Dwight & Chandler, 
has a safe facade of no great originality, and in this it 
is. in striking contrast to the next illustration, which 
shows the Miller Building, by W. G. Rantoul. The 



writer has concluded that this is intended for " Art 
Nouveau " as it should be interpreted in the States. The 
long first-story arches and their supports are curiously 
unstructural and weak, but the side entrance has inter- 
esting detail, which appears to have been really studied 
and not copied from the most convenient book of plates. 
(Nos. 89 and 93. ) 

The warehouse (No. 88), by Rantoul & Lee, shows a 
pleasing and well studied facade, free from strangeness 



JIM 

f 5 IJJ 



"* 



.f 



» »j 



r.?». 




,-■■:- '- 







.# ♦ * * 



M P-MK* «^7^ 1 J p • 



IOO. ARMORY, CAMBRIDGE, MASS. 
Hartwell, Richardson & Driver, Architects. 



1 5 6 



THE BRICKBUILD E R . 



and likely to live long in the estimation of beholders. One 
more commercial illustration is appended, being' a view 
of the very substantial and impressive warehouses on 
Summer Street built by Winslow & Bigelow. (No. 96.) 
The facades are of light buff brick and the trimmings of 
black iron. 

The Tennis and Racquet Club, by Parker & Thomas, 
has been previously illustrated in The Brickbuilder and 
needs no encomiums here. The details of the entrances 
i Nos. 91 and 92) are worth inspection. The material is 
red water-struck brick with black headers in panels and 
patterns and trimmings of white semi-glazed terra cotta. 
The house of the Loyal Legion (No. 97), by Rotch & 
Tilden, in very yellow brick and yellow terra cotta, shows 
a type of Italian architecture which is now but little 
affected. Nos. 100 and 101 are examples of armories in 
the military style considered indispensable for such 
structures. The South Armory (No. 100) is really quite 
interesting with a well modeled entrance arch and a high 
tower of pleasing proportions. 




IOI. SOUTH ARMORY. 
Waite & Cutter, Architects. 

The series of examples of "Boston Brickwork" 
closes with this article. A good many buildings of 
importance have been omitted, some because they have 
been previously illustrated, some because they are to be 
illustrated later in the plate forms of The Brickbuilder, 
some because the type to which they belong is repre- 
sented by other examples, and some because of lack of 
general interest. 

Boston is essentially a brick city and has been so from 
its beginning. Knowing the material, with its capabil- 
ities and its limitations as well as they do, Boston 
architects have neither attempted the impossible nor the 
difficult, but taking brick as it is, they have used it in its 
proper manner, and keeping it in its natural sphere 
have produced a type of architecture which, without be- 
ing striking or sensational, will remain satisfactory and 
pleasing when labored pyrotechnical facades are exciting 
only ridicule. 

(Concluded. ) 



Brooklyn Masonic Temple. 

LORD & HEWLETT, ARCHITECTS. 

DESCRIPTION OF THE PLANS. 

ATTENTION is called to the following general 
points in 

Economy of Planning. — The intention has been, first, 
to reduce the cube to the lowest limit consistent with 
good proportion of the principal rooms and ampli- 
tude of circulation throughout the building; second, to 
leave as much as possible of the plot available for dis- 
posal by sale or for other purposes. 

Proper Orientation of Lodge Rooms. — The lodge room 
floors have been planned to secure an economical disposi- 
tion with proper orientation and still have ample room 
for stairs, reception room and other accessories, keeping 
the building open on all sides. 

Architectural Treatment. — The effort has been to 
obtain a dignified architectural treatment in keeping with 
the character and importance of the building. 

First. By use of an order in classic proportion. 

Second. By build .g on a square plan, enabling an 
almost exact duplication of the two elevations, each one 
enhancing the value and adding to the effect of the other, 
and harmonizing in scale and proportion in a way much 
more difficult to obtain on a plan just slightly off the 
square. 

To differentiate between the two elevations suffi- 
ciently to distinguish the purposes of the building, accen- 
tuating by the great single central entrance on Claremont 
Avenue the importance of the Masonic part of the build- 
ing ( for which the building is of course primarily de- 
signed), and accusing by the smaller double entrances on 
Lafayette Avenue the less important auditorium or 
public part of the building. 

Materials and Construction. — It is proposed to use 
steel frame, fireproof construction, finished inside and 
out in the manner of a first-class office building, the ex- 
terior materials being light brick and terra cotta with a 
six-foot granite base and granite coping wall. If the 
funds of the Masonic guild permit the use of a more ex- 
pensive material, an all marble building would be very 
appropriate. 

Heating, I 'entilating and Lighting. — It is proposed to 
use plenum hot blast system with automatic regulation 
throughout, centrally located; vertical shaft connected 
with each floor with ducts formed by furring down ceiling 
of service corridor. 

Lighting to be by electricity, incandescent lamps in 
control from central point in house mechanism space. 

General Data. 

Total basement area 8, 100 sq. ft. 

" first floor area S, 100 sq. ft 

" " " mezzanine 1,220 " 

9.320 

" second floor area 8,100 " 

" " " mezzanine. . 2,800 " 

10,900 " 

Total cubical contents, 1,1 18,000 cu. ft. 

Attention is called to the following particular points: 
Cellar. — Arranged so that storage vaults are located 

in that part of the building which forms by its foundation 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



157 



walls a natural vault and is still accessible by stairs and 
elevators to upper floors. 

Boiler and machinery are located under alley at north 
side of building, getting light and air from overhead and 
avoiding the necessity of excavating entire sub-basement. 

Basement. — The banquet hall is one great well pro- 
portional room, capable of division into three parts, with 
light and air on two (opposite) sides, affording the best 
natural ventilation. 

The vestibule off elevators and stairs is ample to 
allow for three separate entrances to banquet hall, for 
the ready exit and entrance of a crowd, and for billiard 
room space and passage through the bowling alley 
under sidewalk, if such is desired. 

In regard to the "service": sufficient toilet and coat 
room space is provided directly off main vestibule, and 
a band of service is carried across rear of banquet hall, 
having light and ventilation from alley above and outside 
entrance to alley at north of building. This serves di- 
rectly to one or three banquet rooms as desired, and 
connects by two flights of stairs directly to auditorium. 

First Floor. — This floor has been planned to separate 
the entrance to the strictly Masoni Aart of the building 
from the auditorium or public part, featuring the Ma- 
sonic entrance both in plan and elevation, by its great 
doorway, vestibule and staircase hall. 

The double entrance to the auditorium facilitates the 
handling of a crowd, while placing the main auditorium 
entrance on axis with the Masonic entrance vestibule, 
staircase, etc., makes it possible to open both into one 
great hallway at such times as the entire building is 
being used by the Masonic fraternity. 

The auditorium is shaped to give the maximum floor 
area with sufficient space for service, chair storage, etc., 
and is provided with ample exits to open on three sides. 

The square form of the building makes it possible to 
reverse the plan as shown and secure the Masonic entrance 
on Lafayette Avenue, if that were considered more im- 
portant than the proper orientation of the lodge rooms. 

Lodge Room Floor. — This floor has been planned to 
obtain within the smallest possible floor area the require- 
ments as to arrangement, size, etc., of the two lodge 
rooms together with their accessories and a central service, 
and an ample vestibule and stair system. 

The height of the lodge rooms makes a well propor- 
tioned room and allows for a mezzanine floor above ves- 
tibule, reception rooms, tyler's and preparation rooms, 
and over service corridor. 



TO those who have suffered from a smoky fireplace 
we would recommend the perusal of Benjamin 
Franklin's remarkable treatise on " How to Cure Smoky 
Chimneys." We do not always appreciate the scope of 
the genius of our first American statesman. He estab- 
lished the first post office ; he first drew lightning from 
the skies ; he wrote papers and scientific treatises which 
are classics to-day; and he, more than any other man 
of his time, molded the destinies of our Republic. He 
played with the mightiest questions of state, but was not 
too preoccupied to consider how to make a bad fireplace 
better, and we have not yet been able to devise any 
particular improvement on his methods. 



Editorial Comment and 
Selected Miscellany 

ARCHITECTURAL FAIENCE COMPETITION A. 
GARDEN WALL FOUNTAIN. 

MR. C. HOWARD WALKER, who judged the Com- 
petition held by The Brickbuilder for a Garden 
Wall Fountain, to be executed in colored faience, has 
awarded the First Prize ($50.00) to the design submitted 
by Gordon B. Pike and William L. Welton of New York 
City. Several of the designs submitted in the Com- 
petition, including the prize design, will be published in 
The Brickbuilder for August. 



MODERN CHANGES. 

IN 1888 the first steel skeleton building was erected in 
New York City, a structure known as the Tower 
Building, designed by Bradford L. Gilbert. This is now 
about to be torn down to make way for a large office 
building of twenty stories, and the fact that though in 
perfectly good structural condition to-day and only 
seventeen years old it should be so torn down to make 
way for improvements is a striking illustration at once 
of the changes which have been made possible by steel 
construction as applied to building, and also of the 



..-; 



Elevation on Lafayette Avenue. 

SUCCESSFUL COMPETITIVE DESIGN FOR MASONIC TEMPLE, 

BROOKLYN, N. Y. 

Lord & Hewlett, Architects. 

changes that have come about in the economic conditions 
resulting from the possibilities involved in piling up the 
commercial structure to twenty or more stories. The 
steel skeleton has revolutionized our bases for estimating 
the values of real estate. Chicago claims the very earliest 
example of a complete steel skeleton building in the 



i 5 8 



T II E 13 R I C K 13 U I L DE K 





BRANCH TELEPHONE BUILDING, MILWAUKEE, WIS. 

Herman J. Esser, Architect. 

Home Life Building, which was erected by Mr. Jenney; 
but any architect who, after arriving at years of maturity, 
made his first attempt in steel construction without other 
tangible examples immediately around him, can well 
appreciate the structural courage required to adopt such 
a building device. All the predictions which were so 
freely made by the conservatives in regard to steel con- 
struction have been proven to be unfounded. So far as 




MANTEL IN COLORED MATT GLAZE FAIENCE. 

Made by the Rookwood Pottery Co. 

we know there has not been a case of a wall which has 
ever shown the slightest effect of unequal expansion 
between the masonry and the steel, the chief bugbear of 
the earlier structures; and the wind strains which have 
been at times represented as being so dangerous, and 
against which such excessive precautions were taken, 
have, as far as we can ascertain, never yet put in an 
appearance. In the early days we were oracularly told 
that the elevator-carrying capacity was the limiting fac- 
tor in the height. If such limits exist we have not yet 
reached them, and there is not the slightest structural or 
mechanical reason why we should not build to one hun- 
dred stories or more if we wish. The economic effects 
of this enormous increase in possibilities of land im- 




I5RANCH TELEPHONE BUILDING, MILWAUKEE, WIS. 
Herman J. Esser, Architect. 



BRANCH TELEPHONE BUILDING, MILWAUKEE, WIS. 
Herman J. Esser, Architect. 






THE BRICKBUILDJiER 



l S9 




THE NEW HIPPODROME BUILDING, NEW YORK CITY. 

Architectural Terra Cotta furnished by the Atlantic Terra Cotta Co. 



provement have completely trans- 
formed New York and are in process 
of transforming the business centers 
of all our large cities, though nowhere 
have the restrictions been so slight in 
regard to height and area as in the 
metropolis. Less than twenty years 
has witnessed all this tremendous de- 
velopment, and the end is not yet. It 
is perfectly safe to predict that the 
next quarter century is likely to wit- 
ness even greater changes in many 
details of our commercial architecture. 



CEMENT MORTAR. 

A GOOD deal of misapprehension 
prevails, especially among the 
older builders, regarding the exact 
meaning of the designation "cement 
mortar." In the days before Portland 
cement was plentiful, cheap and of fine 
quality, when Rosendale was the most 
approved American brand, and cement 
could be used at the best but sparingly, 
mortar in the abstract always meant a 
mixture of lime and sand. When for 
constructive purposes a somewhat 
greater strength was desired, a pro- 




UNIQUE TREATMENT OF A 
CORNER LOT. 



portion of cement was added rarely 
exceeding the bulk of the lime, making 
a mortar which was popularly desig- 
nated as half and half, or as cement 
mortar. Of recent years, however, the 
meaning of this phraseology has been 
changed. Those who have given care- 
ful study to cement have restricted the 
designation of cement mortar to a 
mixture of sand and cement only, so 
that, as accepted by the best engineers 
to-day, the term can not strictly be 
applied to any mixture which contains 
even a slight proportion of lime. Many 
of the older builders continue to con- 
sider cement mortar as a mixture of 
the three materials, but it is hardly any 
longer properly so considered. 

As cement mortar began to crowd 
out lime, mechanics discovered that 
cement and sand could not be tised for 
mortar in exactly the same way and 
with exactly the same facility to which 
they had been accustomed in the mix- 
ture of cement and lime. Many masons 
still aver that it is impossible properly 
to lay up bricks in pure cement mor- 
tar. It is, however, very far from 
being really impossible, and as a matter 



i6o 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 




made under the eye of the architect rather than to the 
mixture bought more or less at hazard in this way, and 
certainly the only essential reason for adding lime at 
all in mortar for brickwork subjected to severe strains 
would be to prevent discoloration on the exterior. 



SANK LIME BRICK. 

THE Sand Lime Brick Company secures a fresh crop of 
victims each year. If we are incorrect in using the 
word " victim " we should be glad to be set right. So far 



INTERIOR OF RAILWAY STATION, MINNEAPOLIS. 

Charles S. Frost, Architect. 

Showing Tiffany Enameled Brick in combination with regular 
face brick. 



of fact the cost of laying up bricks 
with pure cement, by men who 
are used to handling the mixture, 
is but very little more than if the 
bricks are laid up with mortar 
composed partly of lime. At the 
same time there are certain ad- 
vantages for ordinary mason work 
in using a slight admixture of 
lime. The resulting mortar is 
more plastic and will retain its 
water more completely, so that 
the brick work is less liable to be 
stained by the cement running 
down the outside of the wall than 
would be the case if pure cement 
were used. The danger, how- 
ever, is in allowing mechanics 
discretion in such use of lime. 
One part in bulk of lime to four 
parts of cement is the utmost that 
is necessary to obtain a tenacious, 
self-contained mortar, and any 






EMPIRE BANK BUILDING, CLARKSBURG, W. VA. 

Pireproofed by the National Pireproofing Co. 



DETAIL BY NEW JEHSEY TERRA COTTA CO. 



the best samples of lime bricks 
which have come to our notice 
were made in Germany, and we 
do not know of any factory in this 
country which has been able to 
manufacture and market sand 
lime bricks of first-class quality 
as to endurance, hardness and ab- 
sorption; and yet every little 
while we see a notice of a new 
company being formed to exploit 
this fascinating material, and in a 
recent issue of one of the English 
papers a Canadian cousin writes 
very enthusiastically about the 
new plant in which he is inter- 
ested, which is to revolutionize the 
brick industry and throw burnt 
clay into oblivion. If any of our 
readers have had any experience 
with American-made sand bricks 
we should be glad to hear from 
them. There are perennial sub- 
stitutes offered for burnt clay: 
infusorial earth, asbestos sand, 



DETAIL BY RANKIN, KELLOGG & CRANE, 
ARCHITECTS. 

New York Architectural Terra Cotta Co., 

Makers. 



lime added be- 
yond that amount 
is si mill y adul- 
teration. Some 
cement makers 
have gone SO far 
as to put on the 
market a barreled 
product contain- 
ing a known pro- 
portion of slacked 
lime and of 
cement. We 
should, however, 
prefer to trust to 
the mixture 



magnesia, ce- 
m en t com - 
po unds and 
mixtures of 
wood pulp as 
a base have all 
put in appear- 
ance, without, 
h o w e v e r , in 
the slightest 
degree affect- 
ing the sales of 
burnt clay. It 
would be idle 
to say that 
nothing better 




DETAIL BY VONNEGUT ft BOHN, ARCHITECTS. 

Indianapolis Terra Cotta Co., Makers. 




THE BRICKBUILDER 



161 



could be imagined, but the better 
has not yet made its commerical 
appearance. 



NEW BOOKS. 






Building Materials. Their Na- 
ture, Properties and Manufac- 
ture. By G. A. T. Middleton, 
A. R. I. B. A. Large crown 
8vo, linen. Price $4.00. New 
York: W. T. Comstock. 

The book takes up the subject 
in detail, starting in the first 
chapter with the origin of sand, 
slate, marble, stone, etc. The 
subsequent chapters give these 
various materials and their adapt- 
ability to different purposes. 

The author has spent a large 
amount of time in collecting 
material and valuable data on the 
subject. The result of this has 
been to place before the reader 
much practical information. A 
very full and exhaustive index 
has been prepared for ready ref- 
erence. The book contains four 
hundred and twenty pages, with over two hundred 
illustrations from special drawings and photographs. 

IN GENERAL. 
Clinton & Russell were the architects of the Beaver 
Building, New York City, illustrated in The Brick- 
builder for June, and not Cass Gilbert, as stated. 



DETAIL BY HAMME 
& LEHER, ARCHI- 
TECTS. 

C on kl in- Armstrong 

Terra Cotta Co., 

Makers. 




HOFFMAN APARTMENTS, GRAND RAPIDS, MICH. 
F. P. Allen & Son, Architects. 
Brick furnished by Columbus Brick and Terra Cotta Co. 
F. H. McDonald, Agent. 





— . ■ML' i'i In 1 1 &sM 




t 



Ei P ft iT PtfMWJ ff aHWf 






HALE A: KILBURN BUILDING, PHILADELPHIA. 
Architectural Terra Cotta made by Excelsior Terra Cotta Co. 

The business of John Parkinson, architect, will here- 
after be conducted under the firm name of John Parkin- 
son and Edwin Bergstrom, offices 12 15 Braly Building, 
Los Angeles, Cal. 

Ballantyne & Evans, 
architects, New York 
City, have dissolved part- 
nership. Mr. Ballantyne 
will continue the practice 
of architecture, while Mr. 
Evans will devote his 
time to the practice of 
civil engineering. Offices 
of both, 22 Pine Street. 

The architects, engi- 
neers and draughtsmen of 
Fort Worth and Dallas, 
Texas, have organized the 
Southwestern Technical 
Society for the purpose of 
advancing the interests of 
their professions. The 
following were elected as 
officers: Charles D. Hill, 
president ; B. Gage Leake, 




DETAIL BY W. D. VANSICLEN, 
ARCHITECT. 

Winkle Terra Cotta Co., Makers. 



1 62 



THE B R I C K B U I L I) ]•: R 



vice-president; Frederick E. Henkel, secretary and 
treasurer. 

Carl F. White, architect, Cleveland, Ohio, lias taken 
offices in the American Trust Building of that city. 
Manufacturers' catalogues and samples desired. 

At the final meeting of the Washington Architectural 
Club for the season the following officers were elected: 
Louis A. Simon, president; Albert L. Harris, vice-presi- 
dent; Leo J. Weissenborn, secretary ; Warren W. Youngs, 

treasurer. 

On June [3 Frederick V. Murphy, winner of the 

.Second Traveling Scholarship given by the club, sailed 




DETAIL BY HOI.MBOE A: LAFFERTV, ARCHITECTS. 
Northwesters Terra Cotta Co., Makers. 

for Europe. He will spend several years in study at the 
Ecole des Beaux Arts and in the ateliers of Paris. 

Fiske & Company, Inc., have opened a New York 
office in the Flatiron Building, for the purpose of con- 
ducting a general agency for building brick, terra cotta, 
tiles and other burnt clay products. J. Parker B. Fiske 
will have the management of this branch of the com- 
pany's business. 

The Crueby Faience Company has been awarded the 
contract for the faience to be used in the exterior walls 
of the Carnegie Technical Schools at Pittsburg, Pa., 
Palmer & Hornbostel, architects. 

The new Frick Building, which is to be built in Pitts- 
burg, will have two of its facades laid up in a mottled 




m 

.- ! ■It 



DETAIL BY ST. LOUIS TBB 
COTTA CO. 



for which Pitts- 
burg in particular 
is noted, it will 
have achieved a 
new triumph for 
glazed clay prod- 
ucts. 

Americans are 
sharing in the 
London building 
boom. No less 
than four large 
modern hotels are 
under construction or contemplated, in addition to a 
great number of office and warehouse buildings. In 
connection with this boom British architects and builders 
are adopting to a considerable extent American methods 
of steel frame and fireproof construction. 

The National Fireproofing Company has been success- 
ful in securing a number of contracts for fireproof work 
in these new buildings, and has recently made a test in 
London of their patented reinforced terracotta floor-arch 
construction. This test was made under the direction 
of the British Fire Prevention Committee. The fire- 
resisting floor-arch construction which was tested con- 
sisted of hollow tiles of burned clay material, with a 
metal reinforcement in the form of a wire truss. This 
arch was supported by steel I beams, spaced at proper 
distances to sustain safely the superimposed load to be 
carried. 

The recpiirements of the British Fire Prevention 
Committee are very rigid, consisting of a fire test of four 
hours at a temperature of 1700 degrees, after which 
water is applied to the under side of the arch. 

A test of the construction described was made on 
June 2cS, and was entirely successful. Hollow tile rein- 
forced floors are absolutely fireproof, and at the same 
time are much lighter and stronger than other systems 
heretofore used in London. 




DETAIL BY OTTO BLACK, ARCHITECT. 
Brick Terra Cotta and Tile Co., Makers. 

enameled brick, which will give the building the appear- 
ance of having been built of polished granite. The light 
shafts will also be built of enameled brick. These brick, 
some six hundred thousand, arc being made especially for 
this building by the American Enameled Brick & Tile 
Company of New York City. The building, when com- 
pleted, will command more than the usual attention given 
to a new building, because of the employment of small 
units, glazed, for the exterior walls. If the material 
successfully withstands the assault of smoke and dirt, 



WANTED — By an expert Gothic architect, experienced in ecclesi 
astical work and superintending, also a good designer in other styles 
(trained by the late Charles Barry of London, England), a permanent 
position with a first-class firm of architects. Good English and 
American references. 

Address Simpson, 2811 14th St., Washington, D. C. 



THE SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE 

University of VennsytVania. 



THE FOUR YEAR COURSE offers full professional training, w.th an 
option in Architectural Engineering, leading to the degree of II. S. in Architecture. 

THE GRADUATE YEAR affords opportunity for advanced work in design 
and other subjects, leading to the degree of M S in Architecture. 

THE TWO YEAR SPECIAL COURSE for qualified draughtsmen 
offers advanced technical training, yielding a Certificate of Proficiency. 

THE UNIVERSITY also grants advanced standing to College graduates; 
offers a combination of liberal and technical courses whereby the degrees of A li- 
and B. S. in Architecture can betaken in six years and conducts a Summer School in which 
architectural studies may be taken. 

For full information address 

DP I H DFNMIMAN dean, college hall, 

K. J. II. rt Vi i\ I lYI /\[\, UNIVERSITY of PENNSYLVANIA, 

V H 1 LAVE LVHI A . V Jt . 




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ELEVATION ON CLERMONT AVENUE. 

SUCCESSFUL COMPETITIVE DESIGN FOR MASONIC TEMPLE, BROOKLYN. N. Y. 

Lord & Hewlett, Architects. 



THE BR1CKBUILDER. 
JULY, 
1906. 



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VOL. 14. NO. 7. PLATE 55. 




FRONT ELEVATION AND FIRST FLOOR PLAN. 

CARNEGIE BRANCH LIBRARY. RIVINGTON STREET, NEW YORK CITY. 
McKim, Mead & White, Architects. 




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SUBMITTED BY WALTER E. PINKHAM, WASHINGTON, D. C. 

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FIRST FLOOR PLAN. 




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CARNEGIE BRANCH LIBRARY, CLINTON AND UNION STREETS, BROOKLYN, N. Y. 

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THE BRICKBUILDER, 
JUNE, 
1903. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



Vol. 14 



SEPTEMBER 1905 



No. 






CONTENTS — PLATES 

From Work of LORD & HEWLETT, MAGINNIS, WALSH & SULLIVAN, 
McKIM, MEAD & WHITE, WHEELWRIGHT & HAVEN, HENRY 
VAUGHAN. 

CONTENTS — LETTER PRESS 

FACADE OF CHURCH OF SAN DOMINGO, SALAMANCA, SPAIN Frontispiece 

EDITORIALS 189 

ECCLESIASTICAL ARCHITECTURE. 

THE CATHOLIC CHURCH. I Rev. John Talbot Smith, D. D. 190 

THE REBUILDING OF BALTIMORE 194 

TILE AND FAIENCE WORK IN FRANCE. I Jean Schopjer. 202 

FIREPROOF HOUSE COMPETITION MENTION DESIGN 207 

EDITORIAL COMMENT AND SELECTED MISCELLANY 209 

CHEAP COTTAGE COMPETITION AT LETCHWORTH, ENGLAND 209 




FACADE OF CHURCH OF SAN DOMINGO, SALAMANCA, SPAIN, 




CHAPEL FOR McLEAN HOSPITAL, WAVERLEY, MASS. 

Wheelwright & Haven, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER, 

SEPTEMBER, 

1908. 




CHURCH OF ST. THOMAS THE APOSTLE, LOS ANGELES, CAL. 
Maginnis, Walsh & Sullivan, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 

SEPTEMBER, 

1905. 




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Henry Vaughan, Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER, 

SEPTEMBER, 

1906. 




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VOL. 14. NO. 9. PLATE 69. 




FRONT ELEVATION. 

CHAPEL FOR McLEAN HOSPITAL, WAVERLEY, MASS. 

Wheelwright & Haven, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 14. NO. 9. PLATE 70. 




SIOE ELEVATION. 




FIRST FLOOR PLAN. 

CHAPEL FOR McLEAN HOSPITAL, WAVERLEY, MASS. 
Wheelwright & Haven, Architects. 




THE BNCKJWILDERi 



DEVOTED -TO THE • 1NTERESTSOF] 
ARCHITECTVRE- IN • MATERIALS • OF CLAY^ 




SEPTEMBER IQ05 



g£&S 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY 

ROGERS & MANSON, 
85 Water Street, Boston, Mass. . . P. O. Box 3282. 

Entered at the Boston, Mass., Post Office as Second Class Mail Matter, March 12, 1892. 
COPYRIGHT, 1893, BY THE BRICKBUILDER PUBLISHING COMPANY. 



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Advertisers are classified and arranged 111 uie fully wing Order: 



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Advertisements will be printed on cover pages only. 



COVER DESIGN COMPETITION AWARD. 

ON Wednesday, August 23, Messrs. Chester H. Al- 
drich, Bertram G. Goodhue, Jules Guerinand Henry 
P. Kirby, who had been requested to serve" as a jury of 
award, met at the City Club, New York, to examine and 
report upon the drawings submitted in competition for a 
prize of one hundred dollars offered by the publishers of 
Indoors and Out for the cover design adjudged the best. 

This competition, it must be confessed, was, to a con- 
siderable degree, disappointing, despite the large number 
of drawings submitted. In the opinion of the jury, the 
average of merit was regrettably low, even the prize- 
winning design being by no means so successful as might 
have been expected. 

The awards were made as follows: 

First prize of one hundred dollars, Carroll M. Bill, 
Boston, Mass. ; first mention, Claude F. Bragdon, 
Rochester, N. Y. ; second mention, Herbert William 
Meyer, Brooklyn, N. Y. ; third mention, Howard Sill, 
Baltimore, Md. 

After making the above award, the publishers availed 
themselves of the terms of the competition, which per- 
mitted the purchase of any drawing, and selected for use 
the design of Howard Sill, which seemed in their opinion 
best suited for the purpose. 



CHARLES A. CUMMINGS. 

BY the death on August 1 1 of Mr. Charles Amos 
Cummings, the architectural profession has lost one 
of its most honored members. He was one of the or- 
ganizers of the Boston Society of Architects in 1867, its 
president for many years, and was closely identified with 
that organization up to the time of his death. As the 
senior partner of the firm of Cummings & Sears he did 
some of the most notable buildings in the city of Boston, 
all of which were marked by a quiet refinement of detail 
and unity of conception as a whole which were con- 
siderably in advance of most of the work performed in 
the early seventies. The New Old South Church, the 
Steinway Hall, now practically obliterated by remodel- 
ing, and a number of commercial buildings, the bulk of 
which were erected shortly after the great Boston fire of 
1872, all testify to Mr. Cummings's marked abilities. He 
retired from business a number of years ago, having 
ample means to indulge his literary and artistic tastes. 
He wrote a number of excellent works upon the subject 
of architecture, and his critical essays appeared in the lead- 
ing architectural papers, always commanding attention 
and respect. By his will he leaves to the Museum of 
Fine Arts, of which he was a trustee, the sum of fifty 
thousand dollars for tlie purchase of photographs, casts, 
or other reproductions of architecture, the selection to be 
made with the advice of the Boston Society of Architects. 
His whole life was a consistent, continuous growth, and 
his achievements reflect the highest credit upon the 
architectural profession. 



ALFRED WATERHOUSE. 

NO one who had the good fortune to have met could 
ever forget the strong personality of Alfred Water- 
house, the celebrated English architect who died during 
the past month in his seventy-sixth year. All his work 
was carried out in the best embodiment of what has been 
classed as the Victorian Gothic. His Town Hall and Law 
Courts of Manchester and his Natural History Museum 
at South Kensington are among the most successful 
buildings which have been erected in England, and 
would alone have been sufficient to establish his title to 
high architectural ability. In addition he has done a 
quantity of most excellent public and private work, and 
he enjoyed all his life an excellent practice. He was a 
president of the Royal Institute of British Architects, 
received its gold medal in [878, was a corresponding 
member of the Institute of France, and an associate in 
the academics of Vienna, Milan, Brussels and Berlin, 



i go 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



Ecclesiastical Architecture. 

THE CATHOLIC CHURCH. 
PAPER I. 

BY REV. JOHN TALBOT SMITH. 1). 1). 

THE aim of this article is to benefit conscientious 
architects in their endeavor to serve both religion 
and art by the erection of artistic and useful church 
buildings. The present century holds brilliant promise 
for the workers in the ecclesiastical field. For the Roman 
Catholic side of the house it may safely be said that 
immense work is to be done this century in the building 
of churches, schools, educational and charitable institu- 
tions, convents and monasteries, mission houses and 
parochial residences. The Catholic body in the United 
States and Canada numbers more than fifteen millions; 
add Cuba, Porto Rico and the Philippines, which have 
lately come within the sphere of our influence, and include 
Mexico, whose relations with us become more intimate 
every day, and the dullest imagination can hardly fail to 
see the splendid field of opportunity now open to the 
architect. 

The Catholic peoples are church builders par excel- 
lence, and the American branch of the Catholic body in 
all probability bears away the palm from its brethren on 
that score; for the simple reason that America is a new 
land and all the necessary work of building had to be 
done within a short period. A century back there might 
have been fifty Catholic churches in this country, whereas 
to-day there must be more than ten thousand. It would 
not be rash to predict that the number will be easily 
doubled by the end of this century. Immigration from 
Ireland and Germany has not ceased, though it has greatly 
diminished; but the loss has been more than made up for 
by the immigration from Poland, Italy, the Slav coun- 
tries and the Orient. Churches must be built for these 
peoples; schools, charities, colleges and mission resi- 
dences must be built for them ; where they are numerous 
their buildings will be, must be magnificent, for it is 
their nature to build magnificently, if not always in the 
best taste; though they may be parsimonious in other 
matters, the temple with them must be the house beauti- 
ful. One may suppose this is mere commonplace to the 
experienced architect, yet the younger men are aware of 
it only vaguely. 

It may seem unpractical to include our new possessions 
in the field of possibilities, as well as Cuba and Mexico. 
Yet it should be remembered that the leading prelates 
and many of the clergy in these new countries will be in 
time Americans by birth or training; they will seek their 
supplies from the country with which they are familiar; 
and naturally they will introduce into the new territory 
the architectural forms most common with us; even the 
natives will find it convenient to adopt many of our im- 
provements in building. As to Cuba and Mexico, already 
the imitation of American forms has taken root, and the 
leading clergy get some of their ecclesiastical necessities 
or ornaments from our merchants. 

The building of a church means also its ornamenta- 
tion, and a host of arts will be called upon to complete 
what the architect has only begun, it may be said. Altars, 
statues, candelabra, sacred vessels, vestments, rich em- 



broideries, carpets, windows, frescoes must be supplied, 
and will give profitable employment to thousands of 
artists and craftsmen. As each nation has its own tradi- 
tions about the church and its ornamentation, most 
curious demands will be made upon architects and dec- 
orators. Adaptation will be the watchword of the century 
in every department, and it will be no small task for the 
interested to graft ancient traditional forms artistically 
on the American conditions. The commercial architect 
will have no scruples and no difficulties in such matters. 
So that he gets his fee the Mahometan minaret may 
jostle the Gothic spire, and the Byzantine roof cap an 
American rectangle. The conscientious architect, as 
usual, will have the difficulties, the honors and the lesser 
money recompense. This seems to be inevitable in 
ordinary human conditions. Man cannot win ecpial 
success in the market and the studio. 

If the prospect is so fair in the Roman Catholic field 
alone, architect and craftsman must exult over the whole 
prospect, which takes in the future achievement of all 
religious denominations. Surely there ought to be deep 
inspiration and stimulus in conditions so promising. Of 
course there are drawbacks, and the picture does not lack 
dark shadows. It is a drawback, for example, that the 
Catholic immigrants are very poor, that money will not 
be plentiful and that quantity and color will often take 
the place of artistic form and exquisite tone. This cannot 
be helped, and the architect will merely have to do his 
best with the inevitable. On the other hand, the older 
parishes will make up for this condition by building more 
artistically and more expensively. The blunders of the 
past will also provide a drawback of serious strength. 
The clergy have long memories and strong traditions. 
The commercial architect, the incompetent architect and 
other frauds have fooled them often, led them into the 
quagmire of debt or into public ridicule by nightmares of 
buildings, or, led astray by their own confidence, the 
priests often built beyond the financial strength of the 
parish and died in the effort to remove the burden. 
The buildings erected under such conditions are monu- 
ments of warning, perpetual lessons in folly to the next 
generation. Only the born fools will be fooled a second 
time by the same impostor or led into a repetition of 
popular follies by their own vanity. 

The churches of the coming century will be finer than 
those existing, better suited also to the conditions. They 
will cost no more than the parish can easily afford, will 
carry no waste material in the shape of lofty walls, orna- 
mental towers and flying buttresses, and will be built 
with less regard to the neighboring cathedral and more 
to the comfort of the trustees and the congregation. The 
grand church is now so intimately connected in the minds 
of the Catholic clergy with the grand debt, which often 
kills two men to pay, that very few pastors will under- 
take it unless in the proper places. It is the ambition of 
every parish priest to build a handsome church. The 
ambition remains in a modified form ; if it can be attained 
without heaping tip an enormous debt. 

From every point of view the situation is favorable, 
and the architect may fairly be said to control the situa- 
tion. At least he has the key to it and may secure the 
full control if he so desires. He alone has the knowledge 
and skill absolutely necessary for the erection of safe and 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



191 



beautiful public buildings. The builders of temples and 
schools know that nothing substantial can be accom- 
plished without him, and they are at all times willing to 
be led by him, too willing, in fact, if experience teaches 
anything. In this country the Catholic priest is always 
the financial manager of the parish and must look after 
the revenues. When church or school or residence is 
building, the task of collecting the funds and supervising 
the architect is large enough for him. For the beauty, 
strength and fitness of the building he must of necessity 
depend absolutely upon the architect, and he is more 
than willing to leave alt the details to that official. 

I know that there have been many bitter experiences 
which proclaim a contrary condition. The complaint has 
often been made by architects that the Catholic priest is 
unapproachable and difficult to deal with in business mat- 
ters. It surprised me to hear a young architect say that 
he had never acquired the courage to approach a Catholic 
priest and more than once had turned away from the door 
of the parochial residence in sheer despair of getting a 
good understanding with a being so incomprehensible as 
its resident. While this shyness may be explicable, it 
has little justification in fact. The Catholic clergy are by 
the nature of their profession very approachable, but at 
the same time, by reason of rather unpleasant experience 
with impostors, somewhat distant and reserved in man- 
ner and speech. They have little or no prejudice about 
dealing with non-Catholic professional and business men, 
and are quite willing to listen to the expert without regard 
to his faith or creed. Whatever distrust they may now 
display towards architects has been born of the blunders 
of architects themselves or of misunderstandings or of 
traditions current in the clerical circle. In any gathering 
of clergymen, when the subject of building is brought up, 
one may hear many stories of the failures, the blunders 
and the rascalities of incompetent and dishonest archi- 
tects: how Jones submitted plans for a building to cost 
fifty thousand, and it actually cost one hundred thousand ; 
and Brown put up a church so defective that to keep it 
from falling an immense sum had to be expended; and 
Robinson stood in with all the contractors and made a 
round sum by accepting inferior material and inferior 
work. These are current tales, but at the same time 
there is no lack of praise and commendation for the 
architect who has been faithful and successful. 

It must be -acknowledged that in many instances dis- 
trust of the architect or fear of his prices has driven some 
clergymen into dispensing with the professional and con- 
fiding their building interest to the mason and the car- 
penter. The results have regularly been so unfortunate 
as to prevent repetition of the blunder. The clergy are 
naturally quite easy prey to clever schemers in the 
matter of building. What they know of architecture is 
acquired somewhat accidentally in the practical work of 
the mission. They find it less difficult to deal with the 
carpenter and the mason than with the accomplished 
architect, since they can put a check on the craftsman's 
expense before it has jumped into the thousands. Their 
very ignorance of architecture leads architects to the 
supposition that dealing with them is next to impossible, 
particularly when it comes to the settling of a question 
of taste and of principle in architecture; but this sup- 
position is incorrect. As men of education, of some 



experience, of observation, influenced by their clerical 
associations, they know their own limits, even while not 
qualified to judge of the limitations of a particular 
architect. They are willing to learn and willing to take 
instruction from qualified teachers. 

I repeat, therefore, that the architect holds the key 
to the situation, and may choose his own vantage 
ground. That he has not already done so, that he 
stands without the charmed circle, not knowing how to 
get in, half convinced that entrance is impossible, is 
his own fault. His own shyness or his ignorance of the 
conditions may be to blame. There are two elements 
in the building problem among Catholics: the standard 
of building, the ideal we may call it, and the priest who 
builds. Therefore the architect who grapples with that 
particular problem must ask himself two questions: 
what is the traditional church for Catholics, and what 
kind of a church does the priest desire? Upon his 
answer to these questions will depend his success. Let 
us take for discussion the second element in the prob- 
lem. 

The priest is the church builder among Catholics, 
and his wish is law. This statement suffers some mod- 
ifications according to the nationality of the people, but 
it may be taken by the architect as a safe statement in 
most circumstances. Even where the priest is simply 
the head of an executive committee, his influence dom- 
inates. The preliminaries, before an architect is called 
in, usually determine the size and general character of 
the church, the ability and willingness of the people to 
undertake the structure, and the good will of the bishop 
of the diocese. These things made certain, the architect 
is asked to submit his plans, based upon the instructions 
from the priest. These plans are to be submitted to 
the bishop and his council as. soon as accepted by the 
priest and his committee of trustees. There is no ques- 
tion that a priest will build as handsomely as the funds 
will permit; in fact, he will stretch a point and build 
slightly beyond his means. It is the ambition of every 
parish priest to have a fine, richly adorned church. 
When he has determined upon the figures to be paid for 
the new building, the architect may be absolutely cer- 
tain that the priest cannot afford a penny more. His 
parish revenues will not provide a 'dollar beyond. This 
is a fact to be well remembered. So often has it been 
forgotten by architects of the past that most priests 
stand armed against present architects. More than one 
architect lost his opportunities by exceeding the first 
estimate, or by swallowing up in the structure the 
cost of adornment, so that for years the church inte- 
rior stood colorless and bare, an undecorated void, an 
eyesore and an irritation to pastor and people. 

The honest and prudent architect must therefore 
keep this rule in mind : never to exceed the first esti- 
mate. Moreover he must never forget that the estimate 
is to cover the entire cost of decorating and furnishing 
the church interior. It will not do to offer the plea that 
he forgot, or did not foresee, or underestimated; it is 
his business to remember, to foresee, to estimate prop- 
erly; for that he is employed. The agreements between 
architect and pastor should be in writing always, every 
item should be covered, every change discussed in all 
its bearings, and then placed properly in the written 



192 



T H E BRICKBUILDER 



agreements. As a rule the priest is more than generous 
in his dealings with architects and builders; in conse- 
quence, when pinched by the blunders or inefficiency or 
dishonesty of his aids, he is apt to be more than severe. 
It is unnecessary to criticise this very natural conse- 
quence. I recall one priest who built the foundations of 
his church on the generous and confiding plan, and was 
successfully robbed by both architect and builders; 
therefore, when he arrived at the work of the super- 
structure, he employed a superintendent at four dollars 
a day to see that both architect and builder lived up to 
their agreements; and the necessity of this caution was 
proved daily in the rejection of unfit material accepted 
by the architect from the builder, and in other important 
matters. 

What style of church does the average priest desire 
to build? That question may be answered easily by the 
architect from the general character of the churches in a 
given neighborhood. Usually a priest wants a church 
like some other that he has seen and admired. The 
clergy are imitative and conventional, but are not bound 
by conventions overmuch. The simple rectangle with 
Gothic steeple was the fashion for fifty years, until the 
clergy tired of its monotonous ugliness. If the priest 
knows nothing about architecture, he does know that he 
wants nave, transept, sanctuary and bell tower; and these 
being provided by the architect, there will be little diffi- 
culty in persuading him to accept almost any beautiful 
form of building. A casual examination of the churches 
built during the last ten years proves that the clergy 
have broken away from slavish imitation, and are will- 
ing to accept even novelties in form, provided that the 
traditions are not violated. The nationality of the priest 
must be considered in this matter. The English-speak- 
ing Catholics as a rule leave the style of church entirely 
to the priest and the bishop; the Germans have some- 
thing to say in the committee which has charge of the 
building ; the Poles, it is said, follow the progress of the 
work with jealous eye from the first plan to the last 
stroke of the decorator's brush, and are as ready to hang 
the architect for failure or blunder as to score the priest 
for permitting it. The Germans and Poles and Italians 
go in tor strong decoration, the others care less for color 
and more for the splendid form. These facts are men- 
tioned because the priest is influenced by them, no 
matter what may be his preferences. In estimating 
therefore the cost of decoration, the architect must bear 
in mind that a foreign priest will spend more and an 
American priest less for that item. As a rule in this 
country the clergy are quite catholic in their tastes, 
quite open to new fashions, and favorable to new 
methods, and therefore the architect may not always 
find the difficulties above described awaiting him. 

( )f what material will the priest build ? This question 
may also be answered by a glance at the churches already 
in existence. Prick, stone and wood are all represented 
in all their forms in combination, showing perfect free- 
dom of thought and independence of action on that point. 
Tradition favors the stone, but the funds decide the 
question. Here the architect will never meet with any 
real difficulty. 

How far will the priest modify tradition"' The Amer- 



ican priest is a utilitarian. He has been brought up 
in a school which for a long time knew nothing of archi- 
tecture, because there was little need for it. All that 
Catholics could secure in the form of a church was a hall 
or a cheap structure, for which they were thankful. The 
church builders of the first period, which closes with the 
year 1850, cannot be said to have founded a tradition, or 
even to have continued European traditions, so various, 
strange and inharmonious were their temples. The sec- 
ond period introduced the cruciform structure in many 
varieties, the Romanesque, and. in the great cities, a 
hybrid which takes its name from its one visible external 
feature, the facade. The prominent feature of all Cath- 
olic churches in this country is the steeple, which seems 
to be the only traditional characteristic. My own con- 
clusion is that there are few traditions for the priest to 
modify, and that he will be found quite flexible with 
regard to any that may appear. His concern is mostly 
with the necessities. He must have, if possible, a roomy 
and elegant sanctuary, a good sacristy attached, a rooniv 
nave with a middle aisle, a comfortable vestibule, a bell 
tower or steeple, and a handsome exterior. < lutside of 
these an architect will have considerable freedom in his 
plans. It will be necessary for him, however, to keep in 
mind the limitations of the priest in all directions; for 
the priest must work within his means, satisfy his bishop 
and his people, and secure respectable results to meet the 
criticism of his associates. If novelties are to be at- 
tempted, or novel variations of the conventional or the 
unaccustomed, the architect should provide the priest with 
arguments and illustrations that explain and justify 
the departure from custom. These will be repeated to 
parishioners, committees, associates and diocesan officials, 
and will prepare them for the change properly. It may 
seem superfluous to mention these details, but not to the 
architect of experience. The country is full of mournful 
examples illustrating their aptness. To conclude on this 
point the architect, who has not yet entered the Catholic 
field, may approach the priest with perfect confidence in 
his fairness, courtesy, readiness to listen and general 
kindliness. 

The second factor in the problem which the architect 
lias to deal with is the ideal church building. Tradition 
has established its essential form firmly, so firmly that 
there can be no doubts about it. All architects are ac- 
quainted with it, though various names are given to it, 
according to the popular variations of its substantial 
features. These variations are the natural result of en- 
vironment. Every age has added to their number and 
each tribe has produced its own forms. It is not unrea- 
sonable to expect that the new world shall add its own 
variety, based on the new needs and the new circum- 
stances. For the watchword of the architect during this 
century will have to be adaptation. As was pointed out 
in an earlier paragraph, the immigrants settling here will 
bring to the building of their churches their best and 
worst traditions, of which some will go with the new sit- 
uation, and others will clash and be set aside. The 
architect will have much to say, if he chooses, in accept- 
ing the useful and beautiful and rejecting the superfluous. 

It is not at all certain that the average architect is 
trained to meet the situation as it exists among Catholics. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



193 



The ideals of Protestants and Catholics in the matter of 
churches began to differ radically late in the last century. 
With the former the church building has taken on more 
and more the character of an assembly-room, in which 
the speaker and the hearers, the seeing and hearing, are 
of the utmost consequence. While the Catholics have 
not remained indifferent to the seeing and the hearing, 
these ideas have not at all affected the traditional features 
of their churches. With them the church must always 
bear the characteristics of the temple : prominent sanctu- 
ary and beautiful altar, space for the carrying out of the 
ritual and for the administration of the sacraments. The 
banishment of the temple characteristics in so many 
modern churches is quite repugnant to the religious sen- 
timent of Catholics, as all architects know. Yet while the 
idea of the temple prevails with them, they have little 
thought of making every church they build an architect- 
ural monument like a cathedral. Some architects are 
possessed of this inaccurate impression. One asked me 
in writing, admitting that a cathedral church is an archi- 
tectural monument, how far might that idea be modified 
in relation to a parish church, and how far might an ar- 
chitect go in sacrificing it to considerations of utility. 

To my mind this question has no practical bearing on 
our circumstances. In Europe it might have. The par- 
ish church in the United States is no longer thought of 
as an architectural monument. Formerly the clergy who 
set out to build churches really built cathedrals when the 
revenues of their parishes enabled them to do so with 
ease. However, the policy of the bishops for many years 
has been to multiply parishes with a more and more lim- 
ited membership. This policy has not only increased the 
number of smaller churches, it has also driven out of 
existence the parish cathedral. Hereafter the parish 
church will be of the simple character befitting its uses. 
As has already been said, the stately churches of the past 
era will not be imitated, but the less brilliant and more 
tasteful parish churches will be multiplied. Of course 
the large and wealthy parishes will continue to build 
splendidly as of old, the religious communities will ad- 
here to their traditions in this matter, and their buildings 
will suffer no departure from tradition except in such 
utilities as lighting, heating, ventilating and pew-fitting. 
They will always strive for the characteristics of the ar- 
chitectural monument. 

The parish church, on the contrary, will adapt itself 
more freely to circumstance, all the more freely that, its 
size will have been diminished along with its congrega- 
tions. With the Catholic the idea^ of the temple is based 
on the idea of the Sacrifice of the Mass. The temple is 
a building which protects an altar, around which gather 
priest and people to offer up sacrifice to God. The 
central point of the temple, from which all the other parts 
radiate, is therefore the sanctuary. Next to the sanctuary 
in importance is the nave or auditorium, wherein the 
people worship. Sanctuary and nave are the essential 
parts of the Catholic temple. The capable architect 
must therefore begin his plans from these two points. 
The sanctuary must be visible from all parts of the nave, 
therefore elevated, lightsome, noble in its lines, and, as 
the scene of many important ceremonies, it must be 
spacious, its outer rail should extend across the entire 
church, and the approaches to it should be of generous 



width. The space between the rail of the sanctuary and 
the first pews should never be stinted. For the people 
this is the place of many ceremonies. They crowd to the 
rail for the Sunday communion, the children receive here 
the sacraments of the Eucharist and Confirmation, the 
bridal pair are married at the gate of the sanctuary, the 
dead are brought to it for the last rites. The temple is 
the home of the sacraments. Somewhere in the confines 
of the auditorium should be the baptistery, where baptism 
is publicly administered, and the confessionals. The ves- 
tibule is not only a means of entrance and exit, it is also 
the scene of many ceremonies. In my opinion that archi- 
tect would make no mistake who would take his place in 
the sanctuary and draw the lines of his church with an 
eye on the points just enumerated: spacious sanctuary, 
roomy aisles and vestibules, baptistery and confessionals. 
One might call the above paragraph commonplace 
unless the blunders made in these matters were known 
by experience; for example, roomy aisles and no space 
for confessional or baptistery ; a fine sanctuary, with no 
space at or in front of the railing; sanctuary and nave 
out of proportion with each other, so that often the for- 
mer looked like an accidental hole in the wall of the nave. 
Of secondary consideration, but not to be forgotten, are 
the utilities, such as the pews, the pulpit and the sacristy ; 
the details of the nave in the matter of pillars, windows 
and the like, and the question of a basement for heating 
purposes and also for church assemblies. The pews are 
so much in use among Catholics that at least they should 
be comfortable and avoid the blunder of cramping the 
entire congregation. The pulpit is always a vexed ques- 
tion, for different reasons. A small church does not need 
a pulpit, a medium church seems to offer no space for a 
fixed pulpit, and the movable pulpit is unpopular, and 
a large church must face the problem of acoustics with 
any sort of pulpit. For the church of medium size a 
sanctuary with plenty of space close to the rail will pro- 
vide room for a small pulpit. The question is one to be 
fully discussed with the priest, and careful experiments 
should be made. The pillars often obstruct the view for 
a number of people, but that fact need not disturb the 
architect. Their number is small in the average church, 
eight or ten at most, and perhaps fifty people may tem- 
porarily lose sight of the altar on account of them. This 
deprivation can be borne. The sacristy is of varying 
importance according to the circumstances. In many 
places it becomes the winter chapel for the congregation 
and in others the week-day chapel besides; in country 
churches it may contain the baptistery and the confes- 
sionals. In most churches it is simply the sacristy, where 
the sacred vestments are kept and where the priest pre- 
pares for the Mass. As it adds very much to the com- 
fort of the clergy, the architect does well to discuss all 
the details, exit and entrance, heating and lighting, and 
the uses to which it may be put in the future. The 
basement has become an important feature of the mod- 
ern parish church, particularly in the large cities, but the 
clergy have no love for it except on grounds of economy. 
It will always be kept subordinate in Catholic churches, 
as much underground as possible, since it is a temporary 
expedient; therefore the architect will always be on the 
safe side if in the general plan of the church the base- 
ment is made as inconspicuous as possible.. 



194 



THE BRICK BUILDER 



These general statements will suffer many modifica- 
tions when the architect comes to deal with a particular 
priest and a certain set of circumstances. For the sake 
of economy a priest will sacrifice the spaciousness of 
sanctuary and aisle, and leave baptistery and confessional 
to shift as they may. But with particular problems of 
course we cannot deal in this article. The architect, 
having made his plans from the standpoint just de- 
scribed, may proceed to consider the exterior of the 
temple both with regard to the interior and to the par- 
ticular style of architecture demanded. An examination 
of the Catholic churches of the country proves, I think, 
that the clergy are not attached to any particular form 
nor to any particular material. Either the Gothic or the 
Romanesque would be their style, where they might 
choose. The main problem with them is always a 
church large enough to hold the people. It is always an 
easy matter for the architect to influence them within the 
limits of the estimate. If, on the whole, they know 
little of the traditional architecture, they possess con- 
siderable taste, and have usually enjoyed some expe- 
rience. As a rule they seek convenience and comfort 
for the church interior, and both beauty and dignity for 
the exterior. The steeple and the tower are favorite 
features, the noble facade, the spacious entrance and the 
dignified windows. In former times poverty allowed 
them only the luxury of steeple or tower; in our day a 
measure of prosperity has introduced numerous luxuries. 

The exterior of the church ought surely on general 
principles to express the interior aptly. At this very 
point the clergy and the architects together have scored 
their most serious failures. The great majority of the 
Catholic churches in the United States have little external 
expression beyond that of a pile of brick, stone or lumber 
emphasized by a steeple. Certainly they express nothing 
of the spiritual beauty that reigns within. Whoever may 
be to blame for these unsightly structures, no repetition 
of them should be permitted, and none is necessary. The 
smallest church can be built beautifully, and the clergy 
are willing to make sacrifices to secure that beauty. I 
recall a town which had three churches, of which the 
poorest and cheapest was the most beautiful. It was not 
the Catholic church, but every priest that saw the little 
church expressed the wish that such simple and effective 
beauty could be oftener expressed in our temples. As 
little as they might have known about architecture, their 
taste was correct and sure enough to recognize beauty of 
form when they saw it. It looks to me as if architects do 
not appeal to this sense of beauty ; or else they make 
their suggestions so expensive that the clergy recoil. All 
that can be said here about the exterior of the church is 
this : the priest and the architect should be able to secure, 
after ample examination of styles and plans, just what the 
circumstances need. There are no binding traditions for 
the parish church except, the simplest of all, that the 
building look like a true temple of God when finished, 
arid be as far as possible from the appearance of an audi- 
torium. Whatever style of architecture be adopted, let 
it be consistent throughout : let there be no experiments 
and no composites. A successful experiment gets no 
criticism, but most experiments are failures ; and as 
for composites, only genius can get anything beautiful 
out of them. 



The Rebuilding of Baltimore. 

WHAT HAS BEEN DONE IN ONE YEAR. 

THE old saying, " It's an ill wind that blows nobody 
some good,'' may aptly be applied to the results 
occasioned by the Baltimore fire. The same wind that 
carried destruction in its path developed new conditions 
and created new opportunities, which, if seized at the 
moment, would have made Baltimore a model city. In 
some cases advantage of these opportunities was taken; 
but in others they were combated and wholly disre- 
garded, because the prevailing ideas of reconstruction 
were based upon what had been, not what might be. 
The future was considered, but not upon the scale the 
situation demanded. Fearing a prohibitive tax rate, the 
people adopted only in part the schemes for municipal 
betterment that were suggested. The chance was offered 
to lay out and construct the burned area upon magnificent 
lines, but the people failed to comprehend the results that 
would accrue, or, comprehending, failed to profit by their 
knowledge, and the opportunity passed. That these fears 
of a prohibitive tax rate were without foundation has 
been proven, for dilapidated sttuctures which once existed 
have given place to handsome modern buildings, causing 
an enormous increase in the taxable basis and conse- 
quently a considerable reduction in the tax rate. 

But despite the failure to embrace the opportunity 
for grand schemes of municipal improvement, a new spirit 
governs building in Baltimore. Formerly business had 
been conducted under conditions which retard rather than 
advance the progress of a large city, such as narrow and 
congested streets, some with heavy grades, and dilapi- 
dated structures unequipped with modern facilities for 
the proper handling of the city's trade. A system of 
conservatism seemed to govern all methods of procedure. 
But ere the smoke had rolled away the city had taken the 
first step towards progress and "Greater Baltimore." 
Then came the revival, — the renaissance. A new spirit 
was born. The citizen was awakened from his stupor and 
was ready to advance; the refusal to accept the tender of 
outside aid illustrates the spirit which was to govern the 
future. This same enthusiasm now prevails and invades 
all lines of work. The citizen is conscious of his needs, 
and when he is thoroughly aroused there can only be one 
result. It means a desire for improved conditions, such 
as wider and better paved streets and better architec- 
ture. The desire for something better must necessarily 
influence the means to produce the end. 

The appointment of an Emergency Committee several 
days after the fire was the first step. The committee 
was composed of men of recognized business ability : but 
it is greatly to be regretted that in the selection of the 
members not enough recognition was given the architect 
and engineer, the very men upon whom depended the 
success and proper execution of the various schemes sub- 
mitted for adoption. This Emergency Committee was 
appointed for the purpose of considering the problems 
involved in the improvement and rebuilding of the burned 
area, and continued in office until an enabling act could 
be passed by the legislature and a permanent commission 
formed. The state legislature then in session soon passed 
this enabling act, and the Burnt District Commission was 
named just a month after the fire. The Commission was 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



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MERCHANTS CLUB. York & Sawyer, Architects. 



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KIRWAN's HOTEL, Hale & Morse, Architects. 





NATIONAL MARINE BANK. E. H. Glidden, Architect. 



LANAHAN BUILDING. Simonson & Pietscl), Architects. 



198 



THE BRICKBUILDER 








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THE BRICKBUILDER 



199 





J. APPLETON WILSON, ARCHITECT. 



PARKER & THOMAS, ARCHITECTS. 





I MM 



H. S. MA(JRUDER, architect. 



TORMEY & LEACH, ARCHITECTS. 



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THE BRICKHUILDKR. 



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THE BRICK BUILDER 



201 



given power to acquire, either by private purchase or by 
condemnation proceedings, whatever property was neces- 
sary for the purpose of widening or extending the streets. 
The Emergency Committee had carefully considered the 
conditions and had recommended a change in the widths 
and in the grades of a number of streets throughout the 
burned area. The Burnt District Commission practically 
adopted the recommendations presented by this com- 
mittee. This portion of their work has been practically 
completed, and there has been added to the former street 
area within the burnt district more than 348,000 square 
feet, or about eight acres. 

There was a change of grade in nearly all the streets 
within the burned area, in some instances only slight, but 
in others a much more radical one ; and a delay in establish- 
ing these grades meant a delay to all building operations. 
During the month following the fire a commission to 
revise the building laws was appointed, and adopted rec- 
ommendations which were recognized as being absolutely 




necessary in the reconstruction of the burned area. Until 
the adoption of these suggestions and the establishment 
of the proper street grades, the building department re- 
fused to issue permits, so that a delay of from two to 
three months resulted. 

When matters were allowed to proceed there came the 
demands for hurried work. This necessarily meant a 
hurried and inadequate study of design, which many of 
the finished buildings show. The less time required to 
complete one commission the greater the number of com- 
missions it would be possible to complete within a certain 
period; the greater the number of commissions the 
greater the revenue. This did not follow in all cases, 
however, for owing to the great influx of talent the 
schedule of charges adopted by the American Institute of 
Architects was not strictly followed; the client demanded 
cut rates, and the finished building was a bargain. The 
client paid for it and was happy, but that did not make it 
good architecture, although it might be better than the 
building that formerly occupied the site. 

The general public does not properly appreciate the 



best in architecture. A beautiful building may be simply 
a structure that satisfies; its architecture does not appeal 
to them. Though the general public is so unappreciative, 
the critic is not. Good criticism promotes a healthful 
condition, though so few are willing to receive it. 

In the haste to rebuild after the fire art weakened and 
commercialism triumphed, and this unhappy condition 
became an important governing factor in regulating 
design and construction. There is no disputing the fact 
that the materials which best stood the fire test were the 
products of burnt clay. One would suppose that the 
success of these materials in withstanding- such a severe 
test would recommend them to a more general use, espe- 
cially terra cotta for ornamentation. The client appre- 
ciates the lesser expense of this material as compared 
with others and recognizes its ornamental possibilities, 
yet when he learns that he must wait for six or eight 
weeks for his work to be executed he objects to the 
delay and demands that terra cotta be eliminated and 




111! 1 Ill 111 




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galvanized iron be substituted in its place. Thus once 
more does commercialism triumph and art suffer. 

However, the fire has been a tremendous benefit to 
the city. This assertion may seem strange in view of 
the loss that individuals suffered. But the benefit has 
accrued to the city as a whole in the confidence the citi- 
zens have in its future, and in the increased demand for 
ownership of real estate, with the accompanying enhance- 
ment in values. This condition does not exist in the 
burned area alone, but has extended to the limits of the 
city and into the surrounding suburbs. 

The area of the district over which the fire burned is 
approximately one hundred and forty acres, and about 
fourteen hundred buildings were destroyed. About four 
hundred buildings had been completed by July 1, 1905, 
with fifty additional ones in course of construction. This 
has practically been accomplished within one year. The 
new buildings are superior to the old in appearance, 
construction and equipment, and have had incorporated 
into them such improvements as have been developed in 
other cities in recent years. 



202 



THE B R I C K B U I L I) K R 



Tile and Faience Work in France. I. 

BY JEAN SCHOPFER. 

IN an article with illustrations reproducing merely the 
designs, without the coloring of the completed and 
finished work, it is perhaps impossible to indicate the 
great variety and possible diversity in color and texture 
latent in the use of decorative tiles. Yet the fact is 
beyond dispute that, in an age when color in architec- 
ture seemed destined to perish and disappear, tiles 
brought a brightening and rejuvenating influence into 
the art of building. No matter what their color, be it 
pale cream, bright yellow or flaring red, yet it saves us 
from the terrible monotony of sad-colored stone. 

Among the countries which have shown the most 
progress in experimenting and producing new ideas in 
the different ways of employing materials of clay, France 
demands an important position, not alone from her 
extreme modernity, —so extreme, eccentric and bizarre, 
in some instances, as to cry aloud for notice, — but she has 




CAFF. RICHE, SHOWING EXTERIOR DECORATION WITH 
ENAMELED TILES. 

also struck a more conservative note that is as properly 
her own, while the considerable progress of decorative 
and constructive art that she has realized in this industry 
is undeniably deserving of careful attention. From the 
fact that many of her most original and best trained 
artists have devoted their time to experimenting in 
various treatments of different materials for many espe- 
cial and individual purposes, then it may be truly said 
that France excels; and however notable may appear 
kindred instances that, as a part of the same movement, 
have developed in Belgium, Germany, Austria and Italy. 
it is yet essential for a proper understanding of the field 
to consult the best works of modern French designers, 

It is but a short time, comparatively speaking, since 
artists first discovered that enameled tiles were susceptible 
of being applied architecturally in a much greater 
variety of ways than they had before realized. They 
were already being used as facings for bathrooms, in 
public corridors, halls and lavatories, for basements, 




BAKER S SHOT, SHOWING EXTERIOR TREATED WITH 
ENAMELED TILES. 

"subways," and even occasionally on interior light 
wells. It was but seldom, however, that they were 
placed on the outside of the building, and then only in 
slightly varying tones, used sometimes to enrich a frieze 
or to add a few notes of color around the framework 
of a window. And yet what could seem simpler and 
more inevitable ? Here was a material of clay that it 
was easy to bake and prepare, that keeps its enamel 
surface perfectly, and consequently is susceptible to 
all of the numerous aspects that color and drawing 
place at the command of the designer. And besides all 
this being, in the process of its manufacture, baked and 
enameled in the furnace, the material offers great re- 
sistance to the action of the air, dust and rain, and the 
long exposure to dampness that discolor and affect other 
less well protected materials. 

Perhaps the broader beginnings of this movement 
may be credited to the Exposition of 1899, when it is 
indisputable that the general public were first given an 
opportunity of realizing the different possible applica- 
tions of various forms of architectural ceramics. The 
Palaces of the Champ de Mars — the Palace of Fine Arts 
and Palace of Liberal Arts — were remarkable for the 
almost exclusive use of clay materials. It is true that 
the clay was united to a framework of iron and was 
actually employed but to fill up, overlap and enclose, 
as with a garment, this skeleton of iron and steel; but 
who will claim that these palaces were not infinitely 



\^ 




APOTHECARY SHOP FRONT, TREATED IN ENAMELED TILES. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



203 





DECORATIVE PANEL TREATMENT WITH ENAMELED TILES. 



DECORATION IN ENAMELED TILES FOR BATHROOM BY 
A. CHARPENTIER AND F. AUBERT. 





SHOP INTERIOR, SHOWING DECORATIVE TREATMENT WITH 
ENAMELED TILES. 



INTERIOR BAKER'S SHOP, SHOWING TREATMENT WITH 
E.N AMI' LED TILES. 






THE B R I C K B U I L I) E R 




SHOP FRONT, SHOWING TREATMENT WITH ENAMELED TILES. 

superior architecturally and from the decorative point 
of view, and as to the quality of the materials employed, 
to the deplorable buildings — so-called " de fantaisie " — 
that were erected upon the same Champ de Mars in 

KjOO? 

At about the time of the Exposition of 1900 there 
appeared upon one of the principal boulevards of Paris a 
cafe' whose exterior ornamenta- 
tion in enameled tiles struck a 
new note in the decoration of city 
facades. It was the Cafe Riche. 
From the illustration it is possi- 
ble for us to realize to-day some- 
thing of the intentions of the 
architect, M. Ballu, and of the 
designer of the colored faience 
mural decoration, M. Forain. 
Placed on the outside of a popu- 
lar restaurant, they represented 
different scenes of Parisian life, 
all treated with a very clear and 
happy decorative effect. So at 
last there was shown on one of the 
most frequented thoroughfares 
of Paris a style of decoration 
pleasant to the eye, very modern, 
quite new and entirely due to 
ceramic. 

This facade was destroyed, 
but the effect of the lesson re- 
mained, and other show fronts 
in enamel tiles soon resulted. 
Sometimes indeed they evidenced 
too vivid a taste for the fancy of 



what is variously called 
" L'Art Nouveau " or 
" Modern Style," but 
they were always alert, 
gay, clear, fresh and 
clean in color and ob- 
tained a real success as 
a means of advertising, 
whatever other ques- 
tions of propriety and 
taste they may have 
raised. And now, the 
fad once started, Paris 
provides every day a 
new example of a bril- 
liantly colored and orna- 
mented tile shop front. 
It seems possible 
that enamel tiles shall 
prove to be the eventual 
solution to the problem 
of the discoloration and 
deterioration of most of 
our historic building 
materials when exposed 
to the contaminated at- 
mosphere of our large 
cities. They are affect- 
ed neither by dust nor 
by damp, and if soiled 
there surfaces are easily 
cleaned with the aid of a 
towel and a little fresh 
water. As the last few 
years have brought this 
material into more gen- 





SHOP INTERIOR, SHOWING DECORATIVE TREATMENT 
WITH ENAMELED TILES. 



EXAMPLE OF PANEL AND FRIEZE 
WORK IN TILES. 

eral use it has received more and 
more careful and intelligent at- 
tention from various decorative 
designers to whom the variety 
and newness of the problem have 
appealed, and already enough 
has been done to prove that it is 
capable of being treated in such 
a way as to produce an art that 
may be both original, new and be- 
comingly adapted to the problem 
of the shop front and city street 
facade. 

Among the many examples 
which have been realized in the 
different sections of Paris there 
is illustrated the shop of a baker 
and confectioner, situated in the 
east end of the city, in a quarter 
inhabited principally by the work- 
ing class. Sociologists may be 
pleased to note the fact that an 
instance of art so modern and 
cheerful is thus found in a popu- 
lar working quarter of the capital. 
On the exterior, slabs of plain, 
dead enamel form the base 



THE BRICK BUILDER 



205 



course. Upon these are 
placed the brilliantly enam- 
eled portion of the upper part 
of decoration, which repre- 
sent subjects suggested by 
the various processes used in 
connection with the making 
of bread. The coloring is 
fresh and clear, making a 
most pleasant change from 
the ordinary and monoto- 
nously toned conventional 
shop front. 

The interior has also been 
decorated entirely with en- 
amel tiles. Here certainly 

no one can question the exceptional desirability of this 
material. Whereas wood, stone and marble, along with 
most other materials, present a surface that is porous and 
therefore impossible to keep thoroughly clean, it must be 
remembered that on this highly glazed and polished 
material it is quite impossible for any germ or dirt to 
obtain a permanent lodgment, and it is only necessary 
to give some care and attention to the necessary joints 




" LES BOULANGERS, BY A. CHARPENTIER. 



which is decorated with vari- 
ous paintings, by tiles that 
are coving and concave in 
section. As a whole it pre- 
sents really the most modern, 
cheerful and prettiest baker's 
shop that could be imagined, 
and throughout it all is main- 
tained a note that is most 
modern in style. The prin- 
cipal decorative motive is 
formed by the wheat ear, 
sometimes twisted and con- 
ventionally malformed in 
outline. Whether or not the 
detail of this decoration 
appeals to one, it cannot but be allowed that the ensemble 
is gay, brilliant and absolutely clean ; and that it consti- 
tutes a real progress beyond the shops next door, typical 
instances of the shop of bygone days. 

This style, somewhat more extreme in treatment, 

animates another shop front, that of a chemist in the west 

end of Paris, albeit the coloring is more soberly conceived. 

A second baker's shop is shown and is in turn followed 




DECORATION IN ENAMELED TILES FOR A BATHROOM BY 
E. M. SIMAS. 

to make the entire interior surface of such a room anti- 
septic and thoroughly sanitary. Not only this, but the 
light colors in which this material is susceptible of treat- 
ment are cheerful, pleasant and cleanly looking under all 
conditions of weather, lighting or surroundings. 

The floor of this shop is formed by tiles of heavier 
colors ; the walls have large panels of enamel slabs, while 
the frieze unites both walls and ceiling, the latter of 




«& 









' '"• ..." 




DECORATION IN ENAMELED TILES FOR A BATHROOM BY 
BY E. M. SIMAS. 

by two other views of shop interiors, which variously in- 
dicate what can be done by the new method of employing 
enameled tiles for the exterior and interior decoration of 
shops. 

To indicate in what other directions it is possible to 
employ and use this material, several other illustrations 
are here included. As instances of architectural decora- 
tion in ceramics they are certainly of indisputable value. 



206 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



Here, for example, is illustrated a very handsome chim- 
ney-piece, planned by one of the best Parisian architects, 
now dead, Paul Sedille, executed in tiles by the aid of 
terra cotta. All of the decoration has been suggested 
from the various elements that nature offers us in winter. 
The family is shown gathered around the fire, and above 
the spirit of the home watches over it. Another illustra- 
tion shows the use of this material for walled surface 
decoration that is of further interest in this discussion of 
the subject. 

In collaboration with M. Aubert, M. Alexandre Char- 
pentier has designed a wall decoration for a bathroom 
that has been executed in enamel tiles. This work is 
carried out in a combination of yellows and greens, blues 
and pinks, that make a color composition at once refresh- 
ingly clean and pleasantly warm and light in tone. At 
the base of the wall appears a conventionalized border of 
lilies, behind which a stretch of water shimmers off to the 
frieze of female figures delicately modeled in relief by M. 
Charpentier, and the whole 
ends in a blue-toned sky that 
may be continued to an in- 
definite height. 

This wall treatment has 
been utilized in a notable 
modern bathroom designed 
by E. M. Simas and con- 
structed in the country house 
of M. Laurens. The bath 
basin itself is set into the 
floor of the room, and re- 
cessed into a niche around the 
walls of which this decoration 
has been employed. In this 
bath the floor and tub are of 
mosaic and the walls are 
paneled to a certain height 
with sycamore and alder 
wood panels, occasionally 
broken by pilasters of glazed 
tiles supporting the orna- 
mental faience frieze, above 
which the walls are covered 
with cream white tiles. 



"Ennui was born one day of Uniformity," the proverb 
says, and it certainly seems possible that we should have 
perished of ennui or spleen had not ceramic come to the 
rescue and saved us. But it is not only in shop fronts 
that it proclaims its usefulness, it is preparing a much 
deeper revolution. Clay is susceptible of more than one 
transformation ; under a new form, stoneware ceramic, 
or sharp-fire clay, it will give to architecture an admi- 
rable substance that has been hitherto unknown. In a 
following article an opportunity will be given to study it 
in its alreadv numerous manifestations. 



A TEST OF Cool) ART. 

THE new art movement, which has reached such large 
proportions in Europe and has found so many ardent 
advocates in this country, is in principle a protest against 
the acceptance of tradition in architecture as a guide or 
inspiration for modern work. Its advocates are most 

strenuous non-conformists. 




M. Charpentier, by his 
essay into the field of glazed 
earthenware made some time 
ago, and entitled "Les 

Boulangers," obtained much notice and comment for a 
work that was in some ways the most remarkable piece of 
sculpture of that year. This design was executed by M. 
Emile Muller in enameled tiles and represents a group of 
three figures engaged in baking and manufacturing " the 
staff of life. " The coloring wps both subdued and strong, 
as the most brilliant of reds and greens were more or less 
overcast by the grayish blue tone of the glaze that in part 
neutralized the effect of the whole panel and did something 
to tone down the real brilliance of the stronger coloring. 

These illustrations should evidence the certainty that 
there is descending upon us an interesting revival entirely 
due to a judicious and exclusive use of glazed clay mate- 
rials, and, from the natural further development of this 
new industry, we may expect no less than a most agree- 
able change in the aspect of our streets. 



A CHIMNEY-PIECK, EXECUTED IN ENAMELED TILES. 
Paul Sedille, Architect. 



That they include among 
their number some of the 
most brilliant minds and that 
some of the most original 
creative work which we have 
seen is due to their talents is 
unquestioned, but at the same 
time the number of the ad- 
herents new art has won in 
this country is not a large one. 
Our architectural expres- 
sion, as awhole, becomes year 
by year more academic rather 
than less, and tends more 
with each generation to fol- 
low what the non-conform- 
ists style blind tradition. If 
the test of any art movement 
is in its continued acceptance 
through a series of years, we 
doubt whether the new move- 
men t will ever occupy a 
serious position. The styles 
of architecture derived from 
classic antiquity have held 
their own now for nearly 
twenty-five centuries in an 
almost uninterrupted growth 
and development. We can find numerous cases where 
whole streets, if not whole cities, have been built up 
in styles allied to the Italian Renaissance without de- 
generating into mere dryness nor branching out into 
futile eccentricities, but preserving a dignified and monu- 
mental ensemble. We question very much whether the 
most ardent advocates of new art would be satisfied to 
see even one street in any city entirely given up to the 
odd creations which are classed under this name. So 
long as the new art is a protest, so long as it is practised 
only by the talented few, it is interesting and often 
instructive, but to carry it to its illogical conclusion and 
apply it to a whole street or city would be to demonstrate 
how insufficient it is to satisfy as compared with the more 
studied and rational work, which has had the sanction of 
centuries. 






THE BRICKBU I,L DER 



207 



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208 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



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THE BRICKBUILDER. 



209 



Editorial Comment and 
Selected Miscellany 



CHEAP COTTAGE COMPETITION, LETCH- 
WORTH, ENGLAND. 

FOR some time English philanthropists and architects 
have been interested in the problem of securing 
better houses for the poor, not only with improved sani- 
tary conditions, but also of greater architectural merit. 
Much practical information bearing on this question has 
been obtained by the competition exhibition at Letch- 
worth of model cheap houses that are to remain perma- 
nently in their present location. 

Great interest in this novel exhibition has been 
aroused, not merely among philanthropists, but also 
among architects and builders, and many prizes are 
offered to secure varied types and designs of inexpensive 
but well-equipped dwellings. The primary object of the 
competition is to determine what can be done in the con- 
struction of a laborer's house costing not more than $750, 
and a prize of $500 is offered for the best building. The 
specifications for this class called for a detached cottage, 
containing a living room, a scullery (sink room) or 
kitchen scullery and three bedrooms, provided with two 
fireplaces, having a cubic content of 2,000 feet, the rooms 
being not less than 7 feet 6 inches in height. 

Prizes are also offered for the best pair of five-room 
cottages to cost not more than $1,500; for the best group 
of three or four cottages, no one cottage to contain more 
than six rooms, and to be erected for a sum not exceed- 
ing $175 a room ; for the best detached cottage or pair of 
cottages, each containing not more than six rooms and 
not exceeding $175 a room; and in each case the esti- 
mated cost is to include neither the architect's fee nor 
the builder's profit. 

Other prizes are offered for the best design and speci- 
fications for a detached laborer's house costing not more 
than $750; a pair of five-room cottages costing not more 
than $1,500; a group of three or four cottages, no cottage 
containing more than six rooms, costing not more than 
$175 a room; and for a detached cottage or pair of cot- 
tages, each containing not more than six rooms and cost- 
ing not more than $175 a room. 

An anonymous donor offered a prize of $500 for the 
cheapest cottage in the exhibition, the jury of award to 
exercise discretion as to compatibility of cheapness with 
soundness of construction and suitability for a rural 
laborer's family; the Associated Portland Cement Manu- 
facturing, Limited, offered a prize of $250 for the best 
cottage built of cement-concrete ; Mr. H. G. Elwes, F. R. S., 
a prize of $50 for the best design and specifications of a 
cottage to be constructed entirely of English timber; the 
Cooperative Small Holdings Society, $50 for the best 
model of a small holding; and a prize of $250 is offered 
for the best wooden cottage. 

Prizes are also offered for the best invention or im- 
provement in building materials and fittings calctdated to 
improve, cheapen or facilitate the erection of cottages. 

Sir Walter Lawrence, Mr. Thackeray Turner, Pro- 
essor W. R. Lethaby, Mr. R.Weir Schultz, Miss Octavia 



Hill, Miss Yorke and Professor Sims Woodhead are the 
judges of the competition. 

This competition has caused a most interesting group 
of model cottages to spring up within the Garden City, a 
practical demonstration which will be of assistance to all 
those interested in the better housing of the poor, not 
only with regard to design, but also in the desirability 
and expense of various building materials. 

Of cottages of the first class, to cost not more than 
$750, the two more interesting were designed by Percy 
Houfton and A. H. Clough, that of the latter estimated 
to cost but $675. 

Another building that has attracted much attention is 
a double cottage, designed by Geoffrey Lucas, and esti- 
mated to cost $2,000. The cost of this cottage includes 
transportation of materials, contingencies, drainage and 
other charges, a rate of about 10^ cents per cubic foot. 
The walls are of 9-inch brick and the roof is tiled; the 
floors are of timber, with a concrete bed beneath. The 
instructions called for white Arlesey bricks and sash win- 
dows, both difficult to employ in a small building, the 
height of which is kept low to reduce expense; but it is 
generally admitted that the architect has overcome this 
difficulty. 

A still more expensive pair of cottages was designed 
by Baillie Scott. This building is estimated to cost 
$2,100, or $175 a room. The walls are of 9-inch brick, 
rough-cast, with oak half-timber; the ground floor paved 
with red bricks, the upper floors boarded ; the roof of 
oak, red tiled ; and the foundations are of concrete. The 
two cottages are so designed that they may be converted 
into one. 

The Bourneville Village Trust has erected a pair of 
cottages estimated at $1,940, employing materials and 
designs that experience in building about six hundred 
houses at Bourneville, near Birmingham, has proved most 
successful. The walls are of red brick, 9 inches outside 
and 4 jo inches inside; the floors are i-inch tongued and 
grooved boards and 9-inch quarries; the roofs of Broseley 
tiles; the footings of brickwork 18 inches wide, on solid 
bottom soil, while Tobin ventilators are placed in every 
room. The cost of the pair is placed at about 10 cents a 
cubic foot, or about $155 a room, while the expense of 
installing hot-water boilers, tanks, piping and bath with 
taps, etc., is $50 per house. 

To the right of the Bourneville cottage the Fireproof 
Partition and Spandrel Wall Company has erected a two- 
floor cottage, costing $1,280, about 10^4 cents the cubic 
foot, including drainage and fencing. Brick-on-edge, re- 
inforced with iron and built in cement-mortar, is used for 
the walls. This construction is thought to be as strong 
as ordinary 9-inch walls and self-supporting, foundations 
being required under stanchions only. Protection against 
damp is obtained by the rough-cast outside, hollow space 
inside and roofing felt, etc. 

The precise value of this Letchwork exhibition of 
model cottages is difficult to estimate. Not only will it 
supply architects with much data for the construction of 
the cheap house, but it stands as a practical example of 
what can be done for little money, a service to manufac- 
turers interested in the housing of their employees, as 
well as to would-be householders of slender means. But 
the desire of its promoters to obtain a type of cottage to 



210 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 




A ..itOUP OF CHEAP COTTAGES EXHIBITED IN" COMPETITION AT LETCHWOKTH, ENGLAND. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



1 1 



cost $750 inclusive, suitable for the agricultural laborer, 
has not been fulfilled. Little dependence can be placed 
on these extremely low estimates of cost. By the condi- 
tions of the competition architects' fees and builders' 
profits, aggregating, perhaps, 15 per cent of the client's 
outlay, are eliminated. But many competitors seem also 
to have omitted from their estimates the cost of trans- 
porting materials as well as the expense of the many 
small fixtures that make a house livable. And so when 
the householder comes to duplicate, in the ordinary course 
of trade, one of these Letchworth cottages, he must add 
from 15 to 25 percent of the estimated cost. 

Not only are these estimates of cost most unsatisfac- 
tory, but in many instances the designs show a failure to 
study the function of rooms and the utility of space, valu- 
able room being taken up with passages, large landings 




DETAIL BY FISHER & LAWRIE, ARCHITECTS. 
Northwestern Terra Cotta Co., Makers. 

and nooks, while the relative positions of beds, windows, 
etc., have not been kept in mind. 

Nevertheless, so unique an exhibit will be of great 
value to those interested by necessity or choice in the 
" simple life." 

THE last Brickbuilder competition calling for de- 
signs for a fireproof house constructed entirely of 
terra cotta fireproof material has aroused a good deal of 
interest among our subscribers, as a result of which we 
have received many inquiries from various parts of the 
country. The competition has started thought along new 
constructive lines, and some interesting results are pretty 
sure to follow. The ordinary form of terra cotta building 
block can be adapted for several varieties of construction. 
These blocks are made four, eight and twelve inches thick, 
and so afford an opportunity for varying thicknesses of 
wall and varying bonds, incidentally allowing of con- 
siderable variety in the exterior treatment. The texture 




detail by fuller & pitcher, architects. 
Excelsior Terra Cotta Co., Makers. 

of these blocks is almost invariably pleasing, and by a 
little selection several varying shades can be obtained in 
the market, so that the possibilities of color treatment 
are quite large; and when the material is treated with a 
soft glaze, which increases its cost but slightly, the scope 
of color treatment is considerably enlarged. Also, a wall 
constructed of such blocks affords the very best founda- 
tion for a treatment of rough-cast plaster or even a facing 



of brick, and 
the hollow 
spaces in the 
blocks insure 
both warmth 
and dryness in 
winter and a 
c e r t a i n 
amount of pro- 
tection against 
heat in sum- 
mer. The ma- 
terial itself is 
practically in- 
destructible 
and impervi- 
ous to even the 
most excessive 
conflagrations, 
and its use 

offers large opportunities for artistic treatment. We 
shall be glad at all times to show in The Brickbuilder 
the results which architects are able to obtain by the em- 
ployment of this material. We hope the time is at hand 
when wood as a building material for external use will 
largely cease to be employed. Its place must be taken by 
some material which is durable, comparatively inexpen- 
sive and of practical as well as artistic value. It is our in- 
tention to make a thorough investigation of the different 
methods in which terra cotta blocks can be used, obtaining 
comparative costs of other materials, and embodying the 




DETAIL BY WIDMANN, WALSH * BOISSELIER, 
ARCHITECTS. 

Winkle Terra Cotta Co., Makers. 




DETAIL BY NEW JERSEY TERRA COTTA CO. 

results in a series of articles which will appear during 1906. 
Constructive terra cotta is undoubtedly destined to be the 
material which will give the best results in all respects 
when wood has become so scarce as to be prohibitory. 



CONCRETE BLOCKS. 

WE have seen in the market within a short time 
several samples of a composition which is sold as 
imitation sandstone. It is made of sand and cement in 
proportions varying from one to three to one to five, 
mixed with a very slight amount of water and tamped 
very strongly into wooden or plaster moulds, the blocks 
being removed from the moulds almost as soon as the 
mixture is tamped in place and allowed to set with an 
occasional sprinkling of water. These blocks present a 
very creditable surface and one which closely resembles 
some grades of sandstone. Unfortunately they resemble 
sandstone in more respects than mere appearance. We 
have yet to see offered in the market a natural sandstone 
which could be called in any sense a first-class building 
material. With the exception of one or two quarries 
which have been opened up in Colorado, all of the sand- 
stones on the market are loosely co'mpacted masses of 



2 12 



THE BRICKBUILDER, 




fires as well as by careful laboratory tests. The fact that 
in some buildings which have been destroyed by fire the 
concrete flooring has not absolutely disappeared simply 
shows that in that particular case not a great deal of heat 
was manifested. Concrete has its excellent uses; for 
some purposes it is unsurpassed, but surely for fireproof- 
ing it is more than a doubtful experiment. 



BUYING HOOKS. 



A' 



A MANUFACTURING 
LAID UP IN 



BIGELOW SCHOOL, SOUTH BOSTON, MASS. 

A. J. Batetnan, Architect. 
Built of Gray Kittanning Brick. 

Fiske & Co . New England Agents. 

sand with a very slight siliceous binder, and consequently 
with a very high absorptive rate. Such stone will cut 
beautifully, will present a uniform texture and lends 
itself to all kinds of tooled surfaces, but it simply will not 
stand when subjected to 
sharp alternations of freezing 
and thawing. If this is true 
of sandstone, the fatal defect 
is even more pronounced in 
the so-called cement blocks to 
which wc have alluded. If 
the cement and sand are 
mixed with what is a proper 
amount of water at the start 
a block can be obtained which 
is fairly dense and is less 
likely to be attacked by frost, 

but it is impossible to economically secure in such a 
composition a sandstone effect. Sidewalk builders learned 
long ago that the only form of cement or concrete which 
would stand the weather was one in which there was but 
a slight admixture of sand, the surface itself being almost 
pure cement; and whoever uses the so-called imitation 
sandstone with the idea that it will stand our weather is 
sure to pay pretty high for his experience in the long run. 
When it comes to a question of standing fire, these 
manufactured blocks are only a trifle better than the 
building blocks made of plaster of Paris. They will 
withstand a moderate heat, so will wood blocks for that 
matter; but no compound with cement as a binder can be 
depended upon to resist any great amount of heat. If 
the aggregate is composed of well burned cinders it will 
resist a lengthy exposure to a low temperature without 
cracking, though the surface will be very speedily disinte- 
grated and fall apart. If, on the other hand, the mixture 
is what is known as stone concrete, a slight amount of 
excessive heat will crack it all to pieces; and after being 
exposed to heat, even though the material shows no 
immediate signs of disintegration, some unknown process 
goes on within the block as a result of which ultimately 
it will be cracked and checked through from end to end. 
This has been demonstrated beyond question by repeated 




RCHITECTURAL books are always expensive be- 
cause the market is necessarily quite restricted. 
The cost of production is large, and the number of those 
who would care to produce such work and who have the 
requisite equipment is quite small. Consequently the 
cost of even a modest architectural library is quite 
excessive. No matter how strenuously one may de- 
sire progress before precedent or originality before the 
academy, the fact remains that architecture is essentially 
one of the retrospective arts, that to be alive and in the 
procession one must keep up with what other architects 
are doing in the great cities, and all this means a con- 
stantly growing library and increased expense. It also 
means, however, growth and strength, and the ability of 
an architect, certainly as far as relates to his intentions, 

is, after all, measured quite 
accurately by the extent of 
his architectural library. 



BUILDING OPER- 
ATIONS FOR AUGUST. 
Mil-- building operations 



Til 
ii 



BUILDING FOB HEAVY MACHINERY 
STAR BRAND AKRON CEMENT. 



the country, as shown by re- 
ports to the American Con- 
tractor, New York, covering 
the building permits issued 
during August as compared 
with the corresponding month of last year, fairly surpass 
the expectations raised by the remarkable record of July. 
In the aggregate the building operations of this country 
are now more extensive than at any previous time in its 
history. Almost universally there has been a gain over 
last year, and in many instances this is simply astonishing. 



II 





1 


JiL 


1 



it 



IOWA APARTMENTS, GRAND RAPIDS, MICH. 
A. W. Rush & Son. Architects. 
Brick furnished by Columbus Brick and Terra Cotta Co. 
F. H. McDonald, Agent. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



213 




COLUMN AND CAP FOR PERGOLA. 

H. E. Reeve, Architect. 
Brick, Terra Cotta and Tile Co., Makers. 



The permits issued in 
Greater New York 
amounted to $25,296,- 
674, being almost ex- 
actly double those of 
August, 1904. In Man- 
hattan the gain was 
134 per cent ; in Brook- 
lyn, 26 per cent; and 
in the Bronx, 258 per 
cent. Operations in 
Chicago are second 
only to those of the 
metropolis, amounting 
to $6,401, 150, a gain of 
80 per cent. Philadel- 
phia follows Chicago 
with permits amount- 
ing to $2,876, 200. St. 
Louis reports $1,855,980, a gain of 25 per cent. This is 
especially gratifying, showing as it does that the large 
building operations there during the past two years were 
not carried on at the expense of the future, as was freely 
predicted. That the building prosperity is as wide as the 
country is shown from the following list of permits, with 
the percentage of gain: Buffalo, 
$885,055, 44; Dallas, $274,825,77; 
Denver, $490,350,25; Detroit, 
1945,000,30; Duluth, $192,449, 79; 
Harrisburg, Pa., $406, 525, 250; Hart- 
ford, $343,810, 223; Indianapolis, 
$742,849, 131; Louisville, $863,373,- 
197; New Orleans, $1,013,906, 250; 
Newark, N. J., $759,749, 57; Scran- 
ton, Pa., $286,401, 14; Salt Lake 
City, $281,934, 72; Winnipeg, Man., 
$1,224,500, 28. In view of the fact 
that the yellow fever has been raging 
in New Orleans, the showing made by that city is very 
remarkable. The losses are comparatively small and, in 
almost all instances, seem chargeable to local conditions. 
Baltimore is the only large city which shows a loss, 
amounting to only 14 per cent, and due to the rebuilding 
operations of last season. 




DETAIL BY GEORGE 
ARCHITECT. 

St. Louis Terra Cotta Co. 



MANN, 



Makers. 




DETAIL BY NEW YORK ARCH II ECTURAL 
TERRA COTTA CO. 



greatly enlarged the 
capacity for steel 
production. 

IN GENERAL. 
Otto H. Lang, 
formerly architect 
and structural en- 
gineer of the Texas 
and Pacific Railway, 
and Frank O. Witch- 
ell, formerly of 
Sanguinet & Staats, 
architects, have 
formed a copartner- 
ship for the practice 
of architecture un- 
der the firm name 
of Lang & Witchell. Offices, Wilson Building, Dallas, 
Texas. Manufacturers' catalogues and samples desired. 

The Hydraulic Press Brick Company of St. Louis will 
supply the gray brick to be used in the new Baptist Sani- 
tarium at Dallas, Texas, and the mottled old gold brick 
for the new courthouse at Tuskegee, Ala. Both of these 
buildings will require large quanti- 
ties of brick. 

F. H. Chapin, formerly represent- 
ative of the Hydraulic-Press Brick 
Company at Minneapolis, Minn., has 
been elected assistant secretary and 
sales manager of the company. 

Bennett's roofing tiles will be used 
on the New National Park Seminary 
at Forrest Glen, Md. ; water tower 
at Roland Park, Md. ; telephone 
station, Navy Yard, Washington, 



' 



THE STEEL MARKET. 

THE steel production in this country is considered a 
pretty good index of national prosperity. Never be- 
fore in the history of the 
Monongahela valley have 
there been so many mills, fur- 
naces and shops under pro- 
cess of construction. Twenty- 
five million dollars is being 
expended in plants in that 
district. Nor is this entirely 
the work of the United States 
Steel Corporation. That 
world-famous combine has 
not seemed to materially 
alter the number of indepen- 
dent plants in operation, but 
rather to have increased the 
number of mills and to have 






"£k_ 




DETAIL BY S. S. GODLEY, ARCHITECT. 
Indianapolis Terra Cotta Co., Makers. 



and a new house at Spring Lake, N. J. 



The Celadon Roofing Tile Company has purchased the 
plant of the Imperial Clay Company of Cleveland, Ohio, 
whose factory is located at New Lexington, Ohio. The 
necessity of this move was owing to their inability to 
take care of a rapidly growing business with the pres- 
ent capacity of the Alfred plant, and the imperative de- 
mand for an immediate increased output. By acquiring 
the New Lexington plant they have trebled their capacity 

and secured a product the 
character of which is exactly 
similar to their own In ad- 
dition to the roofing tile, the 
New Lexington plant will 
continue the manufacture of 
its high-grade face brick. 
The names of the officers of 
the company guarantee that 
the business will be con- 
ducted along straightforward 
and progressive lines. They 
are: Win. R. Clarke, Presi- 
dent; Wm. R. Worley, Vice- 
President a.nd General Man- 
ager; A. W. Brown, Treas- 



' - 



214 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



urer;A. B. Clarke, Secretary. 
The sales office for roofing 
tile will be at 156 Fifth Ave- 
nue, New York City. The 
sales office for brick, as well 
as the operating and financial 
conduct of the business, at 
716 Cuyahoga Building, 
Cleveland, Ohio. Branch 
sales offices at 723 Bessemer 
Building, Pittsburg, Pa., and 
looi Marquette Building, Chicago, 111. 




DETAIL BY A. A. 

Colliding- Armstrong 



RITCHEK, ARCHITECT. 
Terra Cotta Co., Makers. 



AN INTERESTING NEW HOTEL AT ATLANTIC 
CI TV. PRICE & McLANAHAN, ARCHITECTS. 

ATLANTIC CITY has never been famous as a place 
where fire would have trouble in gaining quick and 
disastrous headway. As a result of the lessons taught by 
the big blaze of three years ago, however, a building is now 
going up there which will be not only absolutely fireproof, 
but which embodies manynovel structural features. This 
is to immediately adjoin the present Marlborough Hotel 
on the Board-walk. 



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HOUSE AT ST. LOUIS, MO. 

Roofed with American S Tile. 
Cincinnati Roofing Tile and Terra Cotta Co., Makers. 

The new building, which is being put up by the 
National Fireproofing Company, will make a new record 
for quick construction. On June 17 the big block of 
ground on which this building is being reared was abso- 
lutely vacant. On November 1 the completed structure, 
containing two hundred and fifty rooms, and rising to a 
height of six floors throughout and to nine floors in a 
central dome, will be turned over to its owners ready for 
decoration and furnishing. Completely equipped, the 
hotel will open its doors on February 1. 

Stretching 425 feet back of the Board-walk, this new 
building varies from 50 to 125 feet in width at different 
points. One of its features will be a great sun parlor ex- 
tending around the front part of the building on the 
second floor. This sun parlor will have an outlook up 
and down the Board-walk. It will be 25 feet wide and 
will contain six fireplaces of unique design, thus making 
the parlor particularly attractive in winter. There will 
also be a sun parlor stretching entirely along one side of 
the building. In fact, the entire second floor will be en- 
closed only with glass on one side. 



The structural part of the 
building is composed largely 
of hollow tile reinforced by 
a special steel bar. There 
are no large steel girders or 
beams in the structure. The 
outer walls are to be of hol- 
low tile with pebble- dashed 
exterior finish. The use of 
hollow-tile building blocks 
and fireproofing in this whole- 
distinct departure in building 



sale manner marks a 
methods. 

Another noteworthy feature of this hotel will be the 
fact that every room will have a bath and a bay window. 
The hotel structure rests on thirteen hundred piles which 
were driven into the sand to a depth of 20 feet, consid- 
erably below the water line, by jettying; that is to say, 
holes were bored for the piles by powerful streams of 
water. No excavating had to be done at all. Engineers 
say, however, that the bath of salt water which the wood 
piles obtained in this jettying process will make them 
virtually everlasting when strongly surrounded by the 
abutting sand below the level of low water. 



NEW Book. 



Cements, Limes and Plasters, Their Materials, Manu- 
facture and Properties. By Edwin C. Eckel, C. E., 
Assistant Geologist, U. S. Geological Survey. 8vo, 
xxxiv . 710 pages, 165 figures, 254 tables. Cloth, 
sn.00 net. New York: John Wiley & Sons. 
For the convenience of those who wish to make further 
studies of such subjects, very complete reference lists 
have been placed in almost every chapter of this volume. 
These lists necessarily contain the names of some papers 
and articles published in European periodicals or trans- 
actions, but most of the titles cited will be found to 
be from readily accessible American journals. Stress has 
been laid, in the discussion of manufacturing methods, 
on the general chemical and physical principles which 
underlie these methods rather on the details, which differ 
at every plant and may change with every year. 

WANTED — To handle account of some good corporation doing 
business with architects, engineers and contractors, on either a sal- 
ary or commission basis. Extensive acquaintance west of Missouri 
River, including California and the Northwest. Present location 
Denver. Col. Best of references. Correspondence solicited. Ad- 
dress " Salesman," care of " The Brickbuilder." 



THE 



SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE 

University of Pennsylvania. 



THE FOUR YEAR COURSE offers full professional training, with an 
option in Architectural Engineering, leading to the degree of B. S. in Architecture. 

THE GRADUATE YEAR affords opportunity for advanced work in design 
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offers advanced technical training, yielding a Certificate of Proficiency. 

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DR. J. H. PENNIMAN, 





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OCTOBER 1905 t 



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ECCLESIASTICAL ARCHITECTURE. 

IN the discussion as to the influence upon church archi- 
tecture of the somewhat novel conditions of modern 
times there is naturally great variety of opinion caused 
by an equal variety of individual or of denominational 
sentiment. The stronger the tradition of the ritual and 
the more established the forms of worship, the more 
nearly will the architecture resemble precedent and be 
imitative of tradition both in the plan and in the expres- 
sion of the exterior. Association with the past is not 
merely confined to religious observance and to heredity 
of belief and of aspiration, but must of necessity appear 
in the material expression of the spiritual desire. And 
as naturally as a plant grows does the Church express 
itself to-day through the same fundamental means that 
it has in the past. Dignity of form and space, amplitude 
of protection, beauty inherent to the highest imaginative 
conceptions belong preeminently to the Church, and it 
matters little whether the style be Classic or Gothic if 
it has these elements of nobility. Propinquity alone 
causes local change of expression. It was inevitable that 
the Church in Italy should be affected by the power of 
Classic art, as it was equally inevitable that in lands 
without a Classic environment the art of the Gothic 
should develop from structural factors alone. But in 
every case where buildings have worthily enshrined reli- 
gion the noblest and simplest of construction has alone 
seemed adequate and permanent, and mere utility has 
been manifestly inexpressive of the desire of man to wor- 
ship. This is equally true of all religions, Pagan, Bud- 
dhist, Mohammedan and Christian. The temple did not 
live by the mere bread of utilitarian structure alone, 
but that structure was ennobled in form, in material and 
in detail. 



Corresponding conditions create corresponding ex- 
pression, at least in all essentials, and religions, which 
are based upon the noblest aspirations of man, long ago 
discovered the material means of expressing man's aspi- 
rations, and will scarcely depart from them. 

Unfortunately a very large percentage of ecclesias- 
tical buildings in America have been designed by men 
who no more deserved the name of architects than they 
did of archangels, men who are known by their work, 
which is crude, malproportioned, without evidence of 
knowledge of the rudimentary forms of either construc- 
tion or of ornament. There is a sincere and undoubtedly 
just complaint made that many of these men have not 
even business probity. In architecture as in no other 
profession does the malpractitioner injure the good 
name of the profession. In law and in medicine, in 
music and in literature, and in painting and sculpture 
the work of the incompetent and of the unprincipled 
passes and leaves but little mark. Dead men tell no 
tales, but a building erected by an architect stands for 
years, conspicuous, seen perforce of its existence, either 
a thing of beauty, of delight, glorified by dawn and by 
the blaze of noonday, or ugly, sordid, mean, flaunting 
its poverty of thought; or, worse still, monstrous, an 
oppression, a permanent disgrace. 

The amount necessary to its erection only aggravates 
the enormity of its offence. It has been asked why the 
architects themselves do not attempt to protect the 
clients from the charlatans of their profession. They 
do. The American Institute of Architects is established 
for that purpose. It requires that its members shall 
either have graduated from an accredited school of 
architecture, or that they shall pass an examination 
which is sufficient to prove their capacity, that they 
shall not be associated in any way with manufacture of 
materials or objects which are used in buildings or in 
the buying or selling of the same, and naturally that 
their fees from their clients shall be their only emolu- 
ments from the practice of their profession. 

There is a need of better church architecture 
throughout the country, and the lack of it at present is 
certainly not due to the lack of men of talent, for there 
are ecclesiastical buildings occasionally erected which 
give evidence of the skill and ability of the architects. 
The difficulty must therefore lie in the judicious choice 
of the architects by the clergy; and it is through the 
application by the clergy of a similar discrimination to 
that which they exercise upon other problems, that the 
best men in the architectural profession may be em- 
ployed to erect churches which shall be worthy to 
enshrine religious observances. 



216 



THE BRICKBU ILDER. 



Ecclesiastical Architecture. 

THE CATHOLIC CHURCH. 
PAPER II. 

BY REV. JAMES J. FLOOD. 

IN this discussion of ways and means the main point 
seems to be concerned with the style of church which 
the taste and the necessities of the average congregation 
will demand in the new era that has just opened. One 
may theorize to any extent on the question, but the prac- 
tical thing is to examine with care what the clergy and 
the people and the architects have been doing in the past, 
and then to discover what- new ideals have entered into 
their lives, and finally to study the new conditions in 
which all find themselves at the commencement of the 
twentieth century. It is upon these lines that I shall 
endeavor to contribute something worth while to the 
discussion. It is a good thing that the subject of church 
building should be taken up in this fashion, for we all 
need to know more about it than we do, both on the prac- 
tical and the theoretical side. The architect needs to 
know the ideals and needs and wishes of his patrons, and 
the clergy should know enough of architects to be able 
to pick out one with conscience and real skill as well as 
reputation. So far as I have observed the architect with 
a reputation, not for science or success, but for audacious 
push, has almost monopolized ecclesiastical architecUire ; 
and when his deficiencies were discovered some obscure 
incompetent with the same amount of brass in his make- 
up took his place. The exceptions to this general state- 
ment are quite numerous, and as it is only a matter of 
my experience it need not be taken too seriously. 

The first thing to consider, in the effort to throw some 
light on the future, is the work that has been done in 
church building for the past fifty years. The earliest 
effort of course was to find space for the people to as- 
semble for worship, and the churches of the first days 
were mostly remarkable for that qualification. We may 
pass them by. They did what was required of them, and 
many of them exist yet, pleasant memorials of the beau- 
tiful faith of the past. When people had more money 
and more leisure they built more elaborately, and from 
the close of the Civil War until the present moment a 
large number of characteristic churches have been built 
at threat expense and with some success architecturally. 
The strongest features in their externals are the high 
walls and the steeples. There is not much variety in the 
style of the first twenty years, which is regularly some 
modification of Gothic. More variety and freedom ap- 
pear later on. The best churches were built of stone, 
the second best of brick, and all the rest of wood ; but their 
common feature was the lofty wall and the steeple or 
tower. The conclusion is irresistible that the common 
idea of the church was then connected with the idea of 
mass. This statement is borne out by an examination of 
the more expensive churches. The more money the priest 
and people had the more solid material they put into 
their buildings, without regard to the particular need for 
a great quantity. I have seen churches with towers con- 
taining enough brick to build a respectable church for 
the congregation, and with enough unnecessary brick in 
the walls to build a second church. 



It may therefore be taken for granted that the churches 
of the future will be built generally in a similar fashion, 
with such modifications as the new circumstances require ; 
and that the Gothic, the Romanesque and even the Byz- 
antine will be the prevailing styles, because of their 
adaptability in carrying out the idea of massiveness. In 
London they are just bringing to completion the new 
Westminster cathedral, a remarkable and handsome build- 
ing of the Byzantine style ; and this adoption of the 
Eastern style will be sure to have a wide and overwhelm- 
ing inlluence upon the clergy and the people all over the 
world. Moreover, the Catholic priests and people of 
America are doing more traveling in Europe than ever 
before, and are bringing back ideas and some ideals from 
Luropeand the East. Some results of this are seen in 
the building of a cathedral in Montreal on the model of 
St. Peter's in Rome ; of churches in various towns on the 
model of the church at Lourdes; together with many imi- 
tations of the better known shrines of Europe. Even the 
poorest Catholic churches make the attempt to reach the 
massive, and to secure high walls and a tower. The low- 
walled churches are very few indeed, and there is no 
reason to expect that they will ever be as popular with 
Catholics as they have deservedly been with the Protes- 
tants. I may conclude this part of my article with the 
remark that in the future, as in the past, Catholic churches 
will be massive, and will adopt that style of architecture 
which handles the massive with ease and distinction. 
And of course decoration will be on the same scale, in the 
shape of rich colors and large windows in the Munich 
and perhaps the English coloring. 

The conditions of church building are very much 
changed however, and the social and financial conditions, 
not to say the intellectual, of Catholics have improved. 
It will be necessary therefore to glance at these changed 
conditions in order to understand how they will modify 
the last statement in the paragraph above. The general 
improvement in the Catholic body, more money, more 
leisure, more culture, means that there will be consider- 
able variety, far more elegance, and better taste shown 
in the churches. This statement will find illustration at 
any moment in the churches which have just been com- 
pleted all over the land. There is no need to dwell upon 
this point further. The other conditions to which I have 
alluded may be looked upon as limiting the situation. 
First of all we have the changed conditions of life in the 
city and the country. Neither is what it was thirty years 
ago. Then the people lived over a broader area, scattered 
through villages, towns and small cities, each of which 
had a lively, independent life of its own; and the few 
great cities were only country cities of larger growth, 
where air space and land space were plentiful, and prices 
were fairly reasonable. As we know, all that has been 
changed, for the worse perhaps, and the changes are 
still going on. The population is being centralized. The 
great cities draw all things to themselves, prices are 
high, land is impossibly dear, air space is dear, and land 
space has disappeared. What remains in the country 
passes through a similar process. One town absorbs all 
its neighbors by securing their trade. It would seem 
that the smaller towns and villages must die out. They 
have already lost their business, the trolley having 
carried it to the greater town. 



THE BRICKBU I LDER. 



2 17 



The consequences in such a city as New York, which 
is of course a case by itself, are very marked. In the 
first place land is so high in price, and so difficult to 
secure in the needed situations, that the first debt in- 
curred in the erection of a church terrifies the priest and 
his congregation. The limits of a parish are fixed, and 
the church must be convenient to the boundaries. The 
space from which the ground is to be selected is there- 
fore rather limited. The corners of streets are the desir- 
able places for churches, but the prices or some other 
obstacle force the selection of a site in the middle of the 
block. The lot on which the church is to be built is rarely 
more than one hundred feet in width. On either side 
the walls of rectory and school close in upon the church 
structure ; or, as is sometimes the case, the walls of secu- 
lar buildings, the rectory and school happening to be on 
the next street. The architectural opportunity is thus 
destroyed, because to such a church there can be nothing 
but the facade and interior. It would be manifestly ridic- 
ulous to erect in such a place a Gothic, Romanesque or 
Byzantine monument, although in a few cases the thing 
has been done. It is in a problem of this kind that both 
priest and architect forget the rules of art and common 
sense sometimes. What is needed in a church so situated 
is simply the fine facade and beautiful interior, planned 
according to the requirements. Towers and steeples are 
unnecessary expense, and add nothing to the general 
effect because they cannot be seen. Even where the 
church stands on a corner or fronting a public square the 
conditions will not permit of the ordinary style of church. 
A good illustration is afforded in the fate that overtook 
the pretty church in which Rev. Mr. Parkhurst officiates 
on Madison Square in New York City. It is a simple 
Gothic edifice with a graceful tower and spire. Some 
one built a sky-scraper beside it and made it look like a 
child's toy from any point of view. As lofty buildings 
are certain to be the rule in all the populous cities of this 
century, one may see that nothing less than an entire 
block would suffice in order to secure for a handsome 
church the proper perspective. Closed in on all sides 
and dominated by the taller buildings, the ordinary 
church of the past is lost to sight. This fact has so im- 
pressed some architects that they are suggesting the use 
of the upper stories in the sky-scrapers for church pur- 
poses, closing the great building with a regularly formed 
church, to which elevators will carry the congregation. 
There is nothing absurd in this suggestion. 

The point I wish to make is this: with the weight of 
population in the great cities and large towns, and the 
consequent change in conditions, the architect must sug- 
gest church buildings suited to the new circumstances. 
I have not stated all the conditions, because it would not 
be possible within the limits of this article. Let me 
mention the more obvious. The population of a city 
parish is usually large. While New York is always to 
be considered exceptional, yet if we take its conditions 
for a working example a fair idea can be got of what 
will be the rule in all large towns. There are from five 
to seven public services held in our city churches every 
Sunday morning, and at each Mass the church is crowded 
or comfortably full. Within the space of an hour the 
congregation must enter the church, be seated, go through 
the services and leave the church to make way for the 



next gathering. From a quarter to six until nearly one 
o'clock, therefore, the church is in active service. Dur- 
ing the Mass great numbers of people go to Holy Com- 
munion. From the altar or the pulpit the priest makes 
the parish announcements, reads a portion of the Gospel 
and preaches a very short sermon. From these details 
the trained and experienced architect will draw his 
conclusions rapidly. First of all the means of entrance 
and exit must be commodious and speedy ; therefore 
wide doors and capacious vestibule and aisles. The 
people go to communion by hundreds; therefore easy 
approach to the sanctuary rail and easy use of the space 
before the sanctuary. The parish announcements and 
the sermon must be heard; therefore good acoustics and 
proper place for the pulpit, or elevation for the altar 
platform. From three to ten thousand people attend 
during the entire morning; therefore light and ventila- 
tion of the greatest efficiency. There are innumerable 
difficulties connected with all these points, and some of 
them are too easily overlooked. 

It is easy to see how large must be the modification 
in the general idea mentioned in the first part of this 
article, that of the massive. As far as the exterior of 
the city church is concerned the idea of the massive alto- 
gether disappears. Its place, however, will be taken 
by large outlines in the facade and a lofty interior, for 
the church builders are certain to spend on an imposing 
facade and beautiful decoration what may be saved by 
dispensing with domes and towers. In the country dis- 
tricts the general ideas will prevail, modified by the lack 
of means, when the greater part of the population is in 
the towns. The next question which offers itself to the 
architect in this matter of modification is the offence 
likely to be given to tradition by a radical departure 
from the old fashions. I think there should not be any 
breaking with the ancient standards, and there will not 
be, for the reason that the change will never be popular. 
Modification to suit new circumstances need not be 
destruction. I read somewhere lately from an experi- 
enced architect a plea for the new architecture suited to 
the new conditions which have been described above. 
He advocated radical changes in the direction of the new 
needs, such as would produce a new form of church 
architecture. In my opinion he is making a mistake as 
far as Catholics are concerned. 

With Catholics the traditional, both in doctrine and 
in rubrics, has a sanctity beyond the comprehension of 
their Protestant brethren. It is instinctive as well as 
formal. Even where we lay an old custom aside for a 
new and better one, this is done with regret and with 
tender remembrance; and if possible the old custom is 
worked into or in with the new. Thus in the use of 
lights, the invention of the incandescent light, while sanc- 
tioned for illuminating purposes and for ornament, by 
the authorities, has not been allowed to usurp the beauti- 
ful wax candle of the rubrics, though its flame be so 
much more brilliant and useful. In the same way the 
cruciform church, while a purely conventional idea, ap- 
peals so strongly to the Catholic feeling, seems so fitting 
in a temple erected to Christ, that it must find a place 
among buildings to the end of time;_and even where the 
exterior will be simple oblong the interior will often take 
that loved resemblance to the cross, as may be seen in 



si8 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



many churches. These examples will serve to warn the 
architect against too hasty and radical departure from 
tradition. In fact that architect will be most successful 
who can do what has been done from the beginning, 
blend the past with the present. A good example of 
this blending seems to be the new London cathedral, in 
which a clever architect has boldly transferred to London 
the Byzantine church of Sancta Sophia in Constantinople, 
with modifications to suit the new country and a different 
people. 

Taking the strength of tradition amongst us, and 
reading in the church buildings of the past the direction 
of ecclesiastical and popular taste, it will not be difficult 
to forecast the general style of church that will be built 
during this century. In the country and the city the 
Catholic church will still bear a proper kinship with the 
traditional forms, with the idea of the massive fully sug- 
gested as far as circumstances will permit ; in the country 
traditionalism will be stronger than in the city, because 
the space demanded by the noble lines of traditional archi- 
tecture is plentiful ; in the city the shifts, to which lack 
of space will reduce church builders, will always have 
the traditional in view. The exterior ornamentation 
will disappear from city churches except in the fagade, 
and therefore the interior will be more highly orna- 
mented than common. More and more will side windows 
tend to disappear and the lighting come from above, with 
better results in many ways. 

However, it must not be inferred from this devotion 
to tradition that there need be and will be no varying of 
forms and no innovations. If, as some believe, we are to 
have before long a new and more beautiful architecture, 
growing out of the old, there must be a break from tra- 
dition at some point, and it might as well come now as 
later, if we are prepared for it. The church building 
needs only to have the dignity of God's temple about it, 
the mystic shadows of the eternal life suggested in it, to 
be worthy of the name, no matter what the form. Cer- 
tainly this dignity is not imprisoned in the Gothic, the 
Romanesque, or any other consecrated form, so as to 
exclude the forms that are yet to come from the fertile 
minds of devoted architects. There is no reason why 
the styles of architecture called of the French or Italian 
Renaissance should not be impressed into the service of 
the church, if architects find them reverent in expression 
and suitable for church purposes. 

There will be no opposition on the part of the clergy 
or the people to prudent innovation. Pillars may be 
done away with for the sake of a clear view of the sanc- 
tuary ; it is not necessary to hold to the ancient form of 
pew, which itself is an innovation ; almost anything may 
be done in the way of change that will leave intact the 
main features of the church, namely, its sanctuary, nave 
and vestibule. The cry made about pillars obstructing 
the view is of little importance, except with regard to 
such churches as the Montreal cathedral; for as a rule 
the pillars are too few and too small to obstruct the view 
for more than fifty persons in a crowded congregation. 
The use of iron frames will do away with pillars, and 
many churches have already taken advantage of the iron 
and steel supports to get rid of them. 

In concluding this rather imperfect view of an impor- 
tant matter I may say that the conscientious architect is 



the man who will have nearly all to say in the coming 
century as to the form and character of the new churches 
that Catholics will build. Even where he may not make 
the choice of style and material, it will be his opportunity 
to adapt the chosen style to present needs and conditions. 
It is easy to see how much direct influence he will have 
at important moments. He may dissuade or persuade for 
the better. The clergy do not wish to make blunders of 
any kind in building a church and will pay to avoid 
them, but they must often be shown the precise character 
of the blunder which they are making before they can be 
persuaded to adopt the right method. The competent 
and honest architects ought to be numerous by this time 
and able to handle church problems skillfully. It would 
seem that they have yet to acquaint themselves with the 
peculiar conditions of the Catholic body in order to render 
that body effective service. If I have done any service 
to that end in this paper I shall be pleased. There can 
be no doubt that the field is large, profitable for the most 
part and artistically satisfactory to competent architects. 
The drawbacks are indeed numerous, but not more so 
than with the various Christian bodies in this country. 
Catholics spend a great deal of money on their ecclesias- 
tical buildings and are fond of artistic effects in style and 
decoration. I hiring the next generation they will be verv 
active in this department, and ambitious architects of the 
right caliber may reach present fortune and enduring 
fame by working earnestly and conscientiously in the 
Catholic field. 



THE CATHOLIC CHURCH. 
PAPER III. 

BY REV. M. J. LAVELLE. 

THERE are of course many and most interesting 
questions connected with the building of churches, 
but the two which strike me most forcibly as worthy of 
discussion in the present symposium are the questions 
of expense and of style. With regard to the expense of 
building, its importance cannot be gainsaid, since one 
cannot travel farther than his money and his strength 
may carry him. The hardest limitation that the con- 
scientious priest and his architect will meet with is that 
of expense. This question has a direct and intimate rela- 
tion with the question of style. These are two very prac- 
tical matters. What style of church should I build ? the 
priest asks himself ; and the next question is: what will my 
means permit me to build? In this article I shall confine 
myself, therefore, to a discussion of these two points. It 
seems to me, after an experience of over twenty years, 
that an honest and conscientious study of these two 
points, expense and style, in their mutual relation, would 
have saved much blundering in the past, as the same 
study will save floundering in the future. 

To the architect I would say over and over again, 
with all the emphasis and earnestness at my command, 
handle this question of expense with thoroughness and 
delicacy and skill. There is just one conviction among 
the clergy who have had experience and among the clergy 
who have had none, with regard to architects: that you 
cannot be too much on your guard against either the 
folly or the greed of architects. Plain talking will do no 



THE BRICKBU ILDER. 



219 



harm in this matter to any but the sinners. When the 
inexperienced priest goes into the work of building a 
church his advisers preface their advice with a warning: 
look out for your architect. Their warning is illustrated 
by the visible signs of the incompetency or the madness 
or the greed of architects. I do not discuss how well 
founded these charges may be ; I am only showing the 
actual feeling among the clergy. They are a trustful 
set of men, and like all men of that disposition they are 
likely to be preyed upon by the impostors. But they are 
rarely imposed upon twice in the same business. 

Each pastor knows in general what expense his parish 
can stand in building a church. That pastor and that 
parish are responsible for the debts contracted. The 
diocese and its bishop do not take up the responsibility, 
although they share in it to the extent of approving the 
plans of construction, and their moral force may be em- 
ployed to aid the parish in paying its debts. The business- 
like architect should make sure that the estimated expense 
is one that the parish can carry. That is the first step for 
him. It is purely a matter of business. His next business 
is to make certain that his plans will keep well within 
that estimate. It is hard to understand the mania which 
belongs to some architects of supposed reputation for 
doubling the first estimate. As a rule the builders of 
churches are liberal in their ideas and are much inclined 
to exhaust the treasury for the sake of securing a hand- 
some church. It would seem that this very willingness 
excites the cupidity of the greedy, and in the end the 
clergy are led into a very quagmire of debt. It may be a 
hard saying, yet it is undoubtedly true, that very few of 
the clergy have a good word for architects in general. 
This feeling is the natural result of years of distress, 
brought about by incompetent or venal architects. It 
now remains with the honest and competent architects, 
deeply interested as they must be in the progress of 
architecture, to remove speedily the very nasty impres- 
sion left upon the clergy ; and the very first move in 
that direction, the most profitable and thorough, will be 
in this matter of the expense. Let the estimated expense 
be rigidly adhered to from the beginning. Let there be 
perfect candor on both sides from the inception of the 
work. If a church is to cost fifty thousand dollars, 
complete, let the architect see that he makes no blunder 
in his plans which will raise the cost one dollar beyond. 
I think this can be done. There is a general feeling that 
it must be done, and that architects can be found able 
to do it. Such architects will easily command the patron- 
age of the clergy, who are more than wearied of the 
architects with personal interests in quarries and brick 
yards and terra cotta industries, with partnerships in 
building firms and acquainted with all the dishonest arts 
of taxing every industry that has to do with the building 
of churches and other ecclesiastical buildings. These 
things are known to the experienced ; in time they become 
the common property of the church builders, and the 
guilty receive their punishment in the scorn and neglect 
of their fleeced patrons. This is a subject upon which 
one cannot write too strongly and which should receive 
proper attention from architects themselves. The legal 
fraternity have adopted summary methods by which their 
unworthy members may be disciplined or actually driven 



out ; why should not architects of standing protect them- 
selves and their art from the impostors and thieves who 
ravage under the cloak of respectability? 

The second point of my discussion is concerned with 
the style of church which is to become popular in the twen- 
tieth century. There has been considerable discussion 
on this matter for many years among the clergy, and the 
virtues of the ancient forms have been highly extolled. 
Certainly nothing need be said against them, and if the 
church builders have preferences for the ancient forms 
of architectural beauty, no one will impugn their taste. 
Gothic in all varieties, the almost forgotten Greek and 
the ornate Byzantine, Romanesque, Renaissance, Mo- 
resque even, early English and late French, there is no 
reason why we should not have them all. However, 
there exists a pretty general feeling that with due re- 
spect to tradition, the new century and the new conti- 
nent and the new ideas should generate, or better 
develop, an architecture peculiar to the people and the 
times. Of course such an architecture would grow out 
of the ancient forms, and find its paternity in the glo- 
rious past. We have new conditions in America and 
new customs. For example, we want our churches well 
heated, well ventilated and well lighted ; and we want 
our people comfortably seated during divine service, and 
within sight and hearing of the preacher; and we want 
all the arts that provide these comforts and needs prop- 
erly represented in the church. The general character 
of a church should be such as suits the house of God. 
With this in view and properly expressed, there is no 
reason why churches should be of forms as various as 
ordinary buildings Naturally there will be objections 
of all kinds to more than accidental departure from the 
traditional forms ; but these objections will rarely come 
from the men who are building the churches. They 
will come from the purists and theorists, whose business 
it is to keep us well reminded of the ideals of the past. 
Their work is done when they have delivered their 
reminders and properly impressed us. The people who 
actually build always desire the handsomest building 
that their money can procure, and novelty has a charm 
for them beyond the charms of tradition. While the 
theorists are discussing past forms and variations of 
form, the builders are introducing their ideas into actual 
churches; and if we wish to see how far men are willing 
to go in order to give full and pleasing expression to 
their ideas, and to satisfy the peculiar needs of the pres- 
ent generation, we have only to make a study of the 
newest church structures. These speak more loudly and 
more emphatically to the inquiring architect than any 
number of essays. 

To my mind there will be no difficulty at all on this 
question of style, except the difficulty of moderating a 
too great willingness to adopt the strange and the novel. 
The chief difficulty will always lie in the question of 
expense, which has bred so much trouble already, and 
will continue to breed it as long as architects furnish 
their share of folly and greed to the work of church 
building. As the future offers immense opportunities to 
the architect in ecclesiastical departments, it would 
really be worth the while of the leading architects to find 
means of getting into touch with the clergy. 



220 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



THE CATHOLIC CHURCH. 
PAPER IV. 

BY REV. H. J. HEl SER. 

THE particular purpose and use of a Catholic church 
building calls for an architectural design somewhat 
different from that which directs the construction of 
an ordinary religious conventicle. The difference is 
emphasized in the monumental churches of Catholic 
countries, which have thus become the traditional 
models for the construction of Catholic churches every- 
where. 

In view of the changed methods in mechanical and 
artistic treatment and the character of the material 
used for building in modern times, the question arises 
whether, and to what extent, the architect is free to 
depart from the traditional design. The matter has, it 
appears, special bearings upon the use of columns in the 
body of the church, upon the widening of the naves, 
the construction of basements, the addition of towers 
and other features seemingly ornamental rather than 
necessary. How far may or should the architect neglect 
traditional forms in favor of advantages offered from 
the modern practical and economical viewpoint? 

The answer to this question must depend upon the 
essential purpose which a Catholic church building is to 
serve. This essential purpose is, in the first place, 
conventional, if I may use the term for want of a better 
to express the idea of its indicating the gathering of the 
faithful under one roof. It is, in the second place, litur- 
gical. 

The liturgical appointments are quite as imperative 
for a Catholic church building, designed upon deliberate 
principles, as are certain provisions for proper light and 
ventilation for a living room, and they are regulated by 
laws which cannot be ignored without ignoring the 
primary object of the church building as a house of 
worship. 

The liturgical requisites, so far as they affect con- 
struction and disposition _or arrangement of local detail, 
may be summed up briefly in the following data: 

There must be first a vestibule, the absence of which 
makes the observance of certain sacramental rubrics, 
touching baptism, the eucharist, etc., impossible; sec- 
ond, a sacristy, with adit and exit to the sanctuary ; 
third, a chancel, or sanctuary, of definite dimensions; 
fourth, a free space for the altar, with no obstruction 
below it, if the altar is to be consecrated (this com- 
monly affects the position of heaters, iron supports 
and foundation material generally at the altar end 
of the church); fifth, a bastistery, or baptistery nook; 
sixth, belfry (which suggests the tower or steeple con- 
struction); seventh, a system of aisles in the nave 
which allows for processions, free approach to and recess 
from communion rail, ready access from the nave to the 
altar at marriage rites, etc. 

These essential features being taken into considera- 
tion, Catholic architectural symbolism, interpreted to the 
faithful in the doctrines of the Church, will direct the ar- 
chitect in the further expression of the required appoint- 



ments. But these symbolic features are not so essential 
as those which I have pointed out as conditioning the ob- 
servance of the prescribed rubrics in the liturgical service. 
Thus, whilst the cruciform design and the position of the 
altar toward the east end are not only traditional, but sig- 
nificant, they might easily give way to definite claims of 
utility. In like manner we see no offence against the 
laws of liturgical construction if the architect, to accom- 
modate a congregation and to avoid the awkwardness of 
galleries hindering light and freedom, were to depart 
from the accustomed narrow nave or triple nave, and 
turn the space available into one broad area with seats, 
allowing, however, for the arrangement of aisles, as al- 
ready indicated. 

Regarding the construction of basements for uses of 
worship, there is no rule. They are not contemplated in 
the liturgy, and they open the way to numerous abuses, 
are unhealthy and lack the essential circumstance which 
inspires devotion. The basement chapel should never be 
made a permanent feature of the church where regular 
services can be held. Its use as a crypt is, of course, a 
different thing, and wholly exceptional in the modern 
church. 

One word touching the monumental character of 
Catholic church buildings in modern times. Whilst a 
close imitation of the mediaeval models is probably the 
nearest approach to the perfect symbolic expression which 
the architect should follow at all times, there is one fea- 
ture in which the monumental church buildings of to-day 
differ radically from those of the past. This difference 
arises from what I have called the "conventional " pur- 
pose of the mediaeval and the modern church respectively, 
and affects the dimensions and proportions of the build- 
ing as well as its appointments. The old churches were 
built much larger than is necessary or desirable in our 
day, because they were to be the meeting and rallying 
centers for all the great popular movements which found 
their inspiration in the religious faith of the people; and 
that faith permeated every sphere of social and political 
activity. It was in the great cathedrals that kings were 
elected and crowned ; here the universities assembled 
their ten thousand students to listen to men like Albertus 
Magnus, Thomas of Aquin, or Abelard ; here councils and 
synods were assembled, in which all the people took part. 
Hence, grandeur and beauty combined to rouse civic con- 
sciousness no less than religious fervor; nay, both were 
so closely bound together that faith freely yielded the 
divine right to civil authority. 

Our churches serve no such purpose ; they are houses 
of worship for a limited and generally well-defined con- 
gregation, and our social and civic conditions make the 
immense cathedral — except in such centers as Rome — 
wholly purposeless. The old cathedrals were intended to 
be universities of religious teaching and action; the 
modern cathedral or parish church is a conventicle for a 
congregation to be seated in defined numbers, to enter 
at definite hours, and circumscribed by the limits of 
parochial jurisdiction. 

This difference must, of course, affect the design and 
probably also the artistic and mechanical treatment of 
the material employed. Nor need this be done at any 
sacrifice of harmony or beauty. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



221 



The Work of the Boston Schoolhouse 
Commission, 1901-1905.* I. 

BY W. H. KILHAM. 

IN the year 1901, the office of city architect having 
previously been abolished, the planning and construc- 
tion of new school buildings in the city of Boston and 
the repairing and alteration of old ones, as well as the 
selection of sites for the same, were placed under the con- 
trol of a Board of three Schoolhouse Commissioners, 
appointed by the Mayor. The previous history of 
schoolhouse planning in Boston under the city archi- 
tects, several of whom had been men of high profes- 
sional standing, forms a chapter of great interest in the 
architectural history of the city. During the four years 
that have elapsed since the formation of the present 
board the story of its work and aims presents points of 
much greater importance to the profession than does the 
work of any previous period. 

Starting clearly afresh and free from any hampering 
traditions, the first work of the newly appointed Com- 
missioners was to gain from a general survey of the 
work in other cities a comprehensive idea of the progress 
that is being made in American schoolhouse planning 
and construction. From the information thus gained, 
added to the data already in their hands, the Board has 
evolved not only a general type of schoolhouse lay-out, 
but a uniform system of specifying, of construction and 
of business administration which it is thought will 
result in supplying the most approved accommodations 
at the lowest reasonable cost to the municipality. It is 
worthy of especial note that the Board is continually 
working towards an ideal and that its later buildings 
show a marked improvement over those of the first period. 

Having obtained from a general examination a clear 
idea of the latest ideas in American practice, the next 
step was to decide what should be the requirements 
of a Boston schoolhouse. This matter having been set- 
tled, the Board could begin on a systematic course of 
planning a series of buildings proper for the needs of the 
Boston public school system. 

Architecturally speaking, it is also interesting to 
observe that after the very complete survey of American 
work which was made the Board has not confined its 
architects to any definite architectural style. Although it 
found various localities adopting "Collegiate Gothic," 
and even New York building schoolhouses on models of 
Oxford colleges and Loire chateaux, it has steadily 
favored sensible and businesslike types. Its only sugges- 
tions are along the lines given below, as to materials, 
cornices, roofs, etc., which will be structurally durable and 
useful. Gables, towers and battlements are not favored. 
A stack of ventilating shafts is given a simple and digni- 
fied outline and let alone, with no attempt to give it the 
appearance of an attenuated donjon or crenelated turret. 
Unnecessary porches and projections are suppressed. 
Windows are flat-headed and kept clear of mullions and 
transoms. In general the " modern Colonial " or Geor- 
gian feeling seems to have prevailed, although there are 
a few examples which show an English influence. 

* During this peiiod R. Clipston Sturgis has been Chairman of the 
Commission. 



The first Annual Report of the Board contains an 
interesting account of its visits to leading American 
cities, together with the results of its observation. 
Between the ninth and twenty-fourth of October, 1901, 
the Commissioners visited New York, Philadelphia, 
Washington, Chicago, Toledo, St. Louis, Cleveland, 
Buffalo and Rochester, for the purpose of examining 
their school buildings. The general conclusions which 
they drew from this trip are embodied in the following 
paragraphs : 

Conclusions Drawn from Tour. — "As to school- 
house lots, it is desirable, when the value of the land 
permits, to take sufficient ground to have playgrounds 
about the building. When it is not possible to have 
ample playgrounds it is necessary to make provision for 
this in the building, either by setting aside the basement 
floor for this purpose, or by utilizing the roof as a garden, 
or by a combination of these two plans. 

"The best building material seems to be red brick. 
The buildings should be of fireproof construction, and this 
is being adopted in every city where it is felt that the 
finances will warrant it. Wooden floors in corridors are 
not desirable ; either terrazzo, cement or rock asphalt is 
preferable. The tendency is toward wider corridors. 

"The schoolrooms should have wooden floors, maple 
being in every way satisfactory. It is better to have the 
classrooms lighted from one side, although some authori- 
ties, notably those of Cleveland, do not believe in it. 
There should be separate rooms for the children's cloth- 
ing, with entrances from the classrooms rather than from 
the corridors. The schoolroom doors should contain 
plain glass panels, in order that the master, when passing 
through the building, may have a general oversight of the 
school without actually opening the doors. Painted bur- 
lap for dadoes, both in corridors and classrooms, has the 
unqualified support of the authorities in Chicago and St. 
Louis, where it is used extensively. It is found advan- 
tageous to omit all thresholds. 

" Stairways are generally built of iron with treads of 
wood, slate, marble, North River stone or asphalt. The 
two latter are preferable to the others, in our opinion. 
Teachers' retiring rooms are provided in all modern 
school buildings. Both bookcases and teachers' closets 
should be built into the rooms. 

" The sanitaries should have asphalt floors. The 
walls should be either painted or of enameled brick. 
Latrines are used very extensively outside of Boston and 
might well be used in any of the primary schools in Bos- 
ton, and possibly in some of the grammar schools. The 
tendency is to do away with high partitions and in many 
cases to omit doors. 

" The twin stairway in New York is particularly in- 
teresting and worthy of use when circumstances permit.* 
We found that Boston was doing more in the way 
of gymnasia and bath facilities than any other city 
with the possible exception of New York. Assembly halls, 
in grammar schools at least, are not a general feature in 
schoolhouse construction, but in many places a system of 
sliding partitions is employed, so that the whole or a 
greater part of a single floor can be thrown into one room. 

" The type of school furniture used in Boston, namely, 

* The Commissioners later decided that serious objections to twin 
stairways existed and have not adopted them. 



222 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



the individual desk and chair, we found nowhere else 
except in Washington. It should be said that the Boston 
type was approved by those with whom we talked, the 
claim being that it was not used on account of the 
increased expense. 

"Telephone systems connecting the master's room 
with the various rooms in the building, while adopted in 
Boston, were not found in any other city. In New York 
a system of speaking tubes is used, and even that was not 
considered absolutely necessary. The use of platforms 
in classrooms has been practically abandoned. 

" The ventilating systems are almost as various as the 
styles of schoolhouse architecture. The general tendency 
seems to be to use the blower or plenum system either 
absolutely or in connection with the gravity system. In 
many places where an elaborate fan system is in use it is 
not operated except when steam is carried in the boilers 
for heating purposes. 

" From the standpoint of economical and satisfactory 
construction it is desirable to complete schoolhouses 
under as few contracts as possible. 

" In most places the janitors are called upon to make 
all the ordinary repairs. In some places they do the 
general work of cleaning furniture. To obtain satisfac- 
tory results the janitor's services should be under the con- 
trol of those having charge of the repairs of the building. " 

What constitutes a Typical Boston Schoolhouse. 
— Before starting on the construction of a series of build- 
ings it was first of all necessary to determine just what 
would be included in a typical Boston schoolhouse. While 
no doubt the popular demand for baths, gymnasia and 
"educational centers" is a praiseworthy one, the Board 
felt that the available funds at its disposal would scarcely 
allow it to undertake work which might properly be left 
to the bath department or the park department. After 
conferring with the school committee, the general policy 
outlined in the following extracts was adopted : 

" Your committee has personally visited a number of 
schoolhouses, including those recently completed, as well 
as others of an earlier date, but comparativelymodern, and 
has also obtained the opinion of the superintendent upon 
the subject, and as a result of their investigation are of 
the opinion that a grammar schoolhouse should, in addi- 
tion to the hall, class and dressing rooms, contain a mas- 
ter's room, a teachers' room and a storeroom for books; 
by the latter is meant a room in which text-books and 
books for supplementary reading may be stored. If the 
school possesses a library it can be kept in bookcases 
placed either in the master's office, in the hall or in the 
teachers' room, or in all. Rooms for woodworking and 
cookery should be provided wherever rooms for these 
purposes do not exist in the immediate neighborhood. 
Neither a sub-master's office, nor separate reception 
rooms, nor recitation rooms, nor a drawing room, nor a 
sewing room, nor a laboratory appear to be essential. 
They are luxuries which can be dispensed with and 
which ought to be dispensed with under existing circum- 
stances. It is also believed that a gymnasium and baths 
are not necessary, except perhaps in certain of the more 
congested quarters of the city. In a primary building one 
teachers' room and a small storeroom for books are all 
that are essential in addition to the classrooms and 
dressing rooms. 



' ' This adoption of a definite policy with regard to 
schoolhouse construction would tend to produce a certain 
general uniformity and correspondence between buildings 
of the same class erected in various parts of the city, not 
necessarily in their architectural features, for here may 
well be allowed considerable latitude for the exhibition of 
taste and skill on the part of the various architects, but 
desirable from an economic standpoint. It is of course 
clear that there is a certain type of excellence in construc- 
tion and material which the city ought reasonably to con- 
form to in new buildings, far in advance of that followed 
twenty or even ten years ago; but it should not be for- 
gotten that with a fixed and limited amount available for 
additional permanent accommodations, increase in cost of 
construction involves a corresponding decrease in the 
number of pupils to be accommodated, and consequently 
no one building should be allowed materially to exceed in 
cost the standard which may be established for guidance 
to the school plant during the next few years. 

"Thus your committee believes and the Board of 
vSchoolhouse Commissioners agrees that the new school- 
houses about to be erected should be plain, substantial 
structures, built in the most substantial manner, devoid 
of unnecessary or extravagant ornamentation, but attract- 
ive and tasteful from an architectural standpoint, the 
exterior walls to be in general of plain brick with a rea- 
sonable amount of trimmings and the interior fittings 
such as will meet the requirements of durability and fit- 
ness for the several purposes for which they are intended, 
without being unnecessarily expensive." 

General Deductions. — Aside from the general re- 
quirements in regard to simplicity in the character of the 
exterior of the building, thus noted, the Commissioners 
thought at first that cornices with heavy projections and 
roofs of steep pitch are alike undesirable. It seemed to 
them that with the necessity for windows extending to 
the ceiling line, a cornice with heavy projection would 
either cast a shadow on the windows of the top story, or 
if raised sufficiently above the windows to avoid this, 
would be enclosing more space above the ceiling than is 
necessary for non-conducting purposes ; and that a pitched 
roof was undesirable unless the space in the roof can be 
utilized for an assembly hall, which in the case of primary 
buildings is not required. 

The Commissioners therefore suggest that where a flat 
roof is adopted the cornices should be simple, with slight 
projection, and the parapets of so little elevation above 
the roof as to make it not extravagant to flash them com- 
pletely with copper on the inside, and that where a 
pitched roof is used, which serves merely as a covering 
for the building, it should be of as low an angle as is 
compatible with a tight roof, and with the eaves of such 
projection and height above the windows of the upper 
story as not to interfere with their light. After one 
year's experience, however, the Board concluded that 
"in some cases it was found that this had been carried 
to an extreme and that we have been cramped for room 
to gather the vent ducts together. It would seem as if 
occasionally a roof of low pitch were really more service- 
able and nearly as economical. To keep the schools 
technically ' first class ' the pitched roof must be fireproof 
frame. With a pitch roof outside gutters point to the use 
of outside conductors instead of conductors of cast iron 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



223 



in slots inside, and in this case the board suggests gutters 
hung- free of the eaves." 

The following general conclusions were drawn as a 
guide towards a standard : 

Primary rooms should be about 24 by 32 feet to ac- 
commodate 50 desks. This, during the second year, was 
reduced to 24 by 30 feet, and for ungraded classes in the 
foreign districts, where older children are in lower grades, 
the size of desk would be increased and the number of 
them diminished. The largest primary desks are 21 
inches wide ; they are spaced with an aisle from 15 to 17 
inches and 28}^ inches apart from back to back. Grammar 
rooms are 26 by 32 feet for 50 children. The desks are 
24 inches wide, the aisles 17 inches, and the desks 34 
inches apart from back to back. The width of desks was 
changed to 23 inches the second year. The children's 
desks and chairs are the subject of a special report, pre- 
pared for the Commissioners from the best authorities by 
Dr. Frederic J. Cotton. High school rooms are some- 
times the same as grammar, but may vary in size and 
contain desks up to 26 inches wide. The total area of the 
building on a classroom floor should not be more than 
double the area within the walls of the classrooms on 
that floor. The height of the rooms, when lighted from 
one side, should not be less than 13 feet; the windows 
should extend to the ceilings and should contain a glass 
area equal to one-fifth of the floor area — roughly from 
160 to 175 square feet, measured inside the sash. 

The coat room should be adjacent to the schoolroom 
at the teacher's end, and have two doors opening into the 
schoolroom for circulation, but none into the corridor. 
The teacher has thus more perfect control of the class. 

Corridors should be wide, at least 10 feet for a six- 
room floor plan, and with external light. Staircases 
should be fairly wide, but preferably not over five feet, 
and with risers not over six and one-half or seven inches, 
and even less in primaries. Where toilet rooms are in 
the basement it is desirable to arrange the stairs so that 
those coming in and going to the toilet rooms will not 
meet on the stairs those going up to the classrooms. In 
most cases it is desirable to have basement entrances, 
with convenient thoroughfares through the toilets to the 
staircases. The staircases in daily use should be the 
fire escapes, and should therefore be easy of access and 
fireproof. 

The toilet rooms in general are in the basement, but, 
as is indicated by the plans which will be given with the 
succeeding articles, in certain buildings there are exam- 
ples of distributed toilets on the various floors. In one 
building the height of two classrooms serves for three 
stories of toilets, etc. 

In general the simplest forms of fixtures, the most 
easily cleaned and adapted for thorough ventilation, are 
the most sanitary. Ease of cleaning should be a prime 
consideration in the school generally; and a hospital 
base, a minimum of wood finish in the rooms, and the 
simplest detail on the stairs are desirable. 

The bookcases should be of the simplest description, 
but with movable shelves, dust-proof and locked. The 
teachers' desks should be of hard wood, with a plain, flat 
top. Desks for primary teachers should have one set of 
drawers, those for grammar school teachers two sets of 
drawers, with slide, and rail on back. 



The furniture for master's and teachers' rooms should 
be a roll top desk, a lounge, either rattan or covered 
with an easily cleaned material, a few simple chairs, a 
bookcase and a good Brussels carpet. An opportunity 
for a gas or electric stove in the teachers' room is gen- 
erally advisable, where there is no cooking school. 

The construction of all buildings has been determined 
upon as first class, the additional cost over the cost of 
second-class buildings being comparatively small, and 
the buildings being free from shrinkage and the move- 
ments necessarily accompanying a building with floors 
and partitions framed of wood. To take advantage 
of the law about staircases, it is necessary to make 
buildings first class throughout, including the roof. In 
many cases the board would be content to frame the 
roof of wood, protecting it on the under side with non- 
combustible material, if it were not for the clause 
relating to staircases, which provides that in buildings 
not of first-class construction one staircase shall be 
enclosed in brick walls and shut in with fireproof doors. 
Such enclosure the Board considers undesirable, and to 
avoid this makes the roof fireproof, and the building first 
class, thereby taking advantage of the law which exempts 
buildings of the first class from these restrictions. 

In the planning of the buildings the Board has found 
that the rules laid down in the first two reports have been 
fairly accurate. 

These are, first, that an economical floor plan should 
never exceed an area of double the area of the classrooms 
on one floor. For example, a primary building having 
five rooms, 24 by 30, on a floor, should have an area of 
not over 7,200 square feet. 

Second, that a primary building should not contain 
more than 30,000 cubic feet per classroom, if its class- 
rooms are in excess say of fourteen rooms, and it should 
not exceed 35,000 cubic feet per classroom, if it has a 
smaller number of rooms. On both sizes the cost is to 
be estimated at about 22 cents; for example, with these 
figures the cost of a ten-room primary would be $77,000, 
and the cost of a twenty-room primary would be $132,000. 
A grammar school should not exceed 40,000 cubic feet 
per classroom, if it is a building of over eighteen rooms, 
and a building of less rooms should not exceed 45,000 
cubic feet per classroom, the cost again being put at 22 
cents per cubic foot. The cost thus arrived at must 
include all trades, the building ready for furniture and 
the grounds entirely finished. It does not include com- 
missions' or furniture. 

Third, that the exterior should be of the simplest de- 
scription, it being understood that with the smaller build- 
ings the utmost economy must be observed to keep within 
the limits, and that with a \rery large building slightly 
more freedom is allowable. 

Fourth, that the grounds about the buildings shall be 
entirely completed and included in the contract, and that 
they shall have brick-paved playgrounds for boys and 
girls, not necessarily separated, brick-paved walks, a brick- 
paved, cement-set road for coal, and the remaining space 
laid out either for a permanent planted space or else for 
experimental gardens for the children. The area devoted 
to these purposes will, of course, vary slightly with the 
position and character of the building and the amount of 
space that the Board is able to buy for such purposes. 



22 4 



THE BR ICKBU ILDER. 



Brick Architecture in Denver. I. 

WHILE Denver may be regarded as a brick built 
city, it is a notable fact, nevertheless, that there 
is, comparatively speaking, very little that is interesting 
from the architect's standpoint. 

During the last few years Denver has made much 
progress in the organization of civic bodies, with the one 
object of controlling and elevating all matters of art per- 
taining to the city and county of Denver. 

The recent adoption of the new charter by the muni- 
cipality offered an excellent opportunity for the establish- 
ment of the Art Commission, the credit of which is due 
largely to Mr. Henry Read, an artist of this city. The 
commission consists of six members, of which one is an 
artist, one a sculptor, one an achitect ; the other three 
are non-professional, and the mayor an ex-officio mem- 
ber. No work of art can become the property of the 
city and county except by the approval of the Art 
Commission. 

The Municipal Art League was established in 1900, 
"to procure united action in the promotion and pro- 
tection of public works of art and of artistic municipal 
improvements." It consists of thirty members, repre- 
senting twelve permanent clubs and organizations. 

Another organization of note is the Artists' Club, 
which has done much towards fostering and improving 
the art conditions of this city. 

The Park Commission is also showing most commend- 
able enterprise by acquiring large tracts of land through- 
out all portions of the city, and with the building of the 
new boulevard which runs along the banks of Cherry 
Creek, a stream which, under its present conditions, is 
most unsightly, will make a most superb and sightly 
boulevard. Other boulevards of similar importance are 
either now being constructed or planned, all of which 
will form a most beautiful system of drives. 

Getting back to the subject of brickwork, one of the 
best brick buildings in Colorado is the Antlers Hotel, 
located at Colorado Springs, a small city a few miles 
south of Denver, most superbly located at the foot of the 
mountains. The architects are Varian & Sterner. It is 
built of buff brick and white terra cotta, and has a light 
red tile roof. 

Two club buildings are illustrated, the first, the Uni- 
versity Club, by Varian & Sterner, built of two shades 
of buff brick and a white lava stone; and the second, 
The Woman's Club, by Fisher & Huntington, built of a 
light gray brick and greenish gray sandstone. 

Denver possesses very little ecclesiastical work of 
merit, this being especially true of interesting brickwork. 

The Jewish Synagogue, by the late John J. Hum- 
phreys, is, perhaps, the most interesting. It is con- 
structed of a light colored buff brick and gray sandstone. 

The church by II. T. E. Wendall is built of buff brick 
and gray sandstone. While this building is very much 
out of scale, it is not lacking in interest by any means. 

The Consumptives' Home in North Denver, Varian 
& Sterner, architects, is a very successful building; the 
piazza, connecting the two wings, recently added by 
Mr. Sterner, has improved greatly its general appear- 
ance. The chapel, connected with the Home, by Mr. 
Sterner, is a very successful building and well suited 



to its environment. The interior is lined with a buff 
brick. 

Mr. Sterner's own residence is built of rough red brick 
and painted a dark yellow ochre color with a dark green 
roof. 

Very little of the so-called modern French style has 
been attempted in Denver, A residence in this style, 
by Fisher & Huntington, is illustrated. The building is 
laid up in a beautiful buff shade of gray pressed brick 
and white terra cotta ornamentation. 

The house by Marean & Norton is buff brick with a 
light colored red stone basement and a red roof. A 
house of somewhat similar style, by Fisher & Hunting- 
ton, is built of gray brick. Molded brick of similar 
color, in a darker shade, is used for the window jambs 
and in the arches. 

The one-story house by Wagner & Manning is a 
rather pleasing solution of a small house. 

Two other houses illustrated, by Gove & Walsh, are 
constructed of gray pressed brick. 

The dark buff brick residence with white terra cotta 
ornament, by Boal & Harnois, illustrates one of Denver's 
most successful houses. 



THE HOUSING OF THE POOR. 

SOME time since the announcement was made that 
Mr. Henry Phipps, the Pittsburg steel magnate, had 
made a gift of one million dollars to be used in providing 
improved tenements for the congested sections of New 
York City. A beginning is to be made at once, the first 
set of plans carrying out Mr. Phipps's intentions have 
been filed with the tenement house department, and it is 
expected that the structures will be ready for occupancy 
in the spring. The building will have a frontage of 180 
feet on the. street, and be built around two open courts 
connected with the street by archways 25 feet wide, ex- 
tending through four of the six stories. The courts will 
each have a fountain and a certain amount of planting, 
and the tenements will have an unusual amount of what 
we term modern improvements, such as steam heat, elec- 
tric lights, air coolers, whatever that may be, garbage in- 
cinerating plants, shower baths for each family, a room 
on the first floor for baby carriages, a kindergarten and a 
roof garden ; and all this will be offered at rentals not ex- 
ceeding in any case fifteen dollars a month for four rooms. 
His house will be filled and have an immediate long wait- 
ing list not drawn exclusively from those who are now 
paying five or ten dollars a month for poor quarters, but 
rather from the better class of mechanics who may be now 
paying twenty or twenty-five dollars for quarters less 
eligible than Mr. Phipps is offering for fifteen. The re- 
sulting condition in that immediate neighborhood will be 
overcrowding of the already thronged tenements. This is 
the ever-discouraging feature of attempts to improve the 
sanitary conditions of the miserably poor. When better 
houses are put up they are always filled by the well-to-do 
and not by the miserably poor, and these latter, in every 
case, as has been proven in Paris, London, Glasgow, New 
York, Boston and Chicago, are worse off rather than 
better. We would not argue from this that efforts such as 
Mr. Phipps has made are to be deprecated. Simply the 
millennium has not yet arrived, and the solution of the 
tenement house problem may be as far off as ever. 



THE BR ICKBU I LDER. 



225 




ANTLERS HOTEL, VARIAN & STERNER, ARCHITECTS. 




CONSUMPTIVES HOME, VARIAN & STERNER, ARCHITECTS. 




PIAZZA, CONNECTING WINGS, CONSUMPTIVES HOME. 



) 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




WOMAN'S CLUB, FISHER & HUNTINGTON, ARCHITECTS. 





rMt *&k» 




UNIVERSITY CLUB, VARIAN A STERNER, ARCHITECTS. 




CHAPEL FOR consumptives' home. JJJJF. .'• Sterner, Architect. 




SYNAGOGUE, JOHN J. HUMPHREYS, ARCHITECT, 



CHURCH, H. T. E. WENUALL, ARCHITECT. 



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Details bv Russell Eason Hart. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



231 



Tile and Faience Work in France. 

II. 

BY PAUL DEVOE. . 

THE character of French work has always been that 
of delicacy of finish. The constant desire to refine 
in idea, in form, in color is apparent even in the centu- 
ries in which other nationalities have produced virile but 
crude workmanship and design. To the French critic 
no amount of barbaric splendor, of grandiose concep- 



lowered towards neutral. The flaming yellows and 
reds of India, the black and gold and red of Venice, the 
depth of blues in the Persian tiles are but occasionally 
seen in the walls of France, but in their place are deep 
cool grays and soft browns, neutral greens and mellow 
reds, and a profusion of delicate tints, the colors of Gobe- 
lin tapestries. And associated with this comparative 
sobriety of color, and this desire to avoid violent con- 
trasts or aggressive schemes, is great delicacy of line, of 
grouping of forms, of touch in draughtsmanship and of 
purity of tone. The tiles of France, whether they be 







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WALL TREATMENT WITH ENAMEL TILES. 



tion, of general effectiveness associated with undeveloped 
forms, could excuse lack of the final touch, the com- 
pleted detail. A standard of achievement based upon 
such premises must include those slight shades and modu- 
lations which the French express by the term " nuances." 
The avoidance of violent contrasts, the softening of 
tones, of colors, of intensities, are thoroughly character- 
istic of all French art. So much is this the case that 
subtle shades of neutralized colors are known as French 
grays and French greens. Mauves, lilacs, lavenders, 
pale rose and delicate blues all suggest the gamut of the 
French palette, and if the tones are deepened they are 



dull surfaced without glazing, or high-fired dull glazes 
or lustrous glazes, are notable for the precision of their 
drawing and a harmony of tone which at times approach 
monotony. The earlier examples of the thirteenth and 
fourteenth centuries are simple tiles, without glazes, in 
which the patterns are simple and contrasts produced by 
the differences in clays only. They are soft, low-toned 
reds, yellows and grays, and the ornament does not fill 
the field as in Oriental tile and in those of Spain, but is 
firmly defined upon a larger proportion of field than in 
any other tile. Also even in very simple design all stem 
lines are firmly drawn and leaf forms clearly defined. 



2^2 



THE BRICK BUILDER 



There is a constant tendency to resort to naturalistic rep- 
resentation rather than to conventional precedent. It is 
characteristic of all naturalistic ornament, which partakes 
largely of actual representation, that to be successful it 
must be done by a very skillful hand. There can be no 
attempt to portray nature but what will enact a severe 
penalty from all except masters of draughtsmanship. 
Conventional forms are a law to themselves and justify 
themselves by beauty of composition, of tone or of 
color, but representation of natural form invites direct 
comparison with the actual object, to the lasting condem- 
nation of the representation if it be unskillfully done. 
It is for this reason that so little naturalistic work com- 
mands respect. If any set of draughtsmen or designers 
could be expected to succeed in this type of work it is 
the French, whose precision of drawing and delicacy of 
color are unsurpassed. Their very skill has probably led 
them towards the portrayal of foliage, of flowers and of 



daBsE 



tiles of exceptionally delicate tints, producing an effect 
of daintiness, of freshness, of that quality which the 
French term "confection," and which are distinguishable 
from the tiles of other nationalities merely by this qual- 
ity. As has been stated, there was no attempt to get the 
richness of effect of Oriental or of Spanish tile. The 
third variety, that of painted tile, does not in any way 
resemble the Dutch or English or Spanish painted tile. 
Much of the field remains intact and the painting is that 
of delicate flowers, or of finely drawn medallions resem- 
bling the china painting of Sevres, of Dresden; in fact 
the French tiles of this type seem to be dainty pieces of 
china. If used in large surfaces the effect is that of a 
(lowered chintz or sprigged muslin. They are pecu- 
liarly adapted to boudoirs and small baths. The pat- 
terns are simple, not complex ; the painted areas are not 
broad, but painted with the point of the brush, not the 
side, and there is but little if any running of the color in 






-, 



sN 




SIMPLE BUT EFFECTIVE THE PATTERNS. 



natural forms in their painted tile, while in their plain 
tile their appreciation of the slightest variations of color 
has led them to subtle and delicate tones. It is impossi- 
ble therefore to give an idea of the individual character 
of French tiles by photograph. The shapes may be the 
same as those of English or of Spanish tile, but the color- 
ing is of a totally different character and quality. De- 
lightful combinations of pure tints in lines and zones 
around fields are often used on walls and on floors and 
ceilings. The bisques are like those of porcelain, the 
glazes fine and clear. The molded tile have finer pro- 
files than are usually to be found in the tile of other 
nations, and the modeled tile are very beautifully fin- 
ished. We find then that tile in France, until within a 
few decades, were of three varieties; first, those which 
were used for floors in churches, large halls, etc., and 
which were often used in combination with stone as bor- 
ders about tablets, around windows, etc., in fact in a very 
similar manner to their uses in Italy and to the use of 
terra cotta plaques. The patterns are simple, largely 
geometric. The second variety was that of plain glazed 



the firing. As has already been stated, naturalistic 
design demands mastery of drawing, and many of these 
tile were designed and actually painted by artists who 
did them more as pastime than as their more important 
work, which was that of landscape painting, designing 
for tapestries or for decoration. Many of them are 
signed. The result is that the work is finished, is 
sophisticated and has little of the naive quality of work 
done by peasants or by draughtsmen of inferior ability. 
Its beauty lies in the skill with which it is done as much 
or more than in its general effect. For this reason any 
imitations of these tiles at once announce that they are 
forgeries. There is nothing feebler in its effect than the 
imitation of a French painted tile, as there is nothing of 
its kind more cleanly cut, delicate and skillful than the 
original. 

The desire to increase the size of the individual tile 
and to practically produce plaques of clay of sufficiently 
even surface for floor or wall surfaces has been especially 
evident in the tile factories within the last twenty years. 
The difficulties have been gradually overcome. To bake 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



233 



a large mass of clay homogeneously so that the center 
should be equally fired with the surface and edges, and 
there should be no warp or twist or crack, required an 
intensity of heat which overwhelmed and burned out 
the usual glazes. As a result experimental effort was 
devoted to obtaining glazes which would stand very in- 
tense heat, and substances which could be incorporated 
with the clay and which would color it in the firing, etc., 
and various degrees of success have been obtained, and 
the so-called sharp-fire clay has appeared. The claims 
that are made for this are fully substantiated by the tests 
to which it has been subjected in the last few decades. 
It possesses great strength, imperviousness to moisture 
and consequent durability, its glazes or coloring are in- 
corporated with its mass and it can be produced in large 
slabs or plaques with precision of edge and uniformity of 
surface. The difficulty of obtaining large floor tile which 
would lay evenly and not leave depressions in the floor 
has been overcome. 

There has also occurred a very natural consequence to 
the enlargement of the superficial area of the tile. So long 
as tile were from four inches to eight inches in their long- 
est dimensions, the field of each was necessarily limited, 
and the size of each unit set to a great extent the measure 
of the repeat of its ornament ; but now that each piece can 
be made of materially greater area the field invites to a 
totally different type of ornamentation, it becomes the 
background for a picture or a factor in a large motive. 
The wall as a whole is treated as a composition, and the 
divisions between the tiles are merely necessitated by the 
exigencies of firing the pieces. These pieces can be of 




TILES FOR WALL SURFACES. 

any size or shape, they fit together like a child's dis- 
sected map, and each piece can be so accurately made and 
fitted that no discrepancy appears at the joints. In a 
certain sense this type of wall decoration has lost the 
character of the material, and is merely making a large 
composition in an imperishable material, the joints being 
occasioned only by the limitations of firing. Especially 
is this the case with the modeled tile. These are so ex- 
quisitely made that in most cases they are done by a 
sculptor of very considerable ability, especially by one 
who is a master of low relief, a medalist. It has always 
been characteristic of French designers that they have 
either refused to be bound by, or have ignored the limi- 
tations of materials. If they wish to produce a certain 



Hn^HHBBH 








t 'ST SB »' Vy 



DECORATIVE PANEL IN TILES, THE CHRYSANTHEMUMS. 

effect, to display a certain desired composition upon a sur- 
face, they do not hesitate to do it in any material they 
wish, regardless of the fact that no such result would 
have evolved from the natural development of the mate- 
rial itself. They have the pride, the arrogance of super- 
lative skill. To a certain extent this attitude is Jesuitical, 
the end obtained is assumed to justify any means em- 
ployed. It should be apparently obvious that a surface 
covered with identical units, such as tiles, suggests repeat- 
ing patterns or at least compositions with repeating fac- 
tors, but the French treat these surfaces exactly as 
though they were whole and not composed of a number 
of parts, as if they were a canvas, not a mosaic of large 
scale. The skill with which they draw and color the 
ornament almost persuades admiration, almost convinces 
that the effect is satisfactory, but there remains an after- 
math of desire that work so skillfully done should have 




TILES FOR WALL SURFACES. 



234 



THE BR ICKBU ILDER. 




KKIEZE 



been more logically conceived. Occasionally 
there is an indication that however free from 
the trammels of conventionalism may be the 
general design, there is a recognition of its 
component parts. Such a recognition is mani- 
fest in the chrysanthemum pattern growing 
behind a bamboo lattice, the stems of the bam- 
boo following the joints of the tile. There is 
no new conception, but the variation of size in 
the tile, each corresponding to the rectangle 
enclosed by the pieces of lattice, is both ingen- 
ious and effective. There is also in these mod- 
eled French tile a very strong feeling of the 
material in the surface modeling. They are 
unmistakably of clay and modeled by hand; 
there is no indication of stamped work, or re- 
semblance to repousse work. In spite of the 
fact that they are cast in molds, the character 
of the original modeling has been preserved, 
the modulations remain, the edges are crisp 
and clean-cut. This alone would produce an 
impression of finish superior to many other 
varieties of tile. 

The laurel and rose design exemplifies the 
care with which details are inserted. Certainly 
modeling cannot be carried further than it is in 
the thistle leaves and the rose garlands. Each 
vein and petal is not merely indicated but 
carefully drawn, and a delicate dike is raised 
between each area of color so that its edge may 
remain intact. It will be seen that any such 
designs as these can only be produced in the finest bisque, 
almost equal to kaolin, as the fine lines require such pre- 
cision, and that they can be made by only the most skill- 
ful of sculptors and modelers. 

Of the grades of tile, inferior in workmanship and 
draughtsmanship, but by no means inferior in general 
effect, which are to be found in England, in Holland, 
in Italy and in Spain, in such as the Delft tiles and those 
of Perugia and Trajana, crudely but freely drawn, with 
a separate pattern on each tile, there are few to be found in 
France. Village industries have succumbed before the ac- 
complished products of large manufactories. Such tiles 
are appreciated as quaint, as naive, as mediaeval and as 
curiosities, but are not considered as more than expressing 
the past or an uneducated period of art, which is hardly 
worthy of imitation. Imitative work, excepting in the 
reproduction of antiques, is not sympathetic to the French 
designer, who is constantly endeavoring to produce novel 
effects, often at the expense of failure in the results. 

Occasionally, however, there is to be found a type of 
work which, while individual in its detail, produces a 
similar effect to the encaustic tile of Italy or of Spain. 

The use of tile, either of the usual type or of sharp 




fire clay, upon the exterior of buildings in large 
surfaces is increasing in France as it is in Ger- 
many. There is a certain amount of Renaissance 
of color decoration upon facades. It is doubt- 
ful if large set scenes, so to speak, of tile will 
ever be popular; they are too spectacular, too 
theatrical in effect, but in zones, in friezes, in 
spandrels and tympana, around the jambs of 
windows and doors, in panels in the walls, tile 
surfaces are wonderfully ef- 
fective, adding an element of 
imperishable color which 
gives additional charm to 
form. There already exist 
admirable precedents for 
work of this character in 
Oriental architecture. One 
has only to see the walls of 
the houses of Damascus and 
of Broussa, the minarets and 
doorways of Tangiers and 
Tetuan, to realize the superb 
possibilities of the exterior 
use of tile ; and it is to be 
noted that these are great 
sheets of color confined by 
borders, that they are not 
pictorial, but are purely col- 
oristic, and that they have 
long ago solved the question, 
if question it ever has been, 
of how to use tile. The 
method of attack in tile de- 



WAI.L TREATMENT 



ENAMEL TILES. 



signing needs no further elu- 
cidation than is apparent in 
these buildings, it is in the 
details alone that novelty 
need be attained. There is 
no reason why Occidental art 
should not employ tile equally 
well as has Oriental art, but 
it should not neglect or deny 
the lesson already taught. 

The illustrations chosen 
for this paper are represent- 
ative of the more decorative 
uses to which enameled tiles 
are put by the French. No 
attempt has been made, be- 
cause it seems unnecessary, 
to show what might be 
termed regulation tile work, 
which exists in great abun- 
dance and in nearly every 
form of private and public 
building. 




THE BRICKBUILDER 

Editorial Comment and 
Selected Miscellany 



13 s 



SOMETHING NEW IN STRIKES. 

A CASE of rather unusual interest is now being tried 
before the Supreme Court of Massachusetts. The 
Norcross Brothers Company, who were building the Har- 
vard Medical Schools at Longwood, near Boston, had, as 
a part of ther contract work, to build a number of flat in- 
terior arches of brick ground to fit the form of the arch. 
This grinding they were proposing to have done at their 
yard, where they had special machinery for the purpose. 
But the Bricklayers' Union, hearing of this, entered a 
protest, claiming that the work of grinding these bricks 
must be done at the building by the bricklayers, and that 
the Union laborers would decline to set any brick ground 
away from the premises. 




FOUNTAIN IN HOTEL CORRIDOR. 
Executed in Architectural Faience by Rookwood Pottery Company. 



The builders thereupon did the grinding and 
bricks together at the yard to form a solid 
lintel, which they then told the bricklayers to 
set in place at the building. Whereupon the 
Union replied by striking upon all of the Nor- 
cross work. An injunction was then applied 
for to the Supreme Court, and it is on this in- 
junction that the argument is now being held. 

This is by no means a new question, as it 
comes up in one form or another nearly every 
year, and the fundamental principle involved 
is the recognition or refusal of the right of the 
union to dictate as to how the work shall be 
carried on. There is no doubt in the mind of 
nearly every candid person that the ultimate 
result of the labor agitations will be for the 
improvement of the individual and conse- 
quently the bettering of the laboring classes as 
a whole. On the other hand, the most ardent 
advocate of the union principle can hardly 



set the 




A MANUFACTURING BUILDING, CHICAGO. 
Howard Shaw, Architect. 



deny that of late years those having the direction of the 
union in their hands have at times grossly abused their 
power, and have done much harm to their own interests 
and to the community. The fact that good will, in the 
long run, come out of questionable methods certainly 
does not excuse the policy which has been so often fol- 
lowed, and it is greatly to be regretted that men of the 




A SMALL BLOCK, CLEVELAND, OHIO. 
William R. Watterson, Architect. 



236 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



stamp of Mitchell for 
the miners or Arthur 
for the steam engi- 
neers have not yet 
arisen to take a di- 
recting hand in the 
affairs of the build- 
ing trades' councils. 
It may seem a bit 
Utopian, but we be- 
lieve the time is 
coming when labor 
will be so thoroughly 
organized that the 
present system of 
contracting will be 
entirely changed. 
Contracts for labor 
will be made directly 
with the labor organ- 
izations, and they 
will have the moral 
power to compel the 
faithful obligations 

of contracts, both as to amount of work and of implied 
contracts as to quality. The so-called walking delegate, 
who has wrought so much harm both to the contractors 
and to the workmen, will cease to exist, because there 
will be no further need of his services. Labor will be a 




THE NEW VOKK. THE BESSEMER. POWER BUILDING. 

Three new buildings erected in Pittsburg for Henry Phipps, Esq. Grosvenor 
Atterbury, Architect for two at left. All fireproofed throughout with Standard 
System, National Fireproofing Company, Makers. 



rights and limita- 
tions. 

The early fights 
of the unions were 
for a decent wage 
and a reduction in 
unreasonable hours 
of labor. The ne- 
cessity for such con- 
tests has practically 
gone by. The fight 
now is, after all, in 
its essence, one for 
recognition of the 
union. Whether it de- 
serves to win in indi- 
vidual cases or not de- 
pends upon whether 
the contentions are 
fair or otherwise. 

In this particular 

case to which we 

have referred, the 

position of the unions 

is entirely wrong. If carried to its logical conclusion it 

puts a premium upon poor bungling workmanship, and 

sets skilled labor at a discount. 




CUTTING DOWN THE COST. 

A VERY common experience with every ambitious ar- 
chitect is that after having expended perhaps months 
of thought and study upon a design and having worked 
his personality, as it were, into the preliminary studies, 



DETAIL BY CLINTON & RUSSELL, ARCHITECTS. 
Standard Terra Cotta Company, Makers. 

unit, and we cannot think so poorly of humanity as to 
believe that that unit will be measured by the stature of 
such men as Sam Parks, or that the mechanics themselves 
will be so blind to their own interests as to permit bad 
or indifferent workmen to set the pace for the whole, as 
is unfortunately so frequently the case now. Further- 
more, the most inexcusable feature of present trade 
unionism, namely, lack of good faith in keeping contracts, 
is bound to be remedied in proportion as the workmen 
themselves are educated to more fairly appreciate their 









n 



DETAIL BY MCKIM, MEAD & WHITF, ARCHITECTS. 
Atlantic Terra Cotta Company, Makers. 



DETAIL OK FAIENCE PANELS AND FRIEZE FOR SOUTH 

FERRY STATION OF NEW YORK SUBWAY. 

Heins & La Farge, Architects. Panels executed in dull 
finish colors, greens, yellows and brown. Frieze in solid red 
glaze, with white blossom. Made by the Hartford Faience 
Company, Hartford, Conn. 

he finds that for reasons of business economy he is 
obliged to cut his creation down to the quick and throw 
away as it seems all the results of his earnest, intelligent 
study. There is only one compensation for this condi- 
tion : the resulting building is sometimes far better 
for the pruning process. No building can be successful 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



2.37 




GATE AND LODGE. Jarvis Hunt, Architect. 
Roofed with Ludowici Shingle Tile. 



which fails to meet practical requirements. Art which 
is not backed up by common sense can be classed as noth- 
ing- but a failure, and in the conscientious attempt to give 
the best study to an architectural design it is not impos- 
sible that practical considerations might be ignored to 




DETAIL BY WELCH, SMITH & PROVOT, ARCHITECTS. 
Brick, Terra Cotta and Tile Company, Makers. 

such an extent as to nullify the results of artistic study. 
We would not say that every building which is cut down 
is the better for it, but simplicity is often the determin- 
ing cause in really good art, and it need not be always 
considered a hardship if the architect is obliged to cast 
aside some considerations of pure art on account of 
cost. 




BUILDING OPERATIONS FOR SEPTEMBER. 

THE strong building movement of last month con- 
tinues with little if any abatement, as appears from 




DETAIL BY ERNEST FLAGG, ARCHITECT. 
Excelsior Terra Cotta Company, Makers. 

reports received by The . liucrican Contractor, New York, 
from the leading cities of the country, showing the 
building permits issued during September as compared 
with the corresponding month of last year. The gains 
shown are general, decidedly large and so distributed as 
to show that the impetus to building operations is not 
due to local causes. In Greater New York the gain is 85 
per cent as against 100 per cent in August. This is 
really a most gratifying showing, since with winter near 
at hand, when operations are conducted with greater 
difficulty, a doubling of last year's figures could scarcely 




DETAIL BY U. J. L. PEOPLES, ARCHITECT. 
Conkling-Armstrong Terra Cotta Company, Makers. 



DETAIL, AUDRY & BENDERNAGLE, ARCHITECTS. 
Northwestern Terra Cotta Company, Makers. 



-38 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




NEW INTERBOROUGH POWER HOUSE, NEW YORK CITY. 

(The largest power house in the world.) 
Built inside and out of brick made by Sayre & Fisher Company. 



be expected. Permits aggregating more than twenty- 
one millions at the beginning of autumn is a remarkable 
and most promising showing. Chicago reports $7,349,- 
150, a gain of 31 per cent, as against 80 per cent last 
month, but even this gain is remarkable when the sea- 
son of the year is taken into account. The following 
figures express the percent- 
age of gain of the cities that 
make the best showing: 
Allegheny, 1 11 ; Buffalo, 140; 
Cleveland, 66; Dallas, 84; 
Detroit, 93; Duluth, no; 
Harrisburg, Pa., 158; Kansas 
City, 63; Louisville, 73; Mil- 
waukee, 112; Mobile, 172; 
Nashville, 133; Newark, 232; 
New Orleans, 54; Philadel- 
phia, 44; St. Paul, 102; Syra- 
cuse, 237 ; Wilmington, Del., 
296. It thus appears that 
the present building pros- 
perity is widely, almost uni- 
versally distributed. The 
losses are few, and, with the 
exception of Pittsburg, are 



confined to the smaller cities. In September, 1904, a 
single permit of $3,500,000 was issued in Pittsburg. 




DETAIL BY ATLANTIC TERRA COTTA COMPANY 



INTERBOROUGH POWER HOUSE. 

THIS building occupies an entire block bounded by 
58th and 59th streets and nth and 12th avenues. 
New York City. It is the 
largest power house in the 
world. The fronts of the 
building required 750,000 
brick, dark gray Normans. 
In the interior there were 
used 600,000 buff brick and 
about 300,000 enameled brick 
of cream and brown shades. 
All the bricks employed 
in the building were fur- 
nished by Sayre & Fisher 
Company, including also the 
radial brick which were used 
in the chimneys. These 
chimneys were erected by 
the A. Custodis Chimney 
Company of New York 
City. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



*39 





DETAIL OF CORNICE, CREAM OF WHEAT BUILDING, MINNEAPOLIS. 

Harry W. Jones, Architect. 

Terra Cotta made by American Terra Cotta and Ceramic Company. 



DETAIL BY NEW JKRSEY TERRA COTTA 
COMPANY. 

American Trust and Savings Bank, Chicago, 
Jarvis Hunt, architect; The United En- 
gineers' Club, New York City, Hale & Morse, 
architects ; a large building for the Mer- 
chants' Refrigerating Company, New York 
City, William H. Birkmire, architect. 



IN GENERAL. 

The large warehouse ( known as the Ingram Ware- 
houses), illustrated on page 196 of The Brickbuilder for 
September, was the work of Ellicott & Emmart, archi- 
tects, of Baltimore, and not Wyatt & Nolting, as stated. 
Andrew P. Cooper, architect, Uniontown, Pa., has 

opened a 
branch 
office in 
the First 
National 
Bank 
Build ing 
at C o n - 
nellsville, 
Pa. Manu- 
facturers' 
catalogues 
and sam- 
ples are 
desired. 

The 
following 
new build- 
ings will 
be fire- 
proofed 
with the 
Standard 
system of 
fireproof- 
ing, manu- 
factured 
by the 
National 
Fireproof- 
ing Com- 
pany : Guaranty & Trust Building, Broadway, New York 
City, Howells & Stokes, architects ; the new Courthouse 
at Greensburg, Pa., William Kaufman, architect; The 




HOTEL JERMYN, NEW YORK CITY. 

Mulliken & Moeller, Architects. 

Terra Cotta by New York Architectural 

Terra Cotta Company. 



WANTED — A good architectural draughtsman can secure per- 
manent employment. Send references and sample of work to Shand 
& Lafaye, 1328 Main Street, Columbia, S. C. 

WANTED — A competent architectural draughtsman. Apply to 
D. A. Bohlen, Architect, Indianapolis, Ind. 

WANTED — To handle account of some good corporation doing 
business with architects, engineers and contractors, on either a sal- 
ary or commission basis. Extensive acquaintance west of Missouri 
River, including California and the Northwest. Present location 
Denver, Col. Best of references. Correspondence solicited. Ad- 
dress " Salesman," care of " The Brickbuilder." 

jirchitectural Faience. Competition B. 

Subject: Jl Large fAantel With Hood. 

ONE CASH PRIZE ONLY. FIFTY DOLLARS FOR "BEST 

DESIGN. ALSO MENTIONS. 

Competition closes December 1. 1905. 



PKOGKAMME. 

At the end of a large hall, such as would occur in a 
clubhouse or in the main lobby or dining-room of a hotel, it 
is desired to place a large mantel with a hood, similar in 
style to that of the period of Francis I of France. This 
mantel should be designed to be executed in Architectural 
Faience in one or more colors. 

The color scheme may be indicated by a key. 

The mantel is to occupy a wall space of not more than 
150 square feet. 

Drawings required. Plan and elevation at a scale of one- 
half inch to the foot. 

Drawings may be rendered at will on a sheet of un- 
mounted white paper, measuring 16 inches by 20 inches. 

Each drawing is to be signed by a nom de plume or de- 
vice, and accompanying same is to be a sealed envelope with 
a nom de plume on the exterior and containing the true name 
and address of the contestant. 

The drawing is to be delivered at the office of THE 
BRICKBUILDER, 85 Water Street, Boston, Mass., charges 
prepaid, on or before December 1, 1905. 

The prize drawing is to become the property of THE 
BRICKBUILDER, and the right is reserved to publish or 
exhibit any or all of the others. Those who wish their draw- 
ings returned may have them by enclosing in the sealed en- 
velopes containing their names five cents in stamps. 

The designs will be judged by a well-known member of 
the architectural profession. 

Competition open to every one. 



»40 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




Competition for an Office "Building 

First Prize, $500 Second Prize, $200 Third Prize, $100 



COMPETITION CLOSES DECEMBER 23, 1905 




V^OGRjiMME 

HE problem is an Office Building. The location may be assumed in any city of 
the United States. The site is at the corner of two streets of equal importance. 
The lot itself is perfectly level. The size of building is 80 feet square on the 
ground and 120 feet high. Number of stories left to the designer. 

Above a base course of granite (not over 2 feet high) the exterior of the 

building is to be designed entirely in Architectural Terra Cotta. 

For the reason that colored terra cotta is likely to be used extensively in the facades 

of buildings, it is desired that a color scheme shall be indicated either by a key or a series 

of notes, printed in the lower right-hand corner of the sheet of details at a size which 

will permit of two-thirds reduction. 

The following points must be considered in the design : 

A. Frank and logical expression of the prescribed material. 

B. Rational and logical treatment of the architectural problem. 

In awarding the prizes the intelligence shown in the constructive use of terra cotta 
and the development or modification of style, by reason of the material, will be taken 
largely into consideration. 

It must be borne in mind that one of the chief objects of this competition is to encourage 
the study of the use of architectural terra cotta. There is no limitation of cost, but the 
designs must be suitable for the character of the building and for the material in which it 
is to be executed. 

The details should indicate in a general manner the jointing of the terra cotta and the 
sizes of the blocks. 

Drawings Required 

On one sheet the front elevation drawn at a scale of 4 feet to the inch, and on the same 
sheet the perpendicular section of the front wall. 

On a second sheet, half-inch scale elevations and sections of main entrance and any other 
portions of the building necessary to interpret the design, including a portion of upper stories 
and main cornice. 

In the lower left-hand corner of the second sheet is to be shown the first and typical floor 
plans at a scale of 16 feet to the inch. The first floor plan may provide offices for a bank or 
insurance company. The main entrance corridor and location of the elevators should also be 
shown. 

The size of each sheet (there are to be but two) shall be 24 inches by 36 inches. 

The sheets are not to be mounted. 

All drawings are to be in black ink without wash or color, except that the walls on the 
plans and in the sections may be blacked-in or cross-hatched. 

Graphic scales to be on all drawings. 

Every set of drawings is to be signed by a nomde piame or device, and accompanying same is 
to be a sealed envelope with the nom de plume on the exterior and containing the true name and 
address of the contestant. 

The drawings are to be delivered flat at the office of THE BRICKBUILDER, 85 Water Street, 
Boston, Mass., charges prepaid, on or before December 23, 1905. 

The prize drawings are to become the property of THE BRICKBUILDER, and the right is 
reserved to publish or exhibit any or all of the others. Those who wish their drawings returned 
may have them by enclosing in the sealed envelopes containing their names ten cents in stamps. 

The designs will be judged by three well-known members of the architectural profession. 

For the design placed first in this competition there will be given a prize of $500- 
For the design placed second a prize of $200. 
For the design placed third a prize of $100. 

We are enabled to offer prizes of the above-mentioned amounts largely through the liberality ot 
the terra cotta manufacturers who are represented in the advertising columns of THE BRICK- 
BUILDER. 

This competition is open to every one. 




I 



131* l?l 

ft . 



-J&ttfc 



DETAIL OF ADMINISTRATION BUILDING AND RIGHT WINC 




DETAIL OF ADMINISTRATION BUILDING AND LEFT WING. 

THE WIDENER MEMORIAL INDUSTRIAL TRAINING SCHOOL, LOGAN STATION, PHILADELPHIA. 

Horace Trumbauer, Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER, 

OCTOBER, 

1906. 




HOUSE, WASHINGTON, D. C. 
Wyeth & Cresson, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER, 

OCTOBER, 

1906. 




FRONT OF THE GROUP. 




ADMINISTRATION BUILDING THROUGH THE GATEWAY. 

THE WIDENER MEMORIAL INDUSTRIAL TRAINING SCHOOL, LOGAN STATION, PHILADELPHIA. 

Horace Trumbauer, Architect, 



THE BRICKBUILDER, 

OCTOBER, 

1906. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 14. NO. 10. PLATE 80. 




FIRST FLOOR PLAN. 



SECOND FLOOR PLAN. 



HOUSE AT WASHINGTON, D. C. 
Wyeth & Cresson, Architects. 




floor PLAN. 

BANK AT ALEXANDRIA, VA. 

Wood, Donn & Deming, Architects. 



• i 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 14. NO. 10. PLATE 77. 




FRONT ELEVATION. 




THIRD FLOOR PLAN. (THE SECOND FLOOR IS DIVIDED INTO OFFICE SUITES FOR RENTING.) 




FIRST FLOOR PLAN. 



OFFICE AND SOCIETY BUILDING, MIAMI, FLA. 
Walter C. DeGarmo, Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 14. NO. 10. PLATE 78. 





BASEMENT PLAN. 



fff: feLi^OE^.. nl^! 




S^^^e^szn 



FIRST FLOOR PLAN. 



BRANCH TELEPHONE STATION, CLEVELAND. OHIO. 
Searles, Hirsh & Gavin, Architects. 




MBHMacsgcttMfiwanHi 



—■&*"— mil ii Mi- - 



~... 



ktal 



I 



■■mm 



BANK BUILDING, ALEXANDRIA, VA. 
Wood, Donn & Deming, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER, 

OCTOBER, 

1905. 




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THE CITY CLUB, AUBURN, N. Y. 
Wilkinson & Magonigle, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILOCR. 

NOVEMBER, 
1906. 




THE FINISHED PORTION OF THE CHUPCH OF THE EPIPHANY WINCHESTER, MASS. 

Warren, Smith & Biscoe, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDCR, 

NOVEMBER, 

1905. 



. 




THE WETZEL BUILDING, EAST 44th STREET, NEW YORK CITY. 

(a tailoring establishment.) 
Hill & Stout, architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDCR, 

NOVEMBER, 

190S. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 14. NO. 11. PLATE 87. 




«M.r FLAN CT -HAi/LJOrJ *T SECOND FLOOR. 

HALT PLAN. 



"FLAK or TOUT -TLOOfL. 



DETAIL OF THE FRONT ELEVATION. 

THE CITY CLUB, AUBURN, N. Y. 

Wilkinson & Magonigle, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 14. NO. 11. PLATE 86. 



' r M'i .ito' ~Nt ^ »A —t'titffli' 




THE B 

VOL. 14. NO. 11. 




ri 



• 



DETAIL OF ELEVATION, GROUND AND FIRST STORIES. 



THE WETZEL BUILDII 



LDER. 

PLATES 81 and 82. 




PLAN. 



=tEET, NEW YORK CITY. 
:ts. 



DETAIL OF ELEVATION, SECOND, THIRD AND FOURTH STORIES. 



THE B 

VOL. 14. NO. 11. 




LDER. 

PLATES 83 and 84. 







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THE BRICKBUILDER. 

Vol. 14. No. 11. PLATE 85. 



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THIRD FLOOR PLAN. 




SECOND FLOOR PLAN. 




FIRST FLOOR PLAN. 



HALF FRONT ELEVATION. 



THE MERCHANTS CLUB, BALTIMORE, MD. 
Sperry, York & Sawyer, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 14. NO. 11. PLATE 




ijp LL 



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THE BRICKBUILDER. 



Vol. 14 



NOVEMBER 1905 



No. 11 



CONTENTS — PLATES 

From Work ok HILL & STOUT, JOHN GALEN HOWARD, SPERRY, YORK 
& SAWYER, HORACE TRUMBAUER, WARREN, SMITH & BISCOE, 
WILKINSON & MAGONIGLE. 



CONTENTS — LETTER PRESS 



CLOISTER OF CHURCH OF SAN DOMINGO, SALAMANCA, SPAIN Frontispiece 

EDITORIALS 241 

ECCLESIASTICAL ARCHITECTURE. 

MODERN CATHOLIC CHURCH WORK IN ENGLAND. I R Randal Phillips 242 

THE WORK OF THE BOSTON SCHOOLHOUSE COMMISSION, 1901-1905 II. 

STANDARDS OF SIZE AND COST 248 

FIREPROOF HOUSE COMPETITION Design submitted by Benjamin Wright 255 

EDITORIAL COMMENT AND SELECTED MISCELLANY 257 

THE ELECTRICAL FIRE HAZARD 257 













CLOISTER OF CHURCH OF SAN DOMINGO, SALAMANCA, SPAIN. 






& 



!F« 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



VOL. 14 No. II 



DEVOTED -TOTHE • INTERESTSOF! 
iARCHITECTVRE- IN- MATERIALS • OF- CLAYj 



NOVEMBER 1905 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



PUBLISHED MONTHLY BV 

ROGERS & MANSON, 



85 Water Street, Boston, Mass. 



P. O. Box 3282. 



Entered at the Boston, Mass., Post Office as Second Class Mail Matter, March 12, 1892. 
COPYRIGHT, 1893, BY THE BRICKBUILDER PUBLISHING COMPANY. 

Subscription price, mailed Hat to subscribers in the United States and 

Canada. ........ $5.00 per year 

Single numbers ......... 50 cents 

To countries in the Postal Union ...... $6.00 per year 

Subscriptions payable in advance. 

For sale by all newsdealers in the United States and Canada. Trade supplied by 
the American News Company and its branches. 



THE DUTY OF EVERY ARCHITECT. 

AT no time in the history of American architectural 
effort has there been such an imperative call to ar- 
chitects for union of effort, for a development of true 
esprit de cor/is, as at present. As the burdens laid upon 
the profession have increased, as its duties h?ve multi- 
plied and broadened, as more has been demanded of the 
architect, the greater has been the need for the kind of 
professional solidarity which has obtained for so many 
years in the professions of law and medicine. The archi- 
tect and his work are beginning to be known and appre- 
ciated as never before, and it is no longer the case of 
every man for himself, but there is every evidence to 
show that architects are expected to pull together, to have 
common and high professional aims and to be true to 
their principles. 

The remarkable dinner given by the American In- 
stitute of Architects at its convention last January 
brought the profession very prominently and we think 
very successftdly to the immediate attention of those 
who are most interested in the actual provision for 
large public buildings, namely, our legislators and polit- 
ical executives. The dinner called together the leading 
spirits in politics, art, literature and religion, as well as 
those who, by reason of their large means and public 
spirit, have become known as public benefactors. The 
architectural profession, we have no doubt, was by this 
dinner placed in a new light in the eyes of many of our 
leaders, who perhaps had previously regarded architects 
and architecture as only a little removed from the posi- 
tion of a builder and his trade. 

There is undoubtedly an aroused interest in architec- 
ture as a monumental art. It would be almost impos- 



sible for Washington now to go back to the style of work 
which was the rule not so very long ago; and even 
those representatives of the people who have been 
most suspicious of appropriations for public buildings 
are showing now a disposition to recognize the impor- 
tance of architecture as a fine art in its relation to 
our national development, and are willing to accord 
the architect a greater latitude and a, greater respect 
for his opinions than before. This has come about, 
we believe, very largely through the efforts of the 
American Institute of Architects, and we can not too 
strongly urge the duty and obligation upon all architects 
who have the welfare of their art at heart of becoming 
identified with the prime factor which is doing so much 
to increase the dignity and the effectiveness of the pro- 
fession. 

If architecture is to be in this country what it has 
been and is now abroad, there must be concerted in- 
terests and a unanimity of aim. The public is ready for 
it, for not only the forces at Washington who were ap- 
pealed to so strongly at the last dinner, but the leaders 
throughout all our large cities have awakened to what 
architecture can be. The conservatism which seems to 
be so inborn in the profession makes it at times hard for 
the architect to get out of his shell, to surrender a certain 
portion of his individuality and to merge into the work 
of the country as a whole; but this involves no real 
surrender, but rather an assumption and claiming of 
what really will make for the best development. 

The light of the profession is set on a hill. The 
public expects architects to write the national history in 
characters and a style of which no one need be ashamed. 
We have the talent, the opportunities are being presented 
on every hand ; now it is for the profession to meet them, 
and meet them in such way that there need be no fear 
for the results. 

Our monumental architecture is just beginning. The 
development of the country thus far has been most 
pronouncedly on the commercial side, but with the 
enormous accumulation of wealth, the dissemination 
of real culture and appreciation, the twentieth century is 
bound to be marked by a wealth of monumental archi- 
tecture, and for the possibilities of such growth the 
American Institute of Architects is undoubtedly to be 
credited with the greatest influence. 

At its convention in January the Institute will have a 
dinner on the order of the one' which was so successful 
last year, and the greatest interest will be manifested in 
its proceedings. 



-4 2 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



Modern Catholic Church Work in 
England. I. 

BY K. RANDAL PHILLIPS. 

ALTHOUGH church planning does not involve so 
many complexities as obtain in large commercial 
and municipal buildings, nevertheless, by reason of the 
indexible nature of the Roman Catholic ritual, the archi- 
tect becomes much restricted in his internal arrange- 
ments, more especially in those cases where he has been 
required to produce a church after the model of some 
old example; yet, on the other hand, in the matter of 
impressive effect and the rich decoration of the interior, 
he finds in Roman Catholicism every possible incentive. 

In England to-day the architects of any account \vl o 
are intrusted with the work of the Roman Catholic 
Church hardly number a dozen. Ireland of course is 
largely a Roman Catholic country, requiring so many 
more churches, but the bulk of the work done there is 
altogether lacking in architectural quality, and may there- 
fore be dismissed from present consideration. 

In this article a sharp distinction is made between 
the work done for the Roman Catholics and that of the 
High Anglican section of the 
Church of England, not be- 
cause there is any such dis- 
tinct difference between the 
two in actuality, but for the 
reason that otherwise one 
would be drawn into so vast a 
field as to be quite out of com- 
pass here; and, secondly, the 
writer has confined himself to 
the period of the last twenty- 
five years, deeming that to be 
ample interpretation of the 
term " modern." 

It so happens that the very beginning of the period 
in question is marked by an important building — the 
( >ratory of St. Philip Neri at Brompton — which serves 
as an admirable starting point. The building was 
erected during the years 1880-1S.S4 as the outcome of a 




HKO.MPTON OBA'K.KY. 



Gribble, Architect. 




PLAN, BKOMPTON ORATORY. 




INTERIOR, BROMPTON ORATORY. 



competition in which there were two-and-twenty com- 
petitors, the successful architect being Mr. Herbert A. 
Gribble. The conditions stipulated that the church was 
to be of Renaissance style, and that space was to be 

found for no fewer than nine 
side altars and twenty con- 
fessionals. Under such con- 
ditions it is only to be ex- 
pected that the plan and 
interior treatment are derived 
bodily from the Italian 
churches. The plan com- 
prises a wide nave with chapels 
on either side, two shallow 
transepts having a large altar 
in each, and a sanctuary be- 
yond with ambulatory, chapel 
and sacristies. The chapels 
on either side of the nave are 30 feet square and are 
connected together by openings sufficiently large for 
processional purposes. The nave is 170 feet long and 51 
feet wide, ten feet wider than St. Paul's and fifteen feet 
wider than Westminster Abbey, and is vaulted over in 
Portland cement concrete (in the proportion of ten parts 
of Portland stone chippings of three-quarters inch gauge 
to two parts of Portland cement). The order is carried 
at a height of 50 feet on twin Corinthian pilasters of 
Devonshire marble. Over the crossing is the dome, 
which gives the building its chief character. This is of 
53 feet internal diameter, and is of double construction, 
the dome proper being of concrete two feet thick at the 
haunches, and gradually diminishing to one foot at the eye 
l which is of stone), while the outer shell has a steel 
framework with wood ribs covered with sixty tons of 
lead of the finest quality. The height from the ground 
line to the summit of the cross is 200 feet. The lantern, 
including the ball and cross, is 47 feet high and the cross 
itself 6 feet. It should be stated that on the death of 
the original designer the outer dome was carried out 
(in 1896) to the drawings of Mr. G. Sherrin. Its general 
outline most resembles SS. Ambrogio and Carlo at 
Rome. 

Both externally and internally the oratory exhibits 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



243 




CHURCH OF OUR LADY OF THE ASSUMPTION AND THE ENGLISH MARTYRS, CAMBRIDGE. 

Dunn & Hansom, Architects. 




INTERIOR, CAMBRIDGE CHURCH. 
Dunn & Hansom, Architects. 



INTERIOR, CHURCH OF OUR LADY, BOW COMMON. 
F. A. Walters, Architect. 



^44 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



the customary treatments to be found in the Renaissance 
style, with the exception of the dome. The main front 
suffers from the pedestals which overload the pediment, 
and exception may be taken to some of the detail, — as in 
the caps to the nave pilasters and the framing to the 
altar-piece, — but it must be admitted that the architect 
made good use of his models and secured a feeling of 
bigness in the interior. 

In 1887-1890 the very large Church of Our Lady of 
the Assumption and the English Martyrs was erected at 
Cambridge at a cost of $350,000. The architects were 
Messrs. Dunn and Hansom, who have designed many 
churches in different parts of the country, such as that at 
West Hartlepool, of which a plan is here given as a mat- 
ter of interest. The Cambridge church is in the Early 
Decorated style, and consists of nave, chancel, aisles 
and ante-chapel, with a short tower over the crossing 
and a massive tower on the north side with spire reach- 
ing to 215 feet. Attached to the church is a rectory 
arranged as an open quadrangle. The building provides 
sittings for 800 persons, and the interior is particularly 
noteworthy for the painting on the wall above the chan- 
cel arch. This is strongly lighted through the windows 
in the tower over the crossing and has a striking effect. 
The elaborate vaulting is also a feature of the interior. 
The architects, it is evident, have followed closely in the 
wake of the Gothic imitators, but they have executed 
their work very skillfully and secured a feeling of height. 
So far as detail is concerned, the north door is excellent. 
The design exhibits nothing alarmingly fresh or clever, 
but the result is undoubtedly successful. There is good 
proportion in every part of this doorway, and the exu- 
berant detail in crockets, cusps and paneling at once 
claims attention. 

Mr. F. A. Walters is an architect who has done a 
great deal of very delightful work for the Roman Catho- 
lic Church in England. He is here represented by a 
number of illustrations, all exhibiting much refinement 
in general feeling and variety in treatment. Let the 
churches at Bow Common and Mile End Road — in dif- 
ferent parts of London — be compared, for example. 
At Bow Common (1893) special attention is directed to 
the grille dividing off the chancel. The detail of this is 
very graceful and vigorous. The rood, too, is finely 
treated, where it is carried on a beam decorated in 
color. Of the other churches by Mr. Walters it will suf- 
fice to note how uniformly pleasing they are. The con- 
vent which he designed for the Gray Friars at Chil worth, 
Surrey, is particularly successful in its exterior. 

With the exception of the chapel, the whole of the 
buildings of St. Mary's College, Woolhampton, Berks, 
have been erected since 1885, the latest portions, shown 
in the accompanying illustration, having been completed 
in 1895. The college was erected for Catholic educa- 
tional purposes, and was intended for the reception of 
boys proposing to follow an ecclesiastical or professional 
career. The buildings provide accommodation for about 
one hundred and fifty students, together with the requi- 
site number of professors, and in addition there is a 
domestic block (to the right) occupied by the matron 
and servants. The college cost $90,000. 

Another Catholic church architect who has done a 
great deal of excellent work is Mr. Goldie. One of 



his most important designs is that of St. James', Span- 
ish Place, London (no view of which is included in this 
article, because permission to sketch or photograph is 
never granted), but some of his other work is perhaps 
more interesting — the convent at Hayward's Heath, for 
instance. 

Hawkesyard Priory Church, Staffordshire, is Late 
Perpendicular in style. It is a collegiate church 120 feet 
long and 30 feet wide, carried out in brick, with an 
open hammer-beam roof covered by green slates. The 
interior is divided into nine bays, with three-light tra- 
ceried and mullioned windows at the sides and a seven- 
light window at the west end. At the east end the 
second and third bays on the south side open into the 
organ tribune, and in the last bay but one on either side 
at the west end there are openings into two side chapels, 
one of which has stone fan vaulting. The nave occupies 
the four western bays, the three next being devoted to 
the choir, which is raised three steps above the nave. 
There are two rows of eleven oak stalls each on either side, 
canopied, with return oak screens at the entrance to the 
choir, against which are two small stone altars and 
reredoses towards the nave. Beyond the choir, and 
raised another three steps, is the sanctuary, in two east- 
ern bays. This has a beautiful stone reredos the whole 
width of the church and 30 feet high, with forty-two fig- 
ures, the space above being frescoed. 

Among other churches by Mr. Goldie are St. Alban's, 
Blackburn, and churches at Wood Green, Acton, and St. 
Mary Cray. St. Alban's, Blackburn, accommodates one 
thousand persons. The little country church at St. Mary 
Cray in Kent consists of a single nave and chancel. The 
church of St. Paul, Wood Green, is a cheap church, such 
as is described as a modern invention, being well built 
though plain, and making the most of limited funds. The 
plan needs no comment, being perfectly simple and uni- 
form. That of Our Lady of Lourdes at Acton, however, 
is very ingeniously contrived. 

The Church of St. Ignatius at Stamford Hill, London, 
is at present only half finished. The west front has yet 
to be erected, as well as a large college adjoining. Mr. 
Benedict Williamson, the architect, has endeavored to 
deal with modern needs and modern materials in the way 
the mediaeval master builder would have done, and to 
follow the lines laid down at Solesmes. Proportion, 
boldness of outline and unity of parts have been the 
chief things aimed at. The arches are all square cut, with 
no molding to detract from the depth of shadow, while 
in order to increase the feeling of height the string mold- 
ings are stopped against the buttresses, which rise with 
narrow offsets. In plan the church is cruciform. The 
total width of nave and aisle is 62 feet, the height to the 
crown of the nave vault being 54 feet and to the roof 
ridge 66 feet. The piers supporting the nave arcade are 
square, with three-quarter shafts. The interior of the 
church is plastered and the vaults are boarded over. The 
aisles are divided by arches, in the pilasters supporting 
which the stations of the Cross are being placed in glass 
mosaic. The two towers flanking the central portion 
of the west front will not have portals, as at Amiens, the 
three doorways being placed centrally, as at Chartres. 
These towers, though similar in outline, will vary con- 
siderably in detail. An interesting feature of the plan is 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



245 




CHAPEL, CHILWORTH, SURREY. 
F. A. Walters, Architect. 



CHURCH OF THE GUARDIAN ANGELS, MILE END ROAD, LONDON. 
F. A. Walters, Architect. 




THE CHANCEL, HAWKESYARD PRIORY, STAFFORDSHIRE. 
E. Goldie, Architect. 



246 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




1 






;ii 






. - o » « -jugi * * . 

1 ■ *- _ 



T.I" "IS 1 




PLAN, ST. IGNATIUS, STAMFORD H 1 1.1 
(Part to be erected shown in outline | 





PLAN, ST. PAUL S, WOOD GREEN, LONDON. 




F LCCriME, 



;;: 



< 



isq; 



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tea 



T-jr 



CLOISTER «A«rH 



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T^ I M'ESW 
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LiB**R» -, ►.PMlmvti 



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f ■ CHAPTER 1 



PLAN OK CONVENT, HAVWARDS HEATH. 




-*— f ' - n— — -"!•' ■'-" tf- ■■■ < 



PLAN, MONASTERY, CHILWORTH. 




plan of si". Joseph's, west hartlepool. 



PLAN, CHURCH OF OUR LADY OF LOURDES, ACTON. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



247 





MONASTERY OF THE GRAY FRIARS, CHILWORTH, SURREY. 
F. A. Walters, Architect. 



PRIORY OF OUR LADY, HAYWARDS HEATH, SUSSEX. 
E. Goldie, Architect. 




ST. MARY S COLLEGE, WOOLHAMPTON, BERKS. 
F. A. Walters, Architect. 





CHURCH AT ST. MARY CRAY, KENT. 
E. Goldie, Architect. 



2 4 8 



THE BRICKBU ILDER. 



the arrangement of the confessionals, which do not pro- 
ject into the church but are enclosed by a low block 
which expresses itself on the exterior. It will be 
observed that the priests enter the confessional by a 




PORTION OK ST. IGNATIUS CHURCH. 

corridor at the back leading from the sacristy. The 
floor of the church is of terrazzo with a pleasing pat- 
tern of black and white marble on the passageways. An 
interesting fact in connection with the building is that it is 
built with two-inch bricks brought from Bruges, the dress- 
ings to windows and doors being of Kentish rag stone. 
The Church of St. Augustine at Nottingham is to 
be erected from the designs of Mr. Arthur Marshall, 




CHURCH OF ST. AUGUSTINE, NOTTINGHAM. 

Arthur Marshall, Architect. 

A. R. I. B. A. The general arrangement is shown by 
the plan, but it may be mentioned that the rapid fall of 
the street lends itself to the provision of the necessary 
vestries under the chancel. 



The Work of the Boston Schoolhouse 
Commission, igoi-1905. II. 

STANDARDS OF SIZE AND COST. 

DURING the first two years of the Board's work 
carefully compiled data relating to the schools 
built by them established what seemed to be fair limits 
of area, cube and cost for different types of buildings. 
These were noted at the end of article I and are repeated 
here in tabular form that they may be held clearly in 
mind, while we compare the various buildings and see 
how they agree with or vary from these limits. 

Primary Schools. 
Cu. ft per classroom. Cost per cu. ft. Cost per pupil. 
}o,ooo So. 22 

35,000 .22 

Grammar Schools. 
40,000 $0.22 

45,000 .22 

. . m , 



No. of rooms 
J( her 14 

Under 14 

Over 1 8 
Under 18 



$132.00 

154.00 

$176.00 
198.00 



- PRIMARY- SCHOOL!* IN -™ E - 
- CHRISTOPHER- GIBSON i DISTRICT - 

WESTV'ILLt - STREET- 

■j DOOF-CM"llKHDf H&AJCTTN- J 




KIRST FLOOR PLAN, MARSHALL SCHOOL. 

In both grades it was established during the first year 
of the Board's existence that an economical plan would 
show a total area of one floor not exceeding twice the 
area of the classrooms ( measured inside) on that floor. 
It is natural that in a building with few classrooms the 
cubical contents per room should be greater than in a 
building where the somewhat constant cube necessary 
for the domestic engineering and utilities is divided 
among a large number of classrooms, and it has been 
always the experience of the Board that it was more diffi- 
cult to keep the smaller buildings down to the standard 
limits of cost set by them than the larger ones. In cer- 
tain cases, owing to special conditions of site, design or 
other causes, a building which showed an economical 
plan and cube has overrun the limit of cost, while on the 
other hand some buildings which were for one reason or 
another above the limit set for cube have been built for 



Note. — The figures in parentheses, given in connection with the 
titles, are limits set by the Board. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



249 




THE MARSHALL SCHOOL. 

Primary, Christopher Gibson District, Westville Street and Bowdoin Square. 

Maginnis, Walsh & Sullivan, Architects. 

14 rooms; 700 pupils. (Kindergarten in addition.) 

Cube, 516,624 (490,000). Cost, cubic foot, $0.24 ($0.22). Cost, $124,467.65 ($107,800). Cost per pupil, $177.81 ($154.00). 



*50 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



less than the limit of cost; 
but in general the stand- 
ards above mentioned, 
given r o u g hi y in the 
second report (January 31, 
1903 February 1. 1904), 
and more definitely in the 
third report, have been 
fairly proved by the 
schools built up to the 
present time. 

( )f the eight primary 
schools which will be illus- 
trated in this and subse- 
quent papers in this series 
two, the Whittier and 
Tuckerman schools, are 
ten-room buildings, the 
Ellis Mendell is a twelve- 
room, the Marshall, Farra- 
gut and Mason schools are 
fourteen-room and the 
Columbus and Baker 
schools are twenty-four 
room buildings. Of the 
two ten-room buildings 
both were well under the 
limits of area and cube, 
but the one showing the 
lowest cube (the Tucker- 
man ) cost just over the limit ($77,065.90), while the 
other, being built for the standard cost per cubit foot 
(twenty-two cents), was well under the limit of total cost 
(077, 000 1, being built for $72,269.70. 

The twelve-room building proved expensive awing to 
variations from the standard type, which increased the 
cube and cost. 

Of the three fourteen-room buildings, the Marshall 
and Farragut schools were built in 1902 and 1903, the 
Mason School in 1904-05. The first (the Marshall), a 
two-story building though rated as a fourteen-room build- 
ing, has a one-story addition of three rooms for kinder- 
garten, which was re- 
sponsible for an ex- 
cessive cost on a four- 
teen-room basis. If 
these extra rooms were 
counted the building 
would fairly approxi- 
mate the standard. 
The Farragut School, 
owing to great extent 
to a single unit plan, 
in which the corridor 
serves classrooms on 
one side only, shows 
an excessive cube and 
cost. The plan is an 
unconventional one, 
determined by a great 
many considerations, 
but one which the 
Board considers it 




DETAIL 01« EMKANCE, KLLIS MENDELL SCHOOL. 




GKOUND FLOOR PLAN, MENDELL SCHOOL. 



would be unprofitable to 
repeat. The later building 
(the Mason), built during 
the past year, is a three- 
story building showing an 
economical plan and cube. 
The necessity for expen- 
sive piled foundations and 
filling, however, and the 
complete grading of a lot 
large enough to contain a 
second future building 
forced the price of this con- 
tract considerably above 
the limit. 

Of the two twenty-four 
room buildings one (the 
Columbus) was built in 
1903 and the other is now 
under construction. Both 
are three-story buildings. 
The first was just over the 
low limit of cube ( 7 20,000 ), 
having 7J _ ,o6s cubic feet 
and the cost being $173,- 
512.08, was about midway 
between the two limits for 
primary buildings. The 
building now under con- 
struction, the Baker 
School, shows an economical plan, a cube (708,607) well 
under the low limit of 720,000 cubic feet, and is being 
builtfor $157,161.93, the low limit of cost being$i 58,400. 
The six grammar schools to be illustrated in these 
articles vary in size from fourteen rooms to thirty-one 
rooms, one intended for a twenty-six room building is 
being only partly constructed at present as a fourteen- 
room school. 

The Perry School, a fourteen-room building, shows 
an economical area and cube, but owing to the grading of 
a lot large enough, as in the case of the Mason Primary 
School, to take a future building, the total cost was forced 

above the limit of 
$138,600, it being built 
for $145. 633.23. 

The Gardner 
School, which when 
completed will be a 
twenty-six room build- 
ing, has been built in 
part and at present 
rates as a fourteen- 
room building. The 
corridors, assembly 
hall and heating ap- 
paratus being installed 
for a twenty-six room 
building makes a com- 
parison of this building 
with a fourteen-room 
standard unfavorable, 
and in spite of the fact 
that its first construe- 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



251 



tion was at a rate of nineteen cents per cubic foot, below 
the standard, its total cost is $142,718.37, the standard 
limit for fourteen rooms being $138,600. When com- 
pleted as a twenty-six room school it should prove an 
economical building. 

The Jefferson School, nineteen rooms, the first of 
these grammar schools to be built, proved a very expen- 
sive building. A great deal of blasting was necessary, 
and this, together with considerable glass and iron exte- 
rior wall construction and a somewhat excessive corridor 
area, contributed to its higher cost. The high limit for 
this school should have been $180,000, but it cost 
$210,890.49. 

The Dearborn School, twenty-one rooms, not yet com- 



of while school was going on in the old buildings on the 
lot. Even with this addition the total would appear to 
be not over $195,000, the low limit set by the Board being 
$201,200. 

• 'i The largest school built by the Board is the Mather 
School on Meeting House Hill, which has thirty-one class- 
rooms, with an accommodation of fifteen hundred and 
fifty children. The area shows economical planning accord- 
ing to the standard, but the cube is somewhat excess- 
ive, being 1,353,831 cubic feet, the low limit being 1,240,- 
000 cubic feet. The cost was $288,380.46, the low limit 
being $272,800. Blasting, which extended over a period 
of five months, and a rather larger amount of stonework 
than usual contributed to this excess. There is in the 




THE ELLIS MENDELL SCHOOL. 

Primary, George Putman District, School Street, West Roxbury. 

Andrews, Jaques & Rantoul, Architects 
Cube; 517.035 cubic feet (420,000). Cost cubic foot, $0 236 ($0.22). 
Cost, $122,267.20 ($92,400). Cost per pupil, $203.78 ($154). 



pleted, shows an economical plan, but it is intended for 
a thirty-three room building, and the assembly hall and 
other features, as in the Gardner School, planned for a 
larger building, make it show large cube and cost on a 
twenty-one room basis. It will cost $211,308, the low 
limit for a twenty-one room school being $184,800. When 
completed it should approximate the standard. 

The Oliver Wendell Holmes School, twenty-four 
rooms, is the most economical grammar school built by 
the Board. The area is just under the standard propor- 
tional limit. Its cube is somewhat in excess of the limit, 
but it was built at the rate of nineteen cents per cubic 
foot for a total of $188,326.47. This does not include the 
entire grading, which could not very well be taken care 



basement a future possibility of four more classrooms. 
If these were completed for $12,000, as noted in the last 
report, the school would rate as a thirty-five room build- 
ing, with a cost of approximately $300,000. The low 
limit of cost for thirty-five rooms would be $308,000, so 
that with these extra rooms the building would show a 
very good economy. 

In figuring the cost per pupil the Board takes a unit 
of fifty pupils to a room. A standard room seats fifty-six, 
but in many of the large schools there are ungraded and 
other classes which are even below fifty, and this figure 
is taken as a fair average. In all cases the cost includes 
the complete building, with all trades, and all the grading, 
draining, paving and planting of grounds, in some cases 



252 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



1 - s. 



covering a considerable area. No attempt has been 
made to separate the cost of the grounds from the cost of 
the building. In most of the buildings the contracts are 
divided, and under these circumstances a forfeiture con- 
tract is difficult to enforce, and therefore generally un- 
advisable. In some cases there is a single contract with 
a forfeiture and bonus clause. In view of the urgent 
need of new schools the Commissioners have no hesitation 
in saying that it would be to the advantage of the city 
if all their contracts were on this basis. A single con- 
tractor assumes responsibility for all the trades, and 
exceptional ability or diligence on his part will earn him 
a bonus which it is well worth while for the city to pay. 

Before considering in detail the plans of the four 
primary schools illustrated in this number it would be 
well to mention briefly some of the principles of arrange- 
ment approved by the Board. 

The accepted theory that two exits are necessary 
from each room is disregarded, as is the "by-pass" com- 
munication from room to room which is so strongly in- 
sisted upon by the Massachusetts district police. The 
Board takes the 
ground that in the 
event of fire or panic 
it is better to have the 
children trained to go 
to a well known route 
of escape rather than 
to run the risk of 
having them scatter 
through the building, 
using various little 
known doors and pas- 
sages. It must be re- 
membered in this con- 
nection that the Boston 
schoolhouses are of 
fireproof construction. 
Examination of sev- 
eral plans will also 

show that it is not considered^ necessary to keep the 
main staircases widely separated, and that corridors 
with "dead ends" are not thought to be a menace to 
safety. How far the Board may be right in this supposi- 
tion has yet to appear. It is well known that panic may 
result from smoke in a fireproof building, and in case of 
the choking of one staircase by smoke, a by-pass through 
the building to another distant one might be of incalcu- 
lable use, and under present day discipline it should not 
be difficult to conduct the children thither. 

The wardrobes adjoin, and are entered from the 
classrooms. When possible they are placed at the end 
of the classrooms nearest the corridor door and the 
teacher's desk, so that the pupils will not have to trav- 
erse the classroom to reach them, and so that the 
teacher may have easier control ; but this is not consid- 
ered essential by any means, as several buildings have 
the wardrobe at the farther end of the classroom. 
Security of the clothing and other effects of the children 
is the main object attained by this arrangement. Each 
wardrobe has an outside window and two doors to the 
classroom to facilitate filing the children. 

Exclusive left-hand lighting of classrooms is gener 




GROUND FLOOR PLAN, 1'ARRAOUT SCHOOL 



ally practised, though not theoretically insisted upon. 
The Board believe that economy of construction would 
suggest brick piers between the windows, so spaced as to 
receive the steel beans, thus avoiding the expense of iron 
columns, mullions and lintels. The ends of the coiner 
rooms are kept blank and given such architectural treat- 
ment as the architects think best. The general policy of 
the Board is so to arrange the rooms that all shall have 
direct sunlight during some part of the day. 

Electric lighting of classrooms is arranged to give 
reflected light from the ceiling, which the Commissioners 
find gives the most equable light and the least trying to 
the eyes. The engineers of the Board have devised a 
special fixture which produces good results. 

The Board now direct that the toilets shall be 
grouped in the basement. In one school (the Ellis Men- 
dell) the experiment was tried of separating them on the 
different floors, but this was found to be expensive and 
undesirable. The heating apparatus is in the basement, 
except in special cases where it is put in a sub-basement 
to free up the basement for playrooms, etc. 

In grammar schools 
the manual training 
and cooking rooms are 
in the basement, but 
they are expected to 
have as good light as 
any ordinary class- 
room, and if in a 
corner may be lighted 
from two sides. 

The Marshall 
School. 

This is a primary 
school with a one- 
story addition, con- 
taining three rooms 
for kindergarten. The 
land slopes sharply to 
the east, so that the basement to the south and east 
is above ground, giving available space for two more 
classrooms when needed. It is of a conventional type, 
with two wings extending to the lot line on Westville 
Street. The court enclosed between the wings is used 
merely for the steps down to the street, with grass 
plats beside, the girls' and boys' yards being behind 
the building and forming an open space, which insures 
permanent light on the only side of the lot adjoining 
private property. The basement contains the toilets, 
the playrooms, the space available for extra classrooms 
being utilized for additional playrooms and the boiler and 
coal storage. Each of the floors above has six classrooms. 
While the main entrance is in the Westville Street court, 
there are entrances at each stairway at the ends of the 
corridor. With the exception of the roof frame the 
construction is first class throughout. The building is 
heated by steam with gravity return. The ventilating 
system is also gravity, with a small fan for the kinder- 
garten on account of its low grade. As in all other 
schools built by the Board this building is wired for elec- 
tric light, the classrooms being lit by reflected light from 
the ceiling, as noted above. There is also a system of 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



2 53 



s\ 



electric clocks and bells. In computing the standard cube 
and cost the two unfinished rooms in the basement are 
taken into account, and the building is rated as a 
fourteen-room building. The excess is due to the 
kindergarten addition. 

The Farragut School. 

In this school the architects worked on the theory that 
sun should be excluded from classrooms for the benefit 
of the eyes. This fact, together with the noise of Hunt- 
ington Avenue, led them to place the corridor on the two 
party lines, with the classrooms opening off on only one 
side and getting ample light across the enclosed play- 
ground. This sacrificed some light in the corridors and 
increased the cube of the building considerably, a fact 
which was largely responsible for the great cost. The 



water. The air forced over this pan by the fan carried 
the vapor with it to the rooms. Registering instruments 
showed thirty per cent to fifty per cent of moisture in this 
wing, while in the other wing, supplied with air without 
additional moisture, there was but fifteen per cent to 
thirty per cent. The natural percentage in summer is 
sixty-five per cent to seventy per cent. This can be 
obtained artificially, but in cold weather, if the air is more 
moist than fifty per cent, the windows may be seriously 
clouded with vapor. 

While the engineers are unable yet to report definite 
data as to the effect on the building, furniture and pupils 
and teachers, they observed that a somewhat lower tem- 
perature was sufficient in the rooms artificially moistened 
than in the others, and suggest the indication of a possible 
saving in fuel. 




THE FARRAGUT SCHOOL. 

Primary, Martin District, Huntington Avenue and Kenwood Road. 

Wheelwright & Haven, Architects. 

14 rooms ; 700 pupils. 

Cube, 652,630 (490,000). Cost cubic foot, $0.23 ($0.22). 

Cost, $150,526.43 ($107,800). Cost per pupil, $215 04 ($154). 



Board now believes that each classroom should have some 
sun. The basement contains the toilets, small playrooms 
and a manual training room and cooking school, unusual 
features in a primary school. The building is therefore 
considered as a fourteen-room building for comparison 
with standards, each of the floors above having six rooms. 
The heating system is low-pressure gravity return. The 
air is handled by means of a fan, run by an electric motor 
owing to restrictions of space, with primary and supple- 
mentary radiators automatically controlled. 

A test of moistening apparatus was made in this 
building. The main air duct, after leaving the fan, 
branches to right and left, a branch furnishing the air 
for each wing. In one branch a shallow pan of water was 
placed, with submerged brass steam pipes, which when 
the steam was turned on caused vapor to rise from the 



The Ellis Mendell School. 
This school, like the Farragut, has some variations 
from the conventional plan for the sake of experiment. 
Instead of being collected in the basement, the toilets are 
separated and placed on each floor. At either side of the 
entrance and central stairway the height of the two 
schoolroom floors is divided into three stories, the upper 
and lower being used for toilets, the upper being slightly 
above the level of the second-floor classrooms, while the 
middle story is used for the teachers' room and storeroom. 
There are also toilets in the basement, together with the 
playrooms and heating apparatus. There are two direct 
entrances to the basement from the playgrounds, which 
here are not enclosed, but accessible always from a foot- 
path connecting Boylston Place and School Street. These 
open playgrounds are again an experiment, and it remains 



2 54 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 





THE SAMUEL W. MASON SCHOOL. 

Primary, Hugh O'Brien District. Roxbury, Norfolk Avenue and Clayton Place. 

John A. Fox. Architect. 

Cube, 43S. 22.5 (490,000). Cost cubic fool .22). 

Cost, $118,851 Cost per pupil, $169 79 ($154). 



to be seen whether the city's property will sutler or 
whether, under proper restrictions, this open space proves 
the benefit to its neighborhood that might well be expected 
of it. In connection with these yards the basement of 
the school, with the playrooms, and even the toilets 
adjoining, can be left open to the children without giving 
access to the rest of the building. 

The distributed toilets and the third staircase proved 
expensive features, and the Board have decided not to 
repeat thi 

As to the classrooms, this building conforms to the 
ideals of the Board, each classroom being arranged so as to 
have some sun each day, with its wardrobe at the teacher's 
end of the room, thus giving the greatest control. 

The building is fireproof throughout, with gravity 
system for heating and ventilating governed by hand 
controls in each classroom, and furnished with electric- 
light and the usual programme clocks and bells. 

The excess in 
cost is due to the 
unusual features 
mentioned and to 
some extra ex- 
pense for gates, 
shelters and drink- 
ing fountain which 
the Board con- 
sidered was justi- 
fied by the public 
nature of the play- 
ground. 

The Samuel W. 
Mason School. 

This is a three- 
story fourteen- 
room primary 
school similar in 
scheme of plan to 
the Marshall, ex- 
cept that the main 




GROUND FLOOR PLAN, MASON SCHOOL. 



entrance is at one side and not in the recessed wall be- 
tween the wings. The rooms are all arranged with 
partial southerly exposure and with wardrobes at the 
teacher's end of the room. The yards are in this case 
separated, at either side of the building. The basement 
has the usual playrooms, toilets and heating apparatus, 
which is similar to that installed in the Ellis Mendell 
School. The teacher's room and storage room occupy 
the end of one wing on the first floor instead of being in 
mezzanines off the stair landing, as in the Marshall. 

While this building shows an economical cube, its cost 
is excessive, the cost per cubic foot being higher than 
that of any other building the Board has erected. A 
careful examination of the figures and plans failed to 
show any extravagance. To test the possible saving be- 
tween second and first class construction the plans were 
redrawn to make the building second class above the 
basement and the four lowest bidders were asked to re- 

_==_ — =— , figure on this basis. 

Using the lowest 
estimates thus pro- 
cured there was a 
saving of only 5.42 
per cent. The 
Board decided, in 
view of the slight 
saving, to build 
first class as origi- 
nally intended, 
but were able to 
effect some saving 
by certain changes 
in the exterior 
and yard. As 
noted before, the 
excess appears to 
be due to the 
grading of a large 
lot and unusually 
expensive founda- 
tions. 



v, a 



INDICATES TC*CHCft5 tT'jK 
ARBOW INDICATES WAV PUPILS FACt 
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THE BRICKBUILDER 



257 



Editorial Comment and 
Selected Miscellany 

THE ELECTRICAL FIRE HAZARD. 

THE number of fires caused by electricity indicates 
that in modern fireproofing of buildings the elec- 
trical hazard must come in for much more attention, 
and the reports of insurance inspectors should include 
somewhat more definitely the actual causes of defective 
wiring, short-circuiting or imperfect lamp installation. 
In the recent analysis of some one hundred and forty- 
five fires reported due to electricity, the relative causes 
showed that imperfect or careless workmanship of 
electricians and operators was responsible for many 
of them, and they were therefore preventable losses. 
Thirty-three of the fires were attributed to grounding, 
short-circuiting, defective wiring or to destroyed insu- 
lation, while twelve were from defective dynamos and 
motors through burning out of armatures or field coils. 
Twenty fires were caused by crossing of telephone or 
telegraph wires with lighting and power circuits, and 
five from incandescent lamps being placed too near in- 
flammable material. 

In modern fireproof buildings the installation of 
electric lighting, signaling and telephoning systems is 
supposed to be so arranged that fires cannot start from 
any defects in the wires or lamps. The switchboard in 
particular specifically requires incombustible material. 
The fireproofing of the dynamo room requires that every 
part of it should be shut off from the rest of the building 
by incombustible walls and floors. The floor itself 
should preferably be of glass, covered with rubber carpet. 
The complete insulation of the floor then makes the dan- 




DETAIL BY FRANK FREEMAN, ARCHITECT. 
Atlantic Terra Cotta Company, Makers. 

ger from burning coils or armatures practically unim- 
portant, while the danger from short-circuiting of wires 
is also reduced to a minimum. 

A frequent cause of fire in the past has been the 
putting of steam and water pipes near electrical wires 
and switchboards. The bursting of one of these pipes 
when close to the electrical switchboard invariably made 
trouble. The water caused short-circuiting, and slight 
defects in insulation immediately became apparent. 

A modern fireproof building cannot be safe from the 



fire danger unless the electrical work has been done 
according to the best standards specified for this class 
of buildings. Imperfect workmanship is still quite com- 
mon among electricians, and unless the work is closely 
inspected at the end the element of danger creeps in. 





Mr'. ':,- V^.,.ni i ni»; 



AN ALTAR PIECE EXECUTED IN ARCHITECTURAL FAIENCE. 

By virtue of its peculiar power to start a flame within the 
walls of a building or behind woodwork in some closet 
or small room, electricity is one of the hardest fire 
hazards to deal with, and nothing short of perfect wiring 
and installation can be accepted as representing even a 
fair standard of safety. Fire underwriters have insisted 
upon inflexible observation of rules regarding electric 
wiring which many electricians have considered unneces- 
sarily severe. The use of flexible cord, for instance, 
although properly insulated when installed, contains a 
menace which has been demonstrated in a number of 
cases. In the last quarterly report of the National Board 
of Fire Underwriters five fires were reported due to 
short-circuiting in flexible cords. The primary cause of 
these fires was further discovered to be due to the abra- 
sion of the cord in contact with metal pipes, or to wrap- 
ping the cord around nails and other metal supports. 
Poor and defective insulation may have in the first place 
weakened the cord itself, but the proper use of the flex- 
ible cord becomes of special importance in view of the 
dangers thus invited. 

In the matter of protecting property from fire caused 
by electricity, the American Street Railway Association 
has recently adopted some rules which tend to show a 
serious appreciation of the danger that lurks in elec- 
tricity unless guarded at every point by the latest safety 
appliances. One of these rules is that all switchboard 



258 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



cabinets shall be inclosed 
or lined with at least one- 
eighth of an inch of fire-re- 
sisting insulating material, 
and after being placed in 
position the inside of the 
cabinet shall be treated with 
a waterproof paint. Such 
protection is considered 
practically perfect. In a 
good many buildings where 
the electrical switchboard 
is a large one, similar safety 
appliances might well be 
adopted. The danger from 
water in connection with 
the switchboard is serious 
unless it is made practically 
waterproof. Leaking floors 
and roofs, overflowing 
faucets in washing and 
dressing rooms, and the 
bursting of water pipes 
through high pressure or 
freezing is likely at any time 
to introduce the element of 
danger in a building. 

In the past few months 
the installation of several 
large department stores 
with motor-driven high- 
pressure fire pumps and 
sprinklers has reduced the 
fire hazard to some extent; 
but the drenching of any 
floor of a building with 
water in an emergency 
where electricity is used 

freely may cause additional fires unless every part of 
the system is absolutely water-tight. The motors used 
in the basement of the stores to operate the high- 
pressure service are waterproof, and can stand in 





HI TAIL BY WIU.MAN, WALSH & Bl HSSELIER, ARCHITECTS. 
Winkle Terra Cotta Company, Makers. 



THE COLUMBUS SAVINGS AXD TRUST BANK AM) OKI-ICE 
BUI I. DINO, COLUMBUS OHIO. 
Frank L. Packard. Architect. 
Exterior Walls and Light Courts faced with "Ironday" fire- 
Hashed brick. Made by the Ironclay Brick Company. 



stances the wires of 
telephone or telegraph 
systems were placed too 
near powerand lighting 
wires, and the short- 
circuiting which fol- 
lowed proved disas- 
trous. The elimination 
of this source of danger 
would greatly reduce 
the electrical fire hazard, 
but unfortunately it is a 
question placed beyond 
the jurisdiction of the 
individual builder. He 
may make his building 
as near fireproof as 
modern science can de- 
vise, and yet through 
some outside source the 
danger may enter the 
structure. The light- 
ing and power com- 
panies in conjunction 
with the telephone and 



several inches of water with- 
out suffering in any way. 
They are inclosed, and all 
connections are carried to 
them through waterproof 
pipes. The fields and arma- 
ture coils are cooled by fans 
which work on the armature 
shaft, and every part of the 
engine room is insulated 
and fireproofed from all com- 
bustible material. Under 
almost any imaginable con- 
ditions such motors should 
supply a steady pressure of 
water for standpipes and 
sprinklers. All that is re- 
quired to make their service 
perfect is the absence of 
defective wiring of the 
building. 

The crossing of lines in 
or near buildings so as to 
cause (ires is an inexcusable 
blunder of engineering, for 
the danger from such 
sources is too well known 
for any one to plead ignor- 
ance. And yet in the recent 
report of the National Board 
of FireUnderwriters twenty 
fires were attributed to such 
causes. In nearly all in- 




DETA1L BY CHARLES E. BIRGE, 

ARCHITECT. 

klinK-Armstrong Terra Cotta 
Company, Makers. 



THE BRICKBU I LDER. 



259 




DETAIL BY HOLMBOE & LAFFERTY, ARCHITECTS. 
Northwestern Terra Cotta Company, Makers. 

telegraph companies can alone be held responsible for 
such conflagrations. 

The heat from incandescent lamps has been a prolific 
source of fire troubles. In spite of past experiences this 
danger has apparently not been eliminated from such 
buildings where nearly all other precautions are taken. 
In factories and warehouses where arc lamps are used, 
which are admittedly more 
dangerous than incandescent 
lamps, fewer accidents hap- 
pen. The fact that the incan- 
descent lamp is inclosed, and 
the heat is not so apparent to 
one, is often the chief trouble ; 
but a heat that may not seri- 
ously burn the hand often 
causes fires when particularly 
combustible material is 
placed near it. Thus paper 
shades have caught fire from 
incandescent lamps after be- 
ing used for some time, and 
this form of protection for 

the eyes really has its danger. A towel and a handker- 
chief tied around incandescent lamps became heated 
and ignited in two different instances, thus starting 
small fires in apartments. Many such lamps have been 
placed close to combustible material in the past because 
of the belief that they were safe. Paper trimmings that 
did not actually touch the lamps have caught fire, and 




TYMPANUM PANEL EXECUTED IN TERRA COTTA 
PERTH AMBOY TERRA COTTA COMPANY. 



content to experiment with the small batteries used 
for ringing bells and telephones, many amateurs at- 
tempt to make connections with the electric light wires 
that enter the buildings. Such home-made fixtures 
invariably invite danger. In many instances the use of 
electricity by amateurs is on a par with the servant 
girl's employment of kerosene to start the kitchen fire in 
the coal range. The fact that more damage is not done 
in this way is probably due to the Providence which 
guards the footsteps of drunkards and fools. A case in 
point recently cited by an insurance inspector was where 
a defective home-made rheostat ignited the wooden parti- 
tion to which it was fastened. The whole affair was 
screwed to a. light wooden frame on the wall partition, 
and the current short-circuiting at the point of contact 
started a fire that burnt quickly into the wooden parti- 
tion before it was discovered. 

To limit the electrical fire hazard as much as possible 
a series of 'experiments was conducted recently to test 
the power of circuits for breaking down ordinary insula- 
tion and the danger that might result therefrom. In 
nearly all cases the insulation destroyed was found to be 
defective either in manufacture or by improper use. Good 

insulating material, properly 
applied and used, will resist 
the current tor which it is 
intended, and only defects 
through improper use or by 
the short-circuiting of heavy 
currents on the small wires 
will cause trouble. The 
grounding of circuits by the 
metal work on awnings put 
up after the building was 
completed has caused a num- 
ber of fires, and they should 
be cited to show that danger 
from wires does not end after 
the architect and engineer 
have completed their labors. Any alterations or im- 



BY 




DETAIL BY NEW JERSEY TERRA COTTA COMPANY. 

when large lamps have been employed for Christmas tree 
decorations, contact with loose cotton has in one or 
two instances started fires. The realization of a danger 
will go a long way toward averting it, and by appreciating 
the fact that there is cause for precaution in using incan- 
descent lamps in certain places we may eliminate some 
fire accidents. 

The general popularity of electricity among ama- 
teurs is responsible for a number of fire accidents. Not 




MASONIC TEMPLE, NEWCASTLE, PA. 

C. C. & A. L. Thayer, Architects. 

Glazed terra cotta by Excelsior Terra Cotta Company. 



260 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




FRONT ELEVATION. 






GATE LODGE. 



STABLE. 




SIDE ELEVATION. 
HOUSE FOR ROBERTS LE BOUTILLIER, ESQ., WAYNE, PA. 

Built of Star Colonial brick, with black headers. Trimmed with Excelsior terra cotta, roofed with Bennett roofing tiles, all furnished by 
O. W. Ketcham, Philadelphia. Built under the direction of Charles P. Palmer. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



261 



provements made thereafter must be designed with a 
full knowledge of the presence of electric wires, and only 
competent workmen can attend to it. The amateur or un- 
skilled workman can thus come into a building after it has 
been carefully fireproofed throughout and deliberately, 
but ignorantly, introduce a fire hazard that will largely 
nullify much of the careful work of the original contractors. 
The burning out of armatures and coils in the base- 
ment of modern buildings should no longer be a source 
of danger. So well understood is the engineering neces- 
sary to make such 
rooms fireproof that 
ignorance is no longer 
excusable. Where such 
dynamos and motors 
are not properly pro- 
tected and insulated 
from all surrounding 
inflammable material 
the matter should re- 
ceive the attention of 
authorities higher up. 
Many of the earlier in- 
stallations of electrical 
equipments are not 
provided with the pro- 
tective appliances 
adopted to-day, but 
they can be brought 
up to date so that the 
element of danger is 
reduced to nearly the vanishing point. The electrical 
fire hazard can in this way gradually be limited so that it 
will no longer stand as a menace to modern buildings 
and homes. 




DETAIL BY GUSTAVE DRACH, 
ARCHITECT. 

Indianapolis Terra Cotta Co., Makers. 



EXHIBITION OF THE ARCHITECTURAL 
LEAGUE OF NEW YORK. 

THE Twenty-first Annual Exhibition of the Architec- 
tural League of New York will be held in the build- 
ing of the American Fine Arts Society, 215 West 57th 
Street, February 4 to 24 inclusive. January 6 is the last 
day on which architectural exhibits will be received. 
Exhibits will be discharged February 26. 





SCHOOLHOUSE AT M ADISONVILLE. OHIO. 
S. Hannaford & Sons, Architects. 
Roofed with American S tiles made by Cincinnati Roofing Tile and 
Terra Cotta Company. 



The subject 
for the Medal 
Compet itio n 
this year is a 
small chapel to 
St. Peter, to be 
built on a rocky 
promontory 
overlooking the 
sea. Competi- 
tors must be 
residents of the 
United States, 
under the age 
of thirty years. 
The subject for 
the President's 
Prize is the best 
study for a 
mural painting, 
"The Conclu- 
sion of Peace 
after War"; for 
the Avery Prize; 
the best design 
in plaster or 
clay for a wall 
drinking foun- 
tain in a city 
street. 



IN 

GENERAL. 
Horace S. 
Powers is now 
associated with 

Robert C. Spencer, Jr. , in the practice of architecture 
under the firm name of Spencer & Powers. Offices, 
Steinway Hall, Chicago. 

Architects Shollar & Hersh, Altoona, Pa., have taken 
new offices in the Altoona Trust Building. 

A. P. Valentine, Jr., architect, Philadelphia, Pa., for 
the past six years connected with the government ser- 
vice at the Navy Yard, League Island, Pa., has resigned 
therefrom to accept the position of assistant structural 
engineer in the Bureau of Building Inspection, Philadel- 
phia, Pa. This and other recent appointments in that 
bureau have been made as the result of open competi- 
tive examinations conducted by the reorganized Civil 
Service Examining Board of the municipality. 

Herbert M. Baer, architect, has taken offices at 
No. 15 Cortlandt Street, New York City. Manufacturers' 
catalogues and samples desired. 

The Washington Architectural Club has issued its 
syllabus for 1905-1906, from which it is evident that this 
body is alive to the awakened interest which is every- 
where manifesting itself in connection with architecture. 

Cabot's Red Brick Preservative has been used exten- 
sively upon the buildings of the National Cash Register 
Company, Dayton, Ohio, for restoring the original flat, 
brick-red tone of the bricks, and making them perma- 



MODEL OF THE NEW AMERICAN TRUST 
BUILDING, CHICAGO. 

Jarvis Hunt, Architect. 
To be fireproofed with the " Standard " system. 
National Fireproofing Company, Makers. 



262 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



nently waterproof. This company also uses Cabot's 
shingle stains upon its frame buildings. 

The Tiffany Enameled Brick Company will supply 
forty thousand of their bricks for the new power house 
of the Commonwealth Electric Company of Chicago. 

Celadon roofing tile will be used on the following new 
buildings: Large power house at Lockport, 111., for the 
Sanitary District Canal Commission of Chicago, Isham 
Randolph, chief engineer. Lawrence Avenue Pumping 
Station, Chicago. A new laboratory for the Case School 
of Applied Science, Cleveland: and the new Carnegie 







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Library at Cincinnati. 
Their new "Imperial 
Spanish " tile will be 
used on the latter 
building. 

The new Mc- 
Creery departmental 
store, which extends 
from 34th Street to 
35th Street , New 
York City, Hale & 
Rogers, architects, 
will be fireproofed 
throughout with 
.Standard twelve-inch 
arches, furnished by 
the National Fire- 
proofing Company. 




DETAIL BY LOUIS CURTIS, ARCHITECT. 
St. Louis Terra Cotta Company, Makers. 



DETAIL BY SEYMOUR A: PAUL DAVIS, ARCHITECTS. 
New York Architectural Terra Cotta Company, Makers. 



WANTED — In the office of a Detroit architect, a draughtsman 
familiar with the principles of Renaissance in composition, orn* 
ment and color. One who is a good colorist and a graduate of the 
M. I. T. preferred. Address with particulars, M. I. T., care of "The 
Brickbuilder." 

WANTED — To handle account of some good corporation doing 
business with architects, engineers and contractors, on either a sal- 
ary or commission basis. Extensive acquaintance west of Missouri 
River, including California and the Northwest. Present location 
Denver, Col. Best of references. Correspondence solicited. Ad- 
dress " Salesman," care of " The Brickbuilder." 



COMPETITION FOR AN OFFICE BUILDING 

First Prize, $500 Second Prize, $200 Third Prize, $100 

COMPETITION CLOSES DECEMBER 23, 1905 



PROGRAMME 




fp^^m^. HE problem is an Office Building. The location may be assumed in any city of the United States. The site is at the corner of two streets of equal 
importance. The lot itself is perfectly level. The size of building is 80 feet square on the ground and 120 feet high. Number of stories left to 
the designer. 

Above a base course of granite 1 not over 2 feet high 1 ' the exterior of the building is to be designed entirely in Architectural Terra Cotta. 

For the reason that colored terra cotta is likely to be used extensively in the facades of buildings, it is desired that a color scheme sha 11 be 
indicated either by a key or a series of notes, printed in the lower right-hand corner of the sheet of details at a size which will permit of two- 
thirds reduction. 

The following points must be considered in the design : 

A. Frank and logical expression of the prescribed material. 

B. Rational and logical treatment of the architectural problem. 

In awarding the prizes the intelligence shown in the constructive use of terra cotta and the development or modification of style, by reason of the material, 
will be taken largely into consideration. 

It must be borne in mind that one of the chief objects of this competition is to encourage the study of the use of architectural terra cotta. There is no 
limitation of cost, but the designs must be suitable for the character of the building and for the material in which it is to be executed. 

The details should indicate in a general manner the jointing of the terra cotta and the sizes of the blocks. 

"Drawings Required 

On one sheet the front elevation drawn at a scale of 4 feet to the inch, and on the same sheet the perpendicular section of the front wall. 

On a second sheet, half-inch scale elevations and sections of main entrance and any other portions of the building necessary to interpret the design, includ- 
ing a portion of upper stories and main cornice- 
In the lower left-hand corner of the second sheet is to be shown the first and typical floor plans at a scale of 16 feet to the inch. The first floor plan may 
provide offices for a bank or insurance company. The main entrance corridor and location of the elevators should also be shown. 

The size of each sheet 1 there are to be but two* shall be 24 inches by 36 inches. 

The sheets are not to be mounted. 

All drawings are to be in black ink without wash or color, except that the walls on the plans and in the sections may be blacked-in or cross-hatcned. 

Graphic scales to be on all drawings. 

Every set of drawings is to be signed by a nom de plume or device, and accompanying same is to be a sealed envelope with the nom de flume on the 
exterior and containing the true name and addiess of the contestant. 

The drawings are to be delivered flat at the office of THE BRICKBUILDER, 85 Water Street, Boston, Mass., charges prepaid, on or before Decem- 
ber 23, 1905. 

The prize drawings are to become the property of THE BRICKBUILDER, and the right is reserved to publish or exhibit any or all of the others. Those 
who wish their drawings returned may have them by enclosing in the sealed envelopes containing their names ten cents in stamps. 

The designs will be judged by three well-known members of the architectural profession. 

For the design placed first in this competition there will be given &. prize of $500. 
For the design placed second a prize of $200. 
For the design placed third a prize of $100. 

We are enabled to offer prizes of the above mentioned amounts largely through the liberality of the terra cotta manufacturers who are represented in the 
advertising columns of THE BRICKBUILDER. 

This competition is open to everyone. ROGERS & MANSON. BOSTON 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



Vol. 14 



DECEMBER 1905 



No. 



CONTENTS — PLATES 

From Work of McKIM, MEAD & WHITE, PARISH & SCHROEDER, BRUCE 
PRICE, PURDON & LITTLE. 



CONTENTS — LETTER PRESS 



CONVENT CHURCH OF SAN MARCO, LEON, SPAIN Frontispiece 

EDITORIALS 263 

YOUNG MEN'S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION BUILDINGS. I Walter M. Wood 264 

THE WORK OF THE BOSTON SCHOOLHOUSE COMMISSION, 1901-1905. III. 269 

THE VILLAGE COURTHOUSE. I Claude Br agdon 276 

FIREPROOF HOUSE COMPETITION Design submitted by John J. Craig 279 

EDITORIAL COMMENT AND SELECTED MISCELLANY 281 










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THE BWCKBWDER 

DEVOTED • TO -THE • INTERESTS 
ARCHITECrVRE- IN -MATERIALS • OF- CLAY 





THE BRICKBUILDER. 

PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY 

ROGERvS & MANSON, 
85 Water Street, Boston, Mass. . . P. O. Box 3282. 

Entered at the Boston, Mass., Post Office as Second Class Mail Matter, March 12, 1892. 
COPYRIGHT, 1893, BY THE BRICKBUILDER PUBLISHING COMPANY. 

Subscription price, mailed flat to subscribers in the United States and 

Canada $S-°° P er y ear 

Single numbers 5° cents 

To countries in the Postal Union . . . . . $6.00 per year 

Subscriptions payable in advance. 
For sale by all newsdealers in the United States and Canada. Trade supplied by 
the American News Company and its branches. 



OUR GOVERNMENT ARCHITECTURE. 

IT is stated that within the past three years something 
like three hundred million dollars has been expended 
or appropriated by the national government for naval 
expenses. Since the founding of the Republic the total 
amount of appropriations for government buildings 
has been somewhat less than two hundred and fifty 
millions. These figures of themselves are commentary 
on the attitude which the government officials have 
taken in regard to what they consider the real needs 
of the country. 

We are at peace with all the world. There is a crying 
need for good public architecture. And yet we spend 
money by the hundred million annually to keep up a 
navy, while Congress begrudges the necessary funds to 
build the right kind of public buildings. About last June 
the force of the office of the Supervising Architect was 
cut down by the discharge of something over sixty 
draughtsmen, simply because of lack of appropriation 
by Congress. 

It cannot be said, however, that as a whole our legislat- 
ors have been indifferent to the demands of the different 
sections of the country for public buildings; but there 
has been in the past a woeful lack of appreciation of the 
necessity of building our public structures in the right 
way, and when discussions have arisen in the Congress 
or in the Senate regarding architects and their work 
a distressing lack of real knowledge has been shown 
by our statesmen, and some of the statements regard- 
ing compensation for architectural work and what is 
expected in return have been at once ludicrous and 
distressing, showing how little real familiarity of the 



subject is possessed by those who have the voting power 
in their hands. 

Until the members of Congress, who vote the money, 
have a better knowledge of our profession we shall con- 
tinue to have but a stunted development in our govern- 
ment building, and it is certainly the part of the American 
Institute to continue the work it has so well begun 
of educating the political public up to its obligations. 

The existing conditions certainly do not spring from 
any lack of good intent on the part of our lawmakers. 
Indeed, where the matter has been fully understood, there 
has been no lack of proper response and endorsement, as 
is evidenced by the workings of the Tarsney Act, the 
cordial, if somewhat debated, support which has been 
given to the improvement schemes for Washington, the 
rescuing of the Capitol from incompetent hands and plac- 
ing it in charge of architects who are competent beyond 
question, and in many other ways have we evidence that 
the campaign of education, which has been pushed so 
well and so thoroughly by the officials of the American 
Institute, has borne good fruit; but as a fresh crop of 
legislators comes to Washington every year the struggle 
is perennial. 

The dinner of the American Institute held last year at 
Washington undoubtedly exerted a tremendous influence 
for good, and even the honored representative who has 
earned the title of the "Watchdog of the Treasury" 
must have at least more fully appreciated what archi- 
tects wanted to do by having taken part on that oc- 
casion. 

WE are strangely lacking still in this country in an 
appreciation of the real value of good architecture. 
A public building is not merely an opportunity for some 
architect to distinguish himself or for some contractor to 
carry out a difficult feat of construction, but it is a public 
necessity, not only in the merely practical way of appropri- 
ately housing public utilities, but in the more subtle direc- 
tion of cultivating or forming public taste and building 
up the civic spirit by an appeal to the side of man which 
loves beauty for itself. It is distinctly along the lines of 
architecture as a fine art that the American Institute 
must pursue its campaign of education. The city of 
Washington is to-day the grandest object lesson in this 
line which we possess, but as time goes on we hope 
it will be yearly more and more unwise for any poli- 
tician to return to his constituents without having 
contributed something to the development of good archi- 
tecture. 



264 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



Young Men's Christian Association 
Buildings. I. 

BV WALTER M. WOOD, SUPERINTENDENT OF EDUCATION, 
THE V. M. C. A. OF CHICAGO. 

THE Young Men's Christian Association in its sim- 
plicity consists of a body of men who associate 
their efforts for the promotion of Christian fellowship 
and the conduct of such institutional activities as shall 
best make for the safeguarding and development of 
Christian manhood. The building of an Association, 
therefore, is not really the Association, but as its tool 
naturally reflects in its structure and equipment the 
varied purposes to be served. Since Christian man- 
hood, as interpreted by the Association, involves in 
well-balanced proportions the physical, intellectual, reli- 
gions and social life of the individual, an Association 
building intended as an institutional center and means 
for the culture of such manhood must make provision for 
activities in all these lines. 

In reply to the denial of the statement that "clothes 
make the man," it has been said that they do very largely 
after all, since they make all you see of the man except his 
hands and face. It is equally true that while the Asso- 
ciation building does not make the Association, it does 
constitute in many cases the major basis of public judg- 
ment concerning it. This is so true that the building 
itself is frequently spoken of as the Association. If 
the institutional home of an organization is to bear so 
vital a relation to the public conception of the organiza- 
tion itself, the design and construction of a proper Asso- 
ciation building constitue no small contribution to the 
promotion of its interests and purposes. 

The first building ever erected for Association pur- 
poses was dedicated in Chicago, September 29, 1867, its 
third successor being the present million-dollar building 
of the Central Department of the Chicago Association. 
In 1869 the New York City Association erected what 
was known as its Twenty-third Street building, at the 
corner of Twenty-third Street and Fourth Avenue. 
This building, in its architectural design, was peculiarly 
adapted to accommodate the varied lines of Association 
work, and consequently served in a large way for the 
following two decades as a model of Association archi- 
tecture. The subsequent enlargement of the Association 
scheme of activities, especially during recent years, to- 
gether with the rapid building movement of the Associa- 
tions in North America, have demanded the careful study 
among architects and Association officers of Associa- 
tion buildings as a unique and distinctive type of semi- 
public buildings. Last year the number of Association 
buildings in Xorth America increased from four hundred 
and seventy-five to five hundred and seventeen in num- 
ber, while the total valuation of such buildings increased 
from $26,260,870 to ,sjs, 105,050. 

Reasons for having an Ass >. iation Building. 

// is an almost essential tool for the conduct of institu- 
tional activities. 

A working organization without adequate headquar- 
ters and without special kinds of equipment to accommo- 
date its different activities is unable to concentrate its 



forces and wastes much of its energy in trying to adapt 
itself to unfavorable conditions for its work. 

// makes the Association conspicuous in the community. 

No one thing so quickly and satisfactorily brings the 
Association into popular notice as the possession of an 
appropriate building. 

It gives permanence and stability to the work. 

The investment of a considerable sum of money in a 
good building is a self-evident guarantee of public confi- 
dence in the movement, and gives the Association a finan- 
cial standing that is extremely valuable in bringing 
further support, and in enabling it to tide over periods 
of temporary financial stress. 

ft gives the Association independence of action. 

As long as an Association does not control its own 
building it is always apt to be more or less hampered by 
regulations and conditions which may be determined by 
others not in sympathy with the purposes or methods of 
the organization. 

It frequently provides a means of current income. 

While an Association building should be built prima- 
rily for the Association that is to use it, it is usually pos- 
sible to arrange for the rental of certain store room or 
dormitory space, which shall provide a means of income 
large enough to be a strong safety factor in the financial 
administration of the current work. 

Desirablf. Features in an Association Building. 

A list of the more essential features to be provided in 
an Association building intended to accommodate an all- 
round work would include the following: 

A general reception room, with club or rotunda effect; 
general office with counter; private offices for the general 
secretary, physical and educational directors and other 
officers, arranged to be intercommunicating when de- 
sired; safety vault; closet for stock and printed matter; 
check room, controllable from general office, and general 
toilet facilities. 

For distinctly educational use there should be a 
library and study room, accessible but retired, with 
one smaller and one larger room attached, suitable for 
educational talks and lectures, the larger room being 
capable of being darkened for use of stereopticon dur- 
ing the daytime; educational clubrooms, accommodating 
from fifteen to one hundred men; classrooms suitable for 
both day and evening work, accommodating from ten to 
fifty men each, two of the larger rooms being made so 
they can be thrown together; laboratories and, possibly, 
shops. 

For distinctly physical work there should be pro- 
vided a gymnasium, with running track and suitable 
visitors' gallery, handball court, bowling alleys; locker 
rooms, separate for men and boys; baths, tub, shower 
and steam; swimming tank, with special shower adjoin- 
ing entrance; examination room, with emergency equip- 
ment to facilitate care of injuries; barber shop and 
bicycle storage. 

For social activities: conversation room or, possibly, 
parlors, perhaps adjoining restaurant, or serving as foyer 
to auditorium; music room; recreation or game room 
possibly arranged for larger games, such as billiards; 
restaurant or dining room, with ample kitchen facilities; 
lunch or refreshment room, or " spa," adjoining general 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



265 





SECOND FLOOR PLAN. 



THIRD FLOOR PLAN. 




BASEMENT PLAN. 



Y. M. C. A. BUILDING, 
Pond & Pond, 



FIRST FLOOR PLAN. 



ANN ARBOR, MICH. 
Architects. 



266 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



reception room, connected with kitchen by dumb-waiter; 
dormitories, each with closet, some of them capable of 
arrangement en suiti; auditorium, entered from general 
reception room or by separate entrance. 

Many of the features mentioned for educational and 
social work, such as library, talk, lecture, club, class and 
music rooms, together with the auditorium, should be 
planned with a view to their accommodating equally well 
the various phases of re- 
ligious work of the Asso- 
ciation. In addition to the 
equipment for men there 
should be provided separate 
rooms for boys, with sepa- 
rate entrance, including at 
least reception room, game 
room, library and reading 
room, class and club room 
and shop, besides separate 
lockers and toilet facilities, 
as indicated. 

Some Characteristics of 

a Good Association 

Building. 

Accessibility. 

As the Association build- 
ing is to become the natural 
congregating center of 
young men during their 
leisure hours, it ought to 
be so located as to make it 
readily accessible to those 
whom it is especially in- 
tended to serve. Provision 
should be made in the form 
of main entrance and ele- 
vation of first floor to give 
the impression of easy ac- 
cess to the building from 
the street. 

Attractiveness. 

The architectural style 
of the building should be 
such as to attract the favor- 
able interest of young men, 
causing them to regard it 
as a hospitable place, at the 
same time marking it as 
one of the ornate public 
improvements of the com- 
munity to which citizens 
will take pride in referring. 

Economy. 

In view both of the 
sources of its revenue and the very practical nature of 
its work, the Association building should be constructed 
with as much economy as durability, low cost of subse- 
quent maintenance and utility will permit. While the 
building should not be too plain to lend dignity to the 
work done in it, it should not bear marks of extravagance. 

Adaptability to both day and night use. 

This characteristic may require special consideration 




\ fOOOfP j^J j coal 



CXECJCI5E AND GAME.3 



Y. M. C. A. 



of matters of natural and artificial lighting, heating, ven- 
tilation, special provision facilitating janitor service and 
prevention of disturbance by noise. 
Possibility of enlargement. 

The growth of an Association immediately following 
the acquisition of a suitable building frequently results in 
an overcrowding of the facilities provided, making it ex- 
tremely desirable that in as many lines as possible addi- 
tional space can be readily 
and symmetrically added by 
the erection of additional 
stories or annexes contem- 
plated as possibilities in the 
original plan. Such fore- 
sight may save an Associa- 
tion from unfortunate 
cramping at a time of pros- 
perity or from the necessity 
of severe loss and inter- 
ruption to work by the 
erection of a new building. 
( omposite unity. 
The work of a well- 
rounded Association incor- 
porates activities and re- 
quires forms of equipment 
very similar in physical 
lines to those of an athletic 
club ; in educational lines 
very similar to those of a 
school ; in social lines sim- 
ilar to those of a social club, 
and in religious lines some- 
what similar to those of a 
church : but it should be re- 
membered that the purpose 
of the Association is to har- 
moniously blend all these 
agencies, and therefore the 
Association building, rather 
than being a combination 
gymnasium, schoolhouse, 
social club and church, 
should be a composite unit. 
Each section should be 
made sufficiently distinc- 
tive to facilitate and dignify 
its work, but a division into 
seemingly independent de- 
partments should be care- 
fully avoided. 

Flexibility of arrange- 
ment. 

A growing organization, 
conducting constantly vary- 
ing activities, should have its building so arranged as to 
permit the shifting of a room from one use to another with- 
out seriously modifying the general plan, and without in- 
volving any considerable expense for changes. Except 
when necessary the design of rooms should not be such 
as to make them suitable for fixed and limited uses only. 
Ease of division for partial or separate use. 
In an Association there are many times of the day and 



"I l l i ill, n \T 



TJ IT 



BASEMENT PLAN. 
FOR GRAND TRUNK RAILWAY, ELSDON, ILL. 

Pond & Pond, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



267 



certain seasons of the year when portions of the building 
need not be in active use. Provision should be made that 
at such times they may be easily shut off without harm- 
ing the appearance and usefulness of the portions kept 
open. It is always advisable to have the open space re- 
duced to the lowest working minimum. It is important 
that there shall be 
means of easy and 
complete separation 
of certain portions 
of the building for 
special use when 
desired, such as the 
auditorium when 
rented and the 
rooms of the boys' 
division. 

Minimum of in- 
ternal traffic in- 
volved. 

One of the key 
principles in the 
disposition of space 
and arrangement of 
features is to so 
place them as to in- 
volve the least pos- 
sible amount of 
travel on the part of 
a member going be- 
tween the entrance 
or main reception 
room and any privi- 
lege which he may 
desire to use. A 
helpful method in 
securing this is to 
follow the likely 
path of a member in 
his use of the privi- 
leges and shorten 
the lines wherever 
possible. This re- 
duction of traffic 
facilitates control, 
increases conven- 
ience and decreases 
disturbances and 
wear and tear. 

Ease of control by 
minimum force. 

Since immediate 
oversight of every 
privilege when in 
use is an essential 
feature of Associa- 
tion work, and 
since the number of employees must be as small as pos- 
sible, it is expedient that the entire plan shall focus at one 
general office, and that privileges in other portions of the 
building shall be grouped around what might be called 
sub-foci, making it possible for a man at a central point to 
have within easy and effective control the use of all privi- 
leges in that section of the building. This reducing of 




the number of foci to be manned reduces the expense and 
increases the likelihood of having them manned by com- 
petent help. 

Non-interference of one feature with another. 
The great variety of the Association's activities, and 
the fact that many of them may be in active use at the 

same hour, require 
unusual care in the 
design of the build- 
ing to prevent the 
active use of one 
privilege from dis- 
turbing those who 
are using another. 
For example, the 
placing and con- 
struction of the 
gymnasium and 
bowling alleys shall 
be such as not to 
throw out of use at 
the same hours the 
auditorium or class- 
rooms. Likewise, 
the clu brooms, 
where applause is 
appropriate, should 
not be surrounded 
by classrooms, 
where quiet is es- 
sential ; and the 
music room should 
not be an alcove of 
the reading room. 
Arrangement of 
features magnifying 
their self -advertis- 
ing value. 

Since many men 
are attracted for the 
use of certain single 
privileges, and since 
the Association 
seeks to enlist men 
in all-round activi- 
ties for their sym- 
metrical develop- 
ment, it is advan- 
tageous that all 
features shall be so 
placed with relation 
to one another that 
the men who come 
for one thing shall 
automatically be 
brought face to face 
with other privi- 
leges into the use of which they may be led. 

Matters requiring Special Care, but often Neglected. 

Concentration of plumbing in accessible form for care 
and repair. 

The extensive bathing and toilet facilities in an Asso- 
ciation building of necessity constitute a large item of 



r 



268 



THE BRICKBU I L DER. 



expense for construction. While convenience in arrange- 
ment of other features might make desirable a somewhat 
scattered or divided system of plumbing, the proper and 
economical installation of a plumbing system demands as 
little division as possible. Ample space should be used 
to make all plumbing easily accessible for frequent 
inspection and for repairs when needed. Special care 
needs to be exercised in the proper distribution of an 
adequate supply of hot and cold water. 

Adequate and specially distributed lighting. 

In view of the large amount of night use of an Asso- 



Ventilation. 

While the problem of ventilation is a common one to 
all buildings, some features of an Association require 
special provision in this line. Rooms and special venti- 
lating apparatus should be so placed as to carry off the 
odors from the locker room, gymnasium, kitchen and 
restaurant and much of the steam from the bathrooms, 
instead of allowing the atmosphere of the entire building, 
for lack of this provision, to become heavy and noxious. 
In rooms of assembly, as the auditorium, club and class 
rooms, an unusual provision for fresh air is requisite, as 





SECOND FLOOR PLAN. 



ATTIC PLAN. 




BASEMENT PLAN. 



FIRST FLOOR PLAN. 



V. M. C. A. BUILDING, LAKE GENEVA, WIS. 

Pond & Pond, Architects. 



ciation building and in view of the many rooms, such as 
reading and class rooms, where close application to work 
is required, there is necessity for an abundance of light 
and for its distribution to meet particular demands, 
instead of its being entirely massed for general lighting 
by chandeliers and the like. Provision should also be 
made that the lighting system be cut up into small 
enough units to make possible the lighting of small sec- 
tions independently, rather than lighting up a large sec- 
tion when it is needed only at one point. This provision 
means very much in economy of operation. 



the rooms are occupied usually by men after a day of 
active work and who are, consequently, especially suscep- 
tible to drowsiness. 

Adequate and rightly placed storage and workroom 
space for engineers and janitors. 

The varied activities of an Association involve the pos- 
session of equipment needed from time to time for tem- 
porary use. Proper storage space should be provided 
for this equipment when not in use in such form as to 
furnish it proper protection and make it accessible when 
wanted without involving difficult or expensive handling. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



269 



Much repair work can be done within the building at 
slight expense if there is a sufficient working space set 
aside for it. To such storage and work space things not 
in use, or needing repair, can be taken at once, thereby 
freeing the Association rooms from being cluttered with 
unnecessary and broken furniture and apparatus. 

Dressing room, lavatory and toilet facilities for the 
employed help and also for women. 

If not regularly, most Associations from time to time 
must have on duty or in attendance at their building a 
considerable number of employees or guests, both men 
and women, for whom it would be inconvenient and per- 
haps impossible to set apart a portion of such facilities 
from those regularly provided for members' use. This 
necessitates special provision of such facilities, so located 
as to make for the greatest convenience and least inter- 
ference with the regular operation of Association activ- 
ities. 

Bulletins. 

The numerous and varied activities of an Association 
which require specially posted notices, either in front of 
the building, in the reception room or at sub-centers 
throughout the building, make it expedient that the plans 
shall incorporate bulletin boards of proper size, so placed 
as to effectively harmonize with the general architecture 
and equipment, thus preventing their being put later in 
unsightly places, much to the detriment of the general 
effect. 

Standard dimensions for physical work features where 
competitive records are involved. 

The equipment for numerous games and other features, 
such as the swimming tank, must be of standard pro- 
portions as defined by athletic bodies, if records made in 
their use are to be recognized in competitive lists. While 
an Association may not desire to emphasize competition 
or record making for recognition by athletic bodies, it 
is unfortunate to be denied such opportunity by avoid- 
able limitations in equipment. 

The planning of a modern Young Men's Christian 
Association building is a new and unique piece of archi- 
tectural work worthy the most interested and conscien- 
tious effort of any architect. Upon the design which he 
executes hinges in no small degree the public's conception 
of the Association and the free or restricted develop- 
ment of its purposes. For an architect to give to a Young 
Men's Christian Association a building really suited to 
the purpose of its work is to render a great service, con- 
tributing to the development of Christian manhood and 
the promotion of the public welfare. 



MUCH of our architecture suffers because of the com- 
mercial limitations which are generally at the very 
start imposed upon the architect. Especially is this true 
of such a structure as a theater, which, of all buildings, 
permits of a logical relation between plan and exterior, 
and an accusing of the interior arrangement on the exte- 
rior design. But there is not in this country to-day a 
single theater building which is designed in the broad 
academic manner, or which has a plan which of itself 
could be called architecturally interesting. The architect 
is invariably told to design a theater for a given site, and 
the site is selected upon purely commercial considerations, 
without reference to its peculiar fitness. 



The Work ot the Boston Schoolhouse 
Commission, 1901-1905. III. 

INFORMATION TO ARCHITECTS. 

THE Board have furnished each architect with a copy 
of a previous specification to serve as a pattern. In 
this way the form of the specifications has become stand- 
ardized, omissions made unlikely, and reference made 
easy for those who are constantly using a large number 
of different specifications. In addition "General Infor- 
mation for First-Class Construction " * is furnished by 
the Board. This information, as given in the last report 
of the Board (February i, 1904, to February 1, 1905), is 
briefly as follows, together with some notes as to the 
steps by which they have arrived at their present regula- 
tions. 

In general, all buildings are of first-class construction 
throughout, including the roof. This avoids certain 
restrictions as to enclosed staircases, etc., which would 
obtain in second-class construction and which the Board 
consider undesirable. As was shown in connection with 
the Samuel W. Mason School (noted in article II, No- 
vember number) the excess of the cost of first-class con- 
struction over that of second-class is not great, and in 
view of the benefits obtained the Board consider it worth 
while. 

Schoolrooms. The dimensions of the classrooms are 
now fixed at 24 feet by 30 feet for primary and 26 feet by 
32 feet for grammar grades. The primary room was origi- 
nally 24 feet by 32 feet, but was modified in 1903 to the 
present size. During the same year, having definitely 
fixed the sizes of the desks and seats, the Board estab- 
lished two alternative dimensions for the grammar grade, 
i. e., r 24 feet by 32 feet and 26 feet by 30 feet, which 
would seat fifty pupils instead of the standard fifty-six, 
and which could be used in exceptional cases where 
pressed for room. The standard height is set at 13 feet in 
clear. Modifications of the standards are made only after 
consultation with the Board. 

The lighting called for is for windows in a long side 
arranged for left-hand light. The sill is set at 2 feet 

6 inches from the floor, and all windows are desired to be 
square headed, extending close to the ceiling, the total 
area of glass to be not less than one-fifth of floor area, or 
about 160 square feet for a standard primary room. 
Large sheets of glass are not desired, the windows being 
preferably divided with muntins. Architraves are omitted 
and the jamb plastered to a metal corner bead. Each 
room has but one door to the corridor, 3 feet 6 inches by 

7 feet, and partly glazed for easier inspection by the prin- 
cipal during school hours. Georgia pine rift or maple is 
specified for floors. The walls now are painted burlap 
up to top of blackboard with tinted plaster above. At 
first the burlap extended merely to the window sill. The 
blackboards, always 4 feet high, are placed at the teach- 
er's end, and on one long side in primary schoolrooms 
and on the wall opposite the teacher as well in gram- 
mar. The bottom of the blackboard varies from 2 feet 
2 inches from floor in kindergarten rooms to 2 feet 8 inches 
from floor in grammar schoolrooms, and in primary schools 



* Boston Building Laws define first-class construction as fireproof 
construction throughout. 



270 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




JEFFERSON SCHOOL. 
Grammar, Lowell District, Heath Street. Shepley, Kutan & Coolidge, Architects 

19 rooms: 950 pupils. 
Cube, 856,777 (855,000). Cost, cul' . J4 ($0.22). 

Cost, $210,890.49 ($188,100). Cost per pupil, $221.99 ($198.00). 



a rack is arranged over the blackboard to take cards. 
Picture moldings at top of burlap and at ceiling are used 
in both grades, and the details for chalk gutters, etc., are 
furnished by the Board. The artificial lighting is by 
electric light reflected from the ceiling. Six groups of 
four lights each, with underneath reflector, throw the light 
against the plaster ceiling, which is left level anduntinted. 
Each room has its bookcase let into the wall and fitted 
with movable shelves for three hundred books behind 
glazed doors, with drawers and cupboards below, drawings 
of the standard type being furnished by the Board. A 
small closet for the teacher's coat and hat is desired open- 
ing from the classroom, but may open from the wardrobe. 

The wardrobe adjoins the classroom and is entered by 
two double swing, partly glazed doors, both from the 
classroom, there being no direct connection with the cor- 
ridor. The walls are treated as in the classroom, the bur- 
lap extending up to the hook rail, which is set at different 
heights for the different grades, with shoe and umbrella 
rack below. There are no thresholds to the doors. An 
open space under one door or an open panel assists the 
ventilation of the wardrobe, which has its own vent duct. 
The wardrobes are from 4 feet 6 inches to 5 feet 6 inches 
wide. 

The corridors vary from minimum widths of 8 feet 
for a four-room floor plan and 10 feet for a larger number, 
the size being governed by length, access, etc. Outside 
light into the corridors is considered essential. Tile, ter- 
razzo or granolithic is used for the floors. There are 

Note. — The figures in parentheses, given in connection with the 
titles, are limits set by the Board. 



one or two 4-foot sinks on 
each floor above the first in the 
corridor. The walls of the 
corridors have a 7 -foot dado 
of painted burlap, with un- 
tinted plaster above. 

The number and arrange- 
ment of the staircases are de- 
termined by law, the construc- 
tion in all cases being fire- 
proof. North River stone on 
iron frame or granolithic sur- 
face on concrete construction 
is the general type of tread, 
the North River stone giving 
the greatest satisfaction for 
durability and cleanliness. 
Wall rails are not considered 
necessary, but are put on if the 
principal wishes. The rails 
are kept high (2 feet 8 inches 
on runs and 3 feet on land- 
ings), with simple, easily 
cleaned pattern, and the steps 
are 6 ' ■_• to 7 inches by 1 o inches. 
A center rail in stairs over 5 
feet wide was at first required, 
but has been abandoned. 

In each grammar school 
there is to be a room centrally 
located for the master, with 
toilet and book closet. In all 
schools teachers' rooms are provided, averaging about 
30 square feet per teacher, with one water-closet and bowl 
for each ten. Where men as well as women are teachers 
there is a separate room arranged for the men. A gen- 
eral book room is provided in each school, fitted with 
cupboards and shelves and depending in size on the grade 
and size of the school. 

All the free basement space is arranged as playrooms 
for boys and girls, the walls being lined with salt glazed 
brick up to seven feet, and being painted or whitewashed 
above, the ceilings being plastered and the floors having 
asphalt or granolithic surface. From these playrooms 
there are exits to the playgrounds adjoining the build- 
ing. The playrooms for the boys and girls are intended 
to be separated, but in some very compact plans it has 
been impossible, and a common playroom has been all 
that the space would allow. This is not desirable, as 
proved by the Jefferson School, illustrated in this number, 
where the common playroom has resulted in keeping the 
boys outside until time for school to begin. 

In grammar schools the assembly hall is arranged with 
a platform capable of seating one or in the larger schools 
two classes. Galleries are allowed where the hall is two 
stories high, and anterooms near the platform are needed 
with connection from adjoining classrooms either through 
anteroom or direct to platform. The floor is kept level, 
and the hall is expected to accommodate the whole number 
of pupils in the smaller grammar buildings, but in the 
larger ones to seat generally not over six hundred to 
seven hundred. 

A drawing is furnished showing the standard arrange- 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



271 



ment of a manual training room of thirty benches. The 
room should have windows as near full length as possible, 
and a corner location with windows on two sides is desir- 
able. In the corner between the window walls are placed 
the demonstration bench and steps. Each room should 
have a wardrobe with space for thirty hooks, a large 
teacher's closet with shelving where finished work can be 
stored, bookcase as in regular classrooms, about thirty 
running feet of blackboard, a large work rack across one 
end of room 2 feet deep and 6 feet 6 inches high, and a 
stock room of about 80 square feet, with two 18-inch 
shelves on all walls. A 3-foot sink is a convenience but 
not a necessity. The room is finished simply if in base- 
ment, with sheathed or painted walls; if above the base- 
ment it is finished like the classrooms. The furniture, 




SECOND FLOOR PLAN. 




on the first floor with south or southeast exposure and 
large enough to take a 16-foot circle with 4 feet outside ; 
also an adjoining room connected with this of about 200 
square feet. If on a corner, light from both sides is used. 
The fittings are similar to ordinary classrooms, only the 
tack board over blackboard should be covered with bur- 
lap, and two bookcases or one large one should be pro- 
vided. A store closet for supplies is needed, and a some- 
what larger teachers' closet than in other rooms, as there 
are three teachers. Wardrobes are similar to general 
type, with space for sixty hooks, and a water-closet and 
slate sink are convenient features to have adjoining the 
kindergarten. 

The general toilet rooms are put in the basement. The 
basis of accommodation is three water-closets (two girls', 




BASEMENT PLAN. 



FIRST FLOOR PLAN. 



(CROSS IN CIRCLE, TEACHER'S DESK. LINE AND DOT, BLACKBOARD.) 
PLANS, JEFFERSON SCHOOL. 



consisting of the workbenches and stools, display frames, 
demonstration steps with guard rail and a large table 
with unfinished top besides the teacher's desk, is not in- 
cluded in the general contract. 

The cooking room is of the size of a classroom and 
wardrobe combined or larger if space is available, and 
like the manual training room may have light from two 
sides. It is furnished with workbenches to accommo- 
date twenty-eight pupils, set in an open form with a de- 
tached demonstration bench in the middle of one long 
side, with an opening opposite giving free access to the 
enclosed space, in which is placed a dining table. Each 
station is fitted with a Bunsen burner with hinged iron 
grill set on aluminum plates. The room is furnished 
with wardrobe closets, teacher's closet, a section of black- 
board 10 feet long, a dresser 10 feet long in three sec- 
tions, a fuel box, bookcase, sink, refrigerator and demon- 
stration coal and gas ranges set on tiled hearth. 

The kindergarten, if required, is placed preferably 



one boys') and thirty-six inches of urinal for each class- 
room. Slate sinks, 12 inches per classroom, are located 
perferably in the playrooms. In large schools the num- 
ber of fixtures can be considerably reduced from the 
above, especially on the boys' side. Ample outside light is 
required. Glazed double-swing doors give access. The 
floors are asphalt, and in the boys' toilet drain to the 
urinal, in the girls' draining to a floor wash. The ceil- 
ings, as in all the basement, are plastered directly on the 
under side of the floor construction. 

Heating and Ventilating. Detailed information for 
the size and location of the heat and vent ducts is given 
for both gravity and fan systems. In a gravity system 
the heat duct is on basis of one square foot of cross sec- 
tion for each nine occupants ; in a fan system the same 
for each fourteen occupants. . The location of opening is 
the same in both cases, being in the middle of wall oppo- 
site windows, or, if the room be a corner room, within 
ten feet of outside wall. The bottom of the opening is 



27: 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




MATHER SCHOOL. 

Grammar, Mather District, Meeting House Hill. 

Cram, Goodhue & Ferguson, Architects. 

31 rooms: 1,550 pupils. 

Cube, 1,353,831 (1,240,000). Cost cubic foot, $0.21 ($0.22). 

Cost, $288,380.46 ($272,800). Cost per pupil, $186.05 ($176.00). 



**';'• 



8 feet high, and in a fan system the opening is one-third 
larger than the duct, but in a gravity system is the same 
size. No guard is put in the opening, and it is finished 
inside like adjoining walls. 

The vent ducts allow about one square foot for each 
ten occupants or each six- 
teen occupants, according as 
the system be gravity or 
fan, and are located where 
possible on same walls as 
heat ducts, but in any case 
on an inside wall. The open- 
ings are full size of ducts, 
and the floor is carried into 
bottom of duct, the base- 
board carried around and the 
exposed inside of duct fin- 
ished like adjoining walls. 

Each wardrobe has vent 
duct of i 2 .; square feet sec- 
tion, with top and bottom 
registers, and the space un- 
der door as noted above 
allows air to pass freely from 
classroom through wardrobe 
and out vent duct. The doors detail ok rear, 



b ;- 



_-'_ III H --- iinn m m Illl II --_ Hull _ __, 

" gnu Hgs * K nii ana m 

1 Ih & iii m • ■! 1 



into toilet rooms have openings, either in lower panels 
with register face or under door, eqiial to area of vent 
duct. The size of the vent duct is on the basis of 12 
inches for each closet and for each 1 6 inches of urinal space. 
The rooms are vented through the seats, each seat having 

local vent of 1 3 square inches, 
and through slots at bottom 
edge of urinal slab close to 
the trough, according to a 
standard drawing furnished 
by the Board. 

The buildings are all 
wired for electric light, with 
gas outlets provided in all 
corridors, stairways, vesti- 
bules and boiler room. In 
the classrooms the fixtures 
have already been noted as 
specially designed by the 
Board for combined direct 
and diffused light: these six 
groups are governed by three 
switches, and in addition 
there is a drop light over 
teacher's desk. Wardrobes 
mather school. have each a two-light ceiling 



THE BRI CKBU I LDER. 



273 



outlet. The corridors are lit from ceiling wherever pos- 
sible, with emergency gas in addition. The switches in 
corridors, playrooms and toilets are operated by a private 
key. 

A complete system of clocks and bells is installed in 
each school, the clocks operated by a master clock, and the 
bells operated by a push button in primary schools, but 
operated automatically by the master clock in grammar 
and high schools. In every school each room, hall, 
teacher's room and boiler room is connected to master's 
office or first assistant's room by a telephone system. 



have applied and would be eleven per cent less than those 
given. 

The plan is a very compact rectangle, with the rooms 
giving off on either side of a corridor running the length 
of the building, with stairways and entrances at the ends. 
The second floor, with eight rooms, is quite an ideal plan. 
The arrangement of windows, however, was influenced by 
the design, so that either the second floor with its slender 
iron mullions has too much light or the more solidly con- 
structed first floor too little, and the assembly hall on 
the third floor, with the second floor fenestration carried 




BASEMENT PLAN. FIRST FLOOR PLAN. 

(CROSS IN CIRCLE, TEACHER'S DESK. LINE AND DOT, BLACKBOARD.) 

PLANS, MATHER SCHOOL. 



The Jefferson School. 
This is one of the first grammar schools built by the 
Board, being contracted for before they had standardized 
the requirements to the extent they subsequently have, 
and to this cause they assign the excessive cost. The 
Board's inability at that time to instruct the architects as 
to the necessary reductions, and a site which required 
four months of blasting together with a somewhat expen- 
sive glass and iron exterior wall construction forced the 
cost above the highest limits, which are those given in 
parantheses in connection with the illustrations. Being 
a school of over eighteen rooms, the low limits should 



up, has an undesirable amount of light for a room of that 
nature. With this symmetrical plan and treatment of 
elevations, the assembly hall, the largest unit in a gram- 
mar school, finds no expression in the exterior, and this 
plan would therefore seem more logical for a primary 
building, for which, with the third floor like the second, 
it would be ideal. Here the assembly hall occupies the 
space on the third floor equivalent to the four central 
classrooms and corridor space on the floor below, gain- 
ing the necessary height by a somewhat higher central 
section of the flat roof blanked by a higher balustrade. 
Owing to the compactness of the plan there is insufficient 



274 



THE BRICKBU I LDER. 




OLIVER WENDELL HOLMES SCHOOL. 

Grammar, Gibson District, School Street, Roxbury. 

A. W. Longfellow, Architect. 

24 rooms: 1,200 pupils. 

Cube, 991,609 (960,000). Cost cubic foot, $0.19 ($0.22). 

Cost, $188,326.47 ($201,200). Cost per pupil, $156.94 ($176.00). 

Without some planting and grading. 

space in the basement for the two playrooms in addition 
to the manual training room and cooking school and the 
usual domestic engineering. The available space has in 
consequence been thrown together, intended as a common 
playroom. This seems a difficult arrangement to ad- 
minister, and here has resulted in the playroom being 
turned over to the girls, the boys being kept outside the 
building until school time. The playgrounds are sepa- 
rated, being on either side of the building, enclosed with 
iron railings and planted areas. The school is assured 
permanent light, as two proposed streets will eventually 
bound the lot on the long sides, and the corridors and 
some wardrobes alone will be affected by any building 
on the adjoining lot to the west. The heating system is 
low pressure gravity return, with a gravity system for 
air, with hand control in each room. 

The Mather School. 

The Mather School, occupying the north side of the 
top of Meeting House Hill, is the first and largest of a 
group of school buildings proposed for this site, the 
Board aiming to take advantage of what they consider to 
be the finest location owned by the city for school pur- 
poses, and to create eventually a commanding educational 
group forming an open quadrangle with an unobstructed 
eastern view. This, the largest grammar school yet 
built by the Board, is composed of a central block con- 
nected with two flanking wings by the stairway and en- 



trance halls. The assembly 
hall occupies the second and 
third floors of the central 
block, a gallery opposite the 
platform connecting the wings 
on the third floor. Owing to 
the slope of the land it was 
possible to get four rooms in the 
basement of the eastern wing 
almost wholly above grade. 
Four rooms in the other wing 
are available, though with not 
such perfect light, and can be 
finished when needed, making 
the school a thirty-five room 
school. One of the rooms in 
the eastern wing is being tem- 
porarily used as a cooking 
school. It is proposed to locate 
this with manual training room s, 
now cared for in another build- 
ing, in one of the future build- 
ings, so that eventually this 
school will rate as a thirty-six 
room school. Almost all the 
rooms have the relation be- 
tween schoolroom and wardrobe 
considered ideal by the Board, 
only two on each floor being ex- 
ceptions. A series of shields, 
with federal, state and civic 
devices and devices of educa- 
tional establishments at home 
and abroad, forms an extremely 
interesting feature of the ex- 
terior. The heating is by a combination pump receiver 
and gravity return system, the water returning direct to 
the boilers through a by-pass valve when the pressure is 
dropped at night, but during school hours being returned 
by means of a pump. A twelve-foot plenum fan, run by 
a steam engine, forces the air to the schoolrooms, venti- 




FRONT OF OLIVER WF.NDELL HOLMES SCHOOL. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



275 



lation being stimulated by means of aspirating coils heated 
by exhaust steam from the engine, which also furnishes 
the steam for the heating system through a reducing-pres- 
sure valve when full pressure is needed for running the 
fan. 




SECOND FLOOR^PLAN. 




right-angle corner of the lot. The basement of the new 
building contains the cooking school, the toilets and the 
heating system, which* is similar to that installed in the 
Mather. The hall, which occupies the second and third 
stories between the staircases, is of an unusual shape, 




THIRD FLOOR PLAN. 




BASEMENT PLAN. FIRST FLOOR PLAN. 

(CROSS IN CIRCLE, TEACHER'S DESK. DASH AND DOT, BLACKBOARD.) 

PLANS, HOLMES SCHOOL. 



The Oliver Wendell Holmes School. 
In this school an unconventional plan has been devel- 
oped on account of an irregular lot, with a large number 
of fine trees which it was undesirable to sacrifice. The 
playgrounds occupy the corners of the lot. The old Gib- 
son School building was moved and occupies now the 



being very wide and shallow with galleries at either end, 
but has proved satisfactory. 

This is the most economical grammar school yet built 
by the Board. The figure given as cost is exclusive of 
some planting which was done later. With this the fig- 
ure was within $195,000. 







WINDSOR AVENUE ENTRANCE, KENEY PARK, HARTFORD, CONN. 
Benjamin Wistar Morris, Jr., Architect. 



276 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



The Village Courthouse. I. 

BY CLAUDE BRAGDON. 

THIS courthouse, though imaginary, is assumed to 
occupy, and ( I venture to hope) to adorn an actual 
town, or, since it is not well to be too specific, a composite 
made up of some half dozen of the featureless towns of 
central New York. Its architecture, if one may apply 
that noble word to a thing so ignoble as the half-mile-long 
double row of stores, churches and houses which face one 
another across the wide, muddy elm-sheltered main street, 
has at least the merit of conserving and portraying the 
various vicissitudes, aesthetic and economic, which the 
place has undergone almost from the time 
(still relatively recent ) when it was such a 
beautiful wilderness of river, lake and forest ' 
as good old Fenimore Cooper loved to de- 
scribe, down to the present instant, when the 
trolley cars go squeaking up and down the 




ufacturer. They are enlightened enough to realize that 
the achievement of beauty must rest with their architect, 
but in order to assist him on the practical side they will 
have visited other county seats, interrogated court offi- 
cers and employees, and in the light of knowledge 
gleaned in this way, formulated for his guidance the 
following program : 

" The courthouse is to provide accommodation for 
three distinct groups: first, a courtroom of about 1,200 
square feet, with small anterooms for the judge and 
counsel, with a separate rear entrance. It is suggested 
that this occupy a separate pavilion in the rear, the height 
of the courtroom being carried up so as to form a small 
balcony on the second floor. The balance of 
the entrance story should be given to the 
second group, which should include on one 
side a room for the grand jury of about 600 
square feet, with anterooms, etc., and on 
the other side apartments for witnesses, 



A VILLAGE COURTHOUSE. Claude Bragdon, Architect. 



old Iroquois trails, and sawdust, sewage and slag, clog 
and pollute the primeval water courses. 

There are a few fine old houses, built in the early 
years of the last century by the first holders of the land. 
They are either shabby and neglected, or else (and this 
is worse ) altered out of all semblance of their original 
form. Though only the work of country builders, their 
details and proportions have an unmatched felicity, — 
they are like the rare flowers of an old-fashioned garden 
overgrown with weeds. One or two pretentious white- 
pillared porticos mark the period of the Classic revival ; 
after these a deluge of mid-Yictorian ugliness. In the 
names of Mansard and Queen Anne what crimes have 
here been committed! To complete the enumeration 
there are a few, a very few, really good modern houses, 
the first fruits of the revival of taste upon which we are 
at last entered. 

Let us assume, since all is assumption, that the build- 
ing committee for the new courthouse is composed of 
those men of the town most competent for such office, a 
judge, a lawyer, a retired builder, a merchant and a man- 



prisoners and the district attorney. There should be an 
ample lobby in the first floor with two flights of stairs 
leading to the second story in front portion, which should 
be given up to the probate court, including a courtroom 
of about 600 square feet and registry of deeds of about 
600 square feet and offices for the registrar and clerks and 
a small waiting room." 

The only other condition imposed is that the building 
be constructed of burnt clay in some of its forms, since the 
making of excellent brick and terra cotta are important 
local industries. 

The lot upon which the new courthouse is to stand has 
a frontage of 250 feet on the main street, and faces the 
public square, — a rectangle of trampled grass with a jig- 
saw pagoda used as a band stand at one end, and a fire- 
men's monument at the other. At the invitation of the 
building committee a well-known firm of landscape archi- 
tects is already preparing plans for the reclamation and 
adornmentof this square. 

vSuch, then, are the various factors with which the ar- 
chitect of the new courthouse has to deal. One or two 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



277 




EEONT ELEVATION 



SICE El^EX'ATICN 



ELEVATIONS, A VILLAGE COURTHOUSE. 



features not called for in the syllabus naturally suggest 
themselves, a broad-paved terrace, a loggia in the second 
story overlooking the square, and a clock tower, — all 
convenient and appropriate adjuncts to a building of this 
character. 

The plan solves itself without difficulty from the re- 
quirements, and the plan determines the form ( though 
not the style) of the exterior. There remains unfortu- 
nately the question of a choice of style. Unfortunately, 
I say, because in the great periods of art an architect no 
more thought of choosing the style in which he essayed 
to work than the bird should choose the air, or the fish 
the sea : it was already chosen for him, and he did his 




thinking in terms of it. It is clear that the architectu- 
rally best things of which the little town can boast are its 
oldest houses and churches, and it is equally clear that 
they are irreconcilably at variance with those built later, 
except, perhaps, with a few of the newest houses of all. 
These, in a manner, keep them in countenance and recall 
their faded beauty, like fresh young children who more 
resemble their grandparents than their parents. Here, 
then, is a hint for the architect to follow. His courthouse 
must be the fairest grandchild of them all, resembling 
the oldest and finest of its elders, without mimicking 
their decrepitude and low estate. In plain words, the 
building should be in the Colonial style, recalling the 
period in which our taste was truest and finest, yet it 
should not be archaic, but palpitating with the spirit of 
to-day. 




PLANS, A VILLAGE COURTHOUSE. 



278 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



The architecture of the Georgian period represents 
the Renaissance of Jones and Wren in its last gasp, but 
with all its faults something of the grand manner of an 
age of taste, of urbanity, of beauty survives in it, and at 
its best it is characterized by a quiet dignity which we 
have since failed to achieve, — a dignity arising from a 
certain justness of proportion of which the builders of 
that day still possessed the secret, or instinct, and which 
we appear to have lost. Unlike the secrets of Gothic ar- 
chitecture, cherished by the masonic guilds of the Middle 
Ages, which were mystical, involved and recondite, the 
secret of these fine proportions is no very occult matter, 
since it depends upon the use of simple numerical ratios 
and of elementary geometrical plane figures. Such aids, 
intelligently used, particularly in the initial stages of a 
design, are of great assistance to the architect, however 
clever he may be; they tend to give his work unity and 



a window pane. Art, therefore, in one of its aspects, is 
the weaving of a pattern, the communication of an order 
and method to sounds, syllables, lines, forms, colors, 
according to certain natural laws; and although it is 
doubtless true that no masterpiece was ever created 
solely by the conscious following of set rules, for the 
artist works unconsciously, instinctively, as the bird sings, 
or as the bee builds its honey cell, yet an analysis of any 
masterpiece reveals the fact that its author, like the bird 
and the bee, followed the rules without knowing them. 

Music depends primarily upon the equal and rhyth- 
mical division of time, and architecture, no less, upon the 
equal and rhythmical division of space. Is it not as 
natural, therefore, — nay, necessary, — to construct one's 
architectural pattern upon a basis of simple geometrical 
forms, as that a musical composition be divided into bars 
and measures ? 




coherence, — to make it rhythmical, as it were. And now 
fairly astride my hobby, let me appear to digress. 

We are all of us participators in a world of concrete 
music, geometry and number, — a world that is of 
sounds, forms, motions, colors, so mathematically related 
and co-ordinated that our pygmy bodies equally with the 
farthest star throb to the music of the spheres. The blood 
flows rhythmically, the heart its metronome, the moving 
limbs weave patterns, the voice stirs into radiating sound- 
waves that pool of silence which we call the air. 

" Thou canst not wave thy staff in air, 
Or dip thy paddle in the lake, 
But it carves the bow of beauty there 
And ripples in rhyme the oar forsake." 

The whole of animate creation labors under this 
"beautiful necessity" of being beautiful, and this law 
of nature is equally a law of art, for art is idealized crea- 
tion, — nature carried to a higher power by reason of its 
passage through a human consciousness. Thought and 
emotion tend to crystallize into forms of beauty as inev- 
itably and according to the same laws as does the frost on 



The accompanying diagrams illustrate the application 
of this principle to the particular case in point. This de- 
termination of the plan by squares has the advantage of 
confining the principle ratios of length and breadth to 
numbers of relatively small quantity, — ratios, that is, 
which may not inappropriately be called musical, since 
all of the principal consonant intervals in music are ex- 
pressed by ratios of this character : 1 : 2, the octave, 2 : 3, 
the fifth, 3: 4, the fourth, and soon. The equilateral tri- 
angle, by reason of its peculiar perfection, is useful in 
determining exterior proportions. It would seem that 
the eye has an especial fondness for this figure, just as 
the ear has for certain related sounds. It may be stated 
as a general rule that whenever three important points in 
any architectural composition coincide with the three ex- 
tremities of an equilateral triangle, it makes for beauty 
of proportion. 

It is easy, of course, to exaggerate the importance of 
these aids to design. The last appeal is necessarily to 
the eye, and not to a mathematical formula, just as in 
music the final appeal is to the ear ; but some knowledge 
of this branch of the subject should form part of the 
equipment of every architectural designer. 



THE BRICKBU ILDER. 



279 




280 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 




THE BRICKBUILDER 



a8i 



Editorial Comment and 
Selected Miscellany 






BOSTON SCHOOLHOUSE COMMISSION. 

FOR the past four years the work of building and 
repairing the schoolhouses of the city of Boston has 
been in the hands of a special commission appointed by 
the mayor. Mr. R. Clipston Sturgis, an architect of the 
highest professional standing, whose work is known all 
over the country, has been for most of the time the 
chairman of this commission, and has been the one who 
has organized its work, carried out its distinct policy and 
has assumed the main responsibility for the purely archi- 
tectural work. The commission has been extremely for- 
tunate in its composition, including, as it has, a builder, 
Mr. Charles Logue, and a lawyer, Mr. J. J. Corbett, both 
of whon have worked in thorough sympathy and harmony 
with Mr. Sturgis in endeavoring to secure for the city of 
Boston the best results from the standpoint of economy 
and efficiency. 

The work of this commission is now being described 
in these columns, and it has been of a nature which has 
won praise from other cities throughout the country, and 
has gone a long way toward restoring to Boston its rela- 
tive position in school work as compared with St. Louis, 
New York and Chicago. The buildings erected by it have 
been intrusted to architects who were selected entirely 
according to their professional standing and fitness. The 
department has been absolutely free from any suspicion 
of improper practice, and the results accomplished have 
shown that the city was able to build its schoolhouses of 
first-class fireproof construction at prices averaging about 
twenty-two cents per cubic foot, a rate far below what 
usually obtains in private work, and this with no sacrifice 
of any practical, ;csthetic or hygienic requirements. 

The act under which the commissioners were appointed 
gave the mayor the power of removal for cause at pleas- 
ure, and this power was most summarily exercised by 
Acting Mayor Whelton in the early part of this month 
by the removal of all the commissioners "for gross and 
unwarrantable extravagance in the expenditure of public 
moneys." There was absolutely no justification for such 
course. The only explanation is that a disgruntled party 
boss, who had failed of carrying his nominees in the pri- 
maries, chose this method of making a final spiteful dis- 
play of his brief authority, using the commissioners' 
removal as a salve to his wounded political feelings. 

It was a disgrace to Boston that such an action should 
be possible. The Boston Society of Architects, of which 
Mr. Sturgis is vice-president, took immediate and prompt 
action in expressing its sentiments, the Master Builders 
adopted similar action, and from individuals there has 
come a protest, which of course passes unheeded over the 
ears of the expiring party boss. 

The Schoolhouse Commission has never been a polit- 
ical body. It has had a public function to perform, and 
has performed it thoroughly, practically, economically 
and artistically, with but scant reward for the self-sacrifice 
and hard work which have been required. 



INTERNATIONAL 
CONGRESS OF 
ARCHITECTS. 

THE Seventh In- 
ternational Con- 
gress of Architects 
will be held in Lon- 
don, July 16 to 21, 
1906, under the pat- 
ronage of His Maj- 
esty the King. The 
following is a list of 
the subjects which 
will be discussed: 

1. The Execution 

of Important 
Government 
and Municipal 
Architectural 
Work by Sala- 
ried Officials. 

2. Architectural 

Copyright and 
the Ownership 
of Drawings. 

3. Steel and Rein- 

forced - Con- 
creteConstruc- 
tion : 
(a) The gen- 
eral aspect of the subject. 

(/>) With special reference to aesthetic and hy- 
gienic considerations in the case of very high build- 
ings. 

4. The education of the Public in Architecture. 

5. A Statutory Qualification for Architects. 

6. The Architect-Craftsman : How far should the 

Architect receive the theoretical and practical train- 
ing of a Craftsman? 

7. The Planning and Laying-out of Streets and Open 

Spaces in Cities. 

8. Should the Architect have supreme control over 

other Artists or Craftsmen in the completion of a 
National or Public Building? 

9. The Responsibilities of a Government in the Con- 

servation of National Monuments. 

The Executive Committee will be glad to receive 
papers on any of the above subjects for presentation to 
the Congress. Papers may be written in English, French 
or German. 




FOUNTAIN IN PRINCE GEORGE HOTEL, 

NEW YORK CITY. 

Howard Greenley, Architect. 

Extcuted in Faience by Rookwood Pottery Co. 




HOUSE AT JENK.INTOWN, PA. 
Hiss & Weekes, Architects. Roofed with Ludowici Shingle Tile. 



282 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



Each paper must be accompanied by an abstract of not 
more than r,ooo words. 

Papers and abstracts must reach the Executive Com- 
mittee be fort the i,ot/t April, iyo6. 

All communications to be addressed to the Secretary 
of the Executive Committee, g Conduit Street, London, W. 




CANTERBURY HOTEL, BOSTON. 

C. E. Park, Architect. 

Built of light mottled gray brick made by Columbus Brick 

and Terra Cotta Company. F. G. Evatt, New England Agent. 

The American committee of patronage of this Con- 
gress consists of the following persons: 

The Honorable the Secretary of State. 

The Honorable the Secretary of War. 

His Excellency the American Ambassador to 

Great Britain. 

Honorable Francis G. Newlands, U. S. Senator. 



John M. Carrere, 
Hon. Joseph H. Choate, 
Frank Miles Day, 
Daniel C. French, 
Henry C. Frick, 
Cass Gilbert, 
John La Farge, 
Charles F. McKim, 
Francis D. Millet, 



J. Pierpont Morgan, 
Henry Siddons Mowbray, 
Robert S. Peabody, 
George B. Post, 
Augustus Saint-Gaudens, 
James Stillman, 
J. Knox Taylor, 
Henry Walters, 
Prof. W. R. Ware. 








ENTRANCE TO CREAM OF WHEAT BUILDING, MINNEAPOLIS, 

MINN. 

Harry W. Jones, Architect. 

Terra Cotta by American Terra Cotta & Ceramic Co. 

The Presidents of the following Societies: 
American Institute of Architects. 
Architectural League of America. 
National Academy of Design. 
National Sculpture Society. 
Society of American Artists. 




HOUSE AT COVINGTON, KV. 

Werner, Adkins & Burton, Architects. 

Roofed with American "S" Tile, made by Cincinnati Roofing Tile 

& Terra Cotta Company. 

Members ex-officio: 

Francis R. Allen, William S. Eames, 

Glenn Brown, William Le Baron Jenney, 

George O. Totten, Jr. 
The General Permanent Committee of the Congress 
consists of eighty-six members, eleven from England, 
fifteen from France, seven from Germany, six from Aus- 
tria, four from Belgium, two from Canada, three from 
Denmark, six from Spain, five from the United States, 
seven from Italy, three from Mexico, three from Nether- 
lands, four from Portugal, four from Russia, three from 
Sweden, three from Switzerland, and one from Turkey. 



ST. LEDGER FLATS, CINCINNATI, OHIO. 
Built of " Shawnee " Brick. Ohio Mining and Manf'g Co., Makers. 



A 



ISLE DE LA CITE. 
CERTAIN large eastern city, not a thousand miles 
from where this journal is published, has, facing its 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



283 




DETAIL BY C. E. CASSELL & SON, ARCHITECTS. 
Conkling-Armstrong Terra Cotta Company, Makers. 

most choice residential portion and separating it from an 
academic neighbor, a vast expanse of tidal river, measur- 
ing something like a third of a mile across. An architect, 
whose name has been coupled with some of the most in- 
teresting work of recent years, has conceived the most 
delightful scheme of creating an island in the center of 
this expanse, and upon one end of the island erecting a 
large monumental cathedral, upon the other grouping the 
public buildings having to do with the Metropolitan dis- 




Built 



HEIGHTS CASINO, BROOKLYN, N. Y. 
William A. Boring, Architect, 
if a red " stretcher " brick made by Sayre & Fisher Co. 



trict, and connecting this island to the main land on each 
side by a monumental bridge. The spirit of imaginative 
romance is not gone from our national architecture. 
Rather it is coming back. And little chance as there is 
of this delightful scheme being fully realized, its serious 
consideration is one of the day dreams which can add to 
the delight of architecture and which, even in its incep- 
tion, shows how our municipalities may one day be able 
to utilize the natural advantages of site and surroundings. 





DETAIL BY HENRY IVES COBB, ARCHITECT. 

Standard Terra Cotta Works, Makers. 



METHODIST EPISCOPAL CHUCH, BEAVER, PA. 

Hodgens & Burns, Architects. 

Terra Cotta made by Excelsior Terra Cotta Company. 

BUILDING OPERATIONS FOR NOVEMBER. 

OFFICIAL reports of building construction in some 
fifty leading cities throughout the country, compiled 
by The American Contractor, indicate that the building 
industry is in a flourishing condition and in somewhat 
greater volume than in November, 1904. While about a 
dozen cities of the fifty show a de- 
crease compared with November, 
1904, the balance show a decided 
gain, running as high as 449 per 
cent in Omaha. A general average 
through the entire list presents a 
very favorable aspect. Among the 
cities most conspicuous for increased 
building construction are : Baltimore, 
24 per cent; Buffalo, 38; Chattanoo- 
ga, 383; Cincinnati, 66; Davenport, 
104; Denver, 223; Detroit, 34; Du- 
luth, 61; Harrisburg, 26; Indian- 
apolis, 78; Jersey City, no; Louis- 
ville, 82; Manchester, 152; Mil- 
waukee, 41 ; Mobile, 84 ; Newark, 43 ; 
New York, 30; Philadelphia, 71; 
Pittsburg, 43; St. Louis, 76; St. 
Paul, 131 ; San Francisco, 33 ; Scran- 
ton, 105; Seattle, 27; Spokane, 113; 
South Bend, 142; Topeka, 50; Terre 
Haute, 56; Washington, 152; Wor- 
cester, 174; Wilkesbarre, 281. The 
figures from Denver, Los Angeles, 
San Francisco, Pittsburg, Washing- 
ton, and especially of St. Louis, 
show an extraordinary -building ac- 
tivity, considering the population 
involved. Denver scored the heavi- detail by new jersey 
est building of any month in many terra cotta co. 




284 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




years. Thus far 
building and 
constru c t ion 
have been satis- 
factory, and 
there is no sign 
of a let-up in 
the near future. 



IN 
GENERAL. 
Prof. W. H. 
Goodyear has 
been elected an 
honorary mem- 
ber of the Edin- 
burgh Architec- 
tural Society. 

The Twen- 
tieth Annual 
Convention of 
the National 
Brick Manufac- 
turers' Association and the Eighth Yearly Meeting of the 
American Ceramic Society are to be held at Philadelphia, 
Pa., February 5 to 17, 1906. 

Samuel A. Brouse, architect, First National Bank 
Building, Trenton, N. J., desires manufacturers' cata- 
logues and samples. 



DETAIL BY GEORGE KRAMER THOMPSON, 

ARCHITECT. 

New York Terra Cotta Company, Makers. 




DETAIL BY WILLIAM T. FANNING, ARCHITECT. 
Brick, Terra Cotta and Tile Company, Makers. 

The American Society for Testing Materials will de- 
vote its energies for the present to a series of tests of 

fireproof floors. 
The committee 
will endeavor to 
collect all avail- 
able data on fire 
tests of fireproof 
floors and in- 
formation re- 
sulting from the 
study of fires 
and conflagra- 
tions, more par- 
ticularly as to 
the tempera- 
tures reached 
and the dura- 
tion of same. 
It is proposed 
to analyze and 
study this in- 

DETAIL BY RICIIAKD E. SCHMIDT, ARCHITECT. ' ormatlon » then 
Northwestern Terra Cotta Company, Makers. publish the 




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same, with the 
hope of draw- 
ing forth sug- 
gestions and 
criticism from 
all who may be 
interested. 

It is the de- 
sire of the com- 
mittee to make 
the record of 
past tests as 
complete as 
possible, and it 
will greatly ap- 
preciate the 
kindness of 
those who may 
possess such in- 
formation if 
they will for- 
ward the same 
to Prof. Ira H. 
Wool son, Co- 
lumbia College, 
New York City. 

The Stand- 
ard system of 

hollow tile fireproofing, manufactured by the National 
Fireproofing Company, will be used in the following 
new buildings in New York City: Chemical National 
Bank, Trowbridge & Livingston, architects; Laflin Store, 
Hale & Rogers, architects; U. S. Express Company's 
Building, Clinton & Russell, architects; Loft Building 
for Hoffman Estate, T- B. Snook & Sons, architects. 



DETAIL BY CODMAN & DESPRADELLE, 

ARCHITECTS. 
Atlantic Terra Cotta Company, Makers. 




TYMPANUM PANEL, SEMINARY OF THE REDEMPTORIST FATHERS, 

ESOPUS, N. Y. 

Executed in Terra Cotta by Perth Amboy^Terra Cotta Company. 

F. J. Untersee, Architect. 



BRICK AGENCY WANTED— Sales agency in New England 
wanted with reliable manufacturer for face brick in all shades. Ad- 
dress " Agency," care of " The Brickbuilder." 



WANTED — Position as draughtsman in any eastern or middle west 
city. Have had a thorough office training, including superintendence 
and a special course at college. Can furnish first-class reference ; 
age 32. Address " Buffalo," care of " The Brickbuilder." 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 14. NO. 10. PLATE 79. 



T.e. . cttiMNrY rvrs 




FRONT ELEVATION. 




FIRST FLOOR PLAN. 



SECOND FLOOR PLAN. 



HOUSE FOR ROBERT PITCAIRN, JR., ESQ., PITTSBURG, PA. 
MacClure & Spahr, Architects. 



THE BRICK BUILDER. 

VOL. 14. NO. 12. PLATE 95. 




<SRA'5J 



FIRST FLOOR PLAN. 

PLANS, UNITARIAN CHURCH, BOSTON, MASS. Purdon & Little, Architects 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 14. NO. 12. PLATE 93. 







.-.-■- 




THE BRICKBU ILDER. 

VOL. 14. NO. 12. PLATE 91. 




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SECOND FLOOR PLAN. 




FIRST FLOOR PUN. 

FLOOR PLANS, THE COTTAGE CLUB, PRINCETON, N. J. 
McKim, Mead & White, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 14. NO. 12. PLATE 92. 



Storage 3f*cc 



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THIRD FLOOR PLAN. 




SECOND FLOOR PLAN. 




FIRST FLOOR PLAN. 

FLOOR PLANS, HOUSE FOR F. R. HALSEY, ESQ., TUXEDO PARK, N. Y. 

Bruce Price, Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 14. NO. 12. PLATE 94. 



■-fl-g ~^~ S-a ^ ,jr.» f— ** - 




THE BRICKBU ILDER. 

VOL. 14. NO. 12. PLATE 96. 




FIRST FLOOR PLAN. 

PLANS, WOMEN'S BUILDING, UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS, URBANA, ILL. 

McKim, Mead & White, Architects. 




VIEWS-OF THE REAR AND TERRACE, COTTAGE CLUB, PRINCETON, N. J. 

McKim, Mead & White, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER, 

DECEMBER, 

1905. 





VIEWS OF THE FRONT, COTTAGE CLUB, PRINCETON, N. J. 
McKim, Mead & White, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER, 

DECEMBER, 

1906. 



THE 

VOL. 14. NO. 12. 






ILDER. 

PLATES 89 and 90. 






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R. HALSEY, ESQ., TUXEDO PARK, N. Y. 
Bruce Price, Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

DECEMBER, 

1906. 




UNITARIAN CHURCH, PETERBORO STREET, BOSTON. 
Puroon & Little, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER, 
DECEMBER, 

1905. 













YOUNG MEN'S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION BUILDING, UNIVERSITY OF VIRGINIA, CHARLOTTESVILLE, VA. 

Parish & Schroeder, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

DECEMBER, 

1906. 



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THE BRICKBU ILDER 



VOL. 15. NO. 1. 



PLATE 7. 



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PLAN OF FIRST FLOOR, MUHLENBERG HOSPITAL, PLAINFIELD, N. J. 

Tracy & Swartwout. Architects. 



THE B 

VOL. 15. NO. 1. 







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THE BRICKBUILDE.R. 

VOL. 15. NO. 1. PLATE 8. 



A&CQC/^T Coo^T 



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THIRD FLOOR PLAN. 




FIRST FLOOR PLAN. 




BASEMEMT PLAN. 

PLANS, THE TAVERN CLUB, CLEVELAND, OHIO. 
J. Milton Dyer, Architect. 




SHOWING SIDE VIEW OF GROUP AND ADMINISTRATION BUILDING. 





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REAR VIEW OF GROUP AND ADMINISTRATION BUILDING. 

THE WIDENER MEMORIAL INDUSTRIAL TRAINING SCHOOL, LOGAN STATION PHILADELPHIA. 

Horace Trumbauer, Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER, 
OCTOBER, 

1906. 



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